Table 5: Risk factors of functional dyspepsia (univariate analysis).

FD SubtypeRisk factorStandardized coefficient95% Confidence interval value

PDSAge −0.087−0.012 to 0.030.229
Female sex0.1560.014 to 0.2970.031*
Concomitant IBS0.2600.036 to 0.116<0.0001*
Alcohol0.3480.239 to 0.539<0.0001*
Smoking0.2690.151 to 0.269<0.0001*
NSAID0.111−0.062 to 0.5070.125
Unemployment0.058−0.089 to 0.2100.424

EPSAge0.067−0.003 to 0.0090.356
Female sex−0.026 −0.142 to 0.0980.715
Concomitant IBS−0.253−0.096 to −0.253<0.0001
Alcohol0.188−0.022 to 0.2440.102
Smoking0.097−0.044 to 0.2310.182
NSAID0.132−0.016 to 0.4600.067
Unemployment0.069−0.064 to 0.1860.340

PDS+EPSAge−0.072−0.012 to 0.0040.321
Female sex0.086−0.058 to 0.2360.235
Concomitant IBS0.075−0.020 to 0.0660.298
Alcohol0.3850.292 to 0.597<0.0001*
Smoking0.2970.191 to 0.516<0.0001*
NSAID0.1720.064 to 0.6470.017*
Unemployment0.045−0.106 to 0.2030.536

FD: functional dyspepsia; PDS: postprandial distress syndrome; EPS: epigastric pain syndrome; IBS: irritable bowel syndrome; NSAID: non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
*Statistically significant.