Table 3: Comparison between the non-high-dose and high-dose PPI before case-controlled matching.

CharacteristicNon-high-dose group ( )High-dose group ( ) -value

Age (years) 0.558
Female gender, (%)105 (70.0)44 (62.9)0.291
Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.018*
Hb (g/L) 0.438
Platelet (×109/L) 0.592
Use of NSAIDs, (%)8 (5.3)6 (8.6)0.359
Use of aspirin, (%)23 (15.3)9 (12.9)0.628
Use of clopidogrel, (%)15 (10.0)8 (11.4)0.747
Use of warfarin, (%)5 (3.3)5 (7.1)0.206
Coexisting illness, (%)
 CKD III, IV/V47/17 (31.3/11.3)23/12 (32.9/17.1)0.422
 COPD8 (5.3)3 (4.3)0.740
 CAD21 (14.0)16 (22.6)0.102
 DM38 (25.3)28 (40.0)0.027*
 CVA18 (12.0)16 (22.9)0.038*
 Liver cirrhosis26 (17.3)13 (18.6)0.321
Forrest classification Ia/Ib/IIa/IIb/IIc/III11/86/12/35/5/13/45/7/15/0/00.524
Shock on admission69 (46.0)43 (61.4)0.033*
Rockall score 0.106
Time to endoscope (hours) 0.107
Hemostasis methods A/B/C/D/E/F11/86/12/35/5/13/45/7/15/0/0
PRBC BT (mL) 0.196
Multiple ulcers, (%)50 (38.7)26 (37.1)0.580
Rebleeding, (%)24 (16.0)19 (27.1)0.052
Surgery, (%)1 (0.6)1 (1.4)0.579
Hospital stay (days) 0.343
Mortality, (%)9 (6.0)8 (11.4)0.207
Bleeding related/other causes3/61/7

Hb: hemoglobin, NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CKD: chronic kidney disease, PPI: proton-pump inhibitor, DM: diabetes mellitus type 2, COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, CAD: coronary artery disease, CVA: cerebrovascular accident, BT: blood transfusion, PPI: proton pump inhibitor, Hemostasis methods A/B/C/D/E/F: Bosmin plus APC/heat probe=A, APC/heat probe=B, Hemoclip=C, Bosmin plus hemoclip=D, APC/heat probe plus hemoclip=E, APC plus hemoclip plus Bosmin=F, APC: argon plasma coagulation. * .