Table 1: MIE outcomes in institutional series, case-control studies, and systematic reviews.

Study TypeLeakPneumoniaRLN injuryMorbidityMortality

Institutional series

Luketich et al. [14]206MIE11.7%7.7%3.6%1.4%
Bizekis et al. [15]50MIE6%6%
Rajan et al. [16]463MIE16%0.9%
Nguyen et al. [17]104MIE9.6%12.5%2.9%
Ben-David et al. [18]105MIE4%9%7%1%
Ben-David et al. [19]18MIE5.6%16.7%5.6%

Systematic reviews or meta-analyses

Gemmill and McCulloch [20]1398MIE7.7%13.2%46.2%2.3%
Verhage et al. [21]Open22.9%60.4%3.8%
(10 case-control studies)MIE15.1%43.8%1.3%
Nagpal et al. [22]612OpenNo differenceNo difference
(12 case-control studies)672MIENo differenceNo difference
Dantoc et al. [23]Open4.4%
(17 case-control studies)MIE3%
Sgourakis et al. [24]1008Open versus MIETotal complications lower with MIE
Biere et al. [25]1061Open versus MIETrends favoring MIE, but not significant

(1 randomized controlled trial and 9 case-control studies)

Mamidanna et al. [26]6347Open39.2%4%
1155MIE38%4.3%

MIE: minimally invasive esophagectomy.
RLN: recurrent laryngeal nerve.