Table 1: The characteristics of the studies included in the meta-analysis.

First author Gastric cancer ( ) Type of estimate of habitual sodium intake Factors controlled for in multivariate analysis
Publication year Location Study period Sex Age (years) Study population
( )
EventsMortality

Peleteiro [11]2011Portugal2001–2006F/M18–921071422~Total salt intake Age, gender, education, smoking, H. pylori infection, and total energy intake

Campos [12]2006Colombia2000–2002F/M49–7564721630Total salt intake Age, gender, and hospital

Pourfarzi [13]2009Iran2003–2005F/M65.46 ± (11.5)611217~Total salt intake Age, gender, residence, education, and family history on cancer

Kim [18]2010Korea1996–2003F/M30–80224812912393~Salt preferenceAge, sex, BMI, smoking habits, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and family history of cancer

Ramón et al. [14]2002Spain1986–1989F/M32–8030516512Smoked and pickled foods, saltAge, gender

Shikata [19]2006Japan1998–2002F/M >40 246793Total salt intake Age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, medical history of peptic ulcer, family history of cancer, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, total vitamin B2, vitamin C and dietary fiber intake, smoking habits and dietary factors intake of total energy, total protein, carbohydrate, vitamin B1, cholesterol, physical activity, and alcohol

Ngoan [20]2002Japan1986–2001F/M>1513250116116Pickled foodAge, sex, smoking, and other dietary factors

Ward [15]1999Mexico1989–1990F/M~972220~Salty snacksAge, gender, and total calories

Tsugane [21]2004Japan1990–2001F/M40–5939065486361Salted food consumption (miso soup, pickled vegetables, salted fish roe, salted fish preserves, and dried or salted fish)Age, gender, cigarette smoking, fruit and vegetable intake, drinking history, and personal medical history

Lee [16]2003Korea1999.3–1999.9F/M~26869~Salt-fermented fishAge, sex, education, family history of gastric cancer, smoking, alcohol drinking, and H. pylori infection

Yang [17]2011China 2006–2010F/M40–75900300 Salted food (meat and fishes, pickled vegetable)Age, sex, smoking, drinking, fresh fruit, and fresh vegetables