- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 148086, 9 pages
Biomarkers for Gastroesophageal Reflux in Respiratory Diseases
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Vatnsmyarvegur 16, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland
2Department of Respiratory Medicine and Sleep, Landspitali University Hospital, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland
3Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, 413 90 Göteborg, Sweden
4Department of Medical Sciences: Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Uppsala University, 753 12 Uppsala, Sweden
5Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Landspitali University Hospital, 108 Reykjavik, Iceland
Received 21 January 2013; Accepted 25 February 2013
Academic Editor: P. Marco Fisichella
Copyright © 2013 Össur Ingi Emilsson et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. Vakil, “Disease definition, clinical manifestations, epidemiology and natural history of GERD,” Best Practice and Research, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 759–764, 2010.
- N. Vakil, S. V. Van Zanten, P. Kahrilas et al., “The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 101, no. 8, pp. 1900–1943, 2006.
- O. I. Emilsson, A. Bengtsson, K. A. Franklin, et al., “Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux, asthma and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea: a longitudinal, general population study,” European Respiratory Journal, 2012.
- D. W. Perng, K. T. Chang, K. C. Su et al., “Exposure of airway epithelium to bile acids associated with gastroesophageal reflux symptoms: a relation to transforming growth factor-β1 production and fibroblast proliferation,” Chest, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1548–1556, 2007.
- R. N. Patterson, B. T. Johnston, J. E. S. Ardill, L. G. Heaney, and L. P. A. McGarvey, “Increased tachykinin levels in induced sputum from asthmatic and cough patients with acid reflux,” Thorax, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 491–495, 2007.
- G. Di Lorenzo, P. Mansueto, M. Esposito-Pellitteri et al., “The characteristics of different diagnostic tests in adult mild asthmatic patients: comparison with patients with asthma-like symptoms by gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 101, no. 7, pp. 1455–1461, 2007.
- G. E. Carpagnano, O. Resta, M. T. Ventura et al., “Airway inflammation in subjects with gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastro-oesophageal reflux-related asthma,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 259, no. 3, pp. 323–331, 2006.
- O. Borrelli, M. Battaglia, F. Galos et al., “Non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in children with suspected pulmonary aspiration,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 115–121, 2010.
- S. Banović, M. Navratil, Ž. Vlasic, R. Z. Topić, and S. Dodig, “Calcium and magnesium in exhaled breath condensate of children with endogenous and exogenous airway acidification,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 667–673, 2011.
- L. Liu, W. G. Teague, S. Erzurum et al., “Determinants of exhaled breath condensate pH in a large population with asthma,” Chest, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 328–336, 2011.
- S. Dodig, Z. Vlasic, I. Čepelak, R. Z. Topić, M. Turkalj, and B. Nogalo, “Magnesium and calcium in exhaled breath condensate of children with asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 34–39, 2009.
- Y. Shimizu, K. Dobashi, J. J. Zhao et al., “Proton pump inhibitor improves breath marker in moderate asthma with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Respiration, vol. 74, no. 5, pp. 558–564, 2007.
- K. Parameswaran, C. J. Allen, D. Kamada, A. Efthimiadis, M. Anvari, and F. E. Hargreave, “Sputum cell counts and exhaled nitric oxide in patients with gastroesophageal reflux, and cough or asthma,” Canadian Respiratory Journal, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 239–244, 2001.
- K. Kowal, A. Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, and S. Zukowski, “Exhaled nitric oxide in evaluation of young adults with chronic cough,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 692–698, 2009.
- M. Silvestri, G. Mattioli, A. C. Defi Lippi et al., “Correlations between exhaled nitric oxide levels and pH-metry data in asthmatics with gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Respiration, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 329–335, 2004.
- Z. Qiu, L. Yu, S. Xu et al., “Cough reflex sensitivity and airway inflammation in patients with chronic cough due to non-acid gastro-oesophageal reflux,” Respirology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 645–652, 2011.
- R. Chaudhuri, A. D. McMahon, C. P. McSharry et al., “Serum and sputum neurotrophin levels in chronic persistent cough,” Clinical and Experimental Allergy, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 949–953, 2005.
- M. Grabowski, A. Kasran, S. Seys et al., “Pepsin and bile acids in induced sputum of chronic cough patients,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 105, no. 8, pp. 1257–1261, 2011.
- S. Decalmer, R. Stovold, L. A. Houghton et al., “Chronic cough: relationship between microaspiration, gastroesophageal reflux, and cough frequency,” Chest, vol. 142, no. 4, pp. 958–964, 2012.
- A. B. Chang, Y. C. Hills, N. C. Cox et al., “‘Free’ surfactant in gastric aspirates and bronchoalveolar lavage in children with and without reflux oesophagitis,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 226–230, 2006.
- S. Farrell, C. McMaster, D. Gibson, M. D. Shields, and W. A. McCallion, “Pepsin in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a specific and sensitive method of diagnosing gastro-oesophageal reflux-related pulmonary aspiration,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 289–293, 2006.
- A. Niimi, L. T. Nguyen, O. Usmani, B. Mann, and K. F. Chung, “Reduced pH and chloride levels in exhaled breath condensate of patients with chronic cough,” Thorax, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 608–612, 2004.
- A. Pacheco, V. Faro, I. Cobeta, A. Royuela, I. Molyneux, and A. H. Morice, “Gastro-oesophageal reflux, eosinophilic airway inflammation and chronic cough,” Respirology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 994–999, 2011.
- P. M. Fisichella, C. S. Davis, E. Lowery et al., “Pulmonary immune changes early after laparoscopic antireflux surgery in lung transplant patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Journal of Surgical Research, vol. 177, no. 2, pp. e65–e73, 2012.
- P. M. Fisichella, C. S. Davis, P. W. Lundberg et al., “The protective role of laparoscopic antireflux surgery against aspiration of pepsin after lung transplantation,” Surgery, vol. 150, no. 4, pp. 598–606, 2011.
- V. Mertens, K. Blondeau, L. Van Oudenhove et al., “Bile acids aspiration reduces survival in lung transplant recipients with BOS despite azithromycin,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 329–335, 2011.
- P. M. Hopkins, F. Kermeen, E. Duhig et al., “Oil red O stain of alveolar macrophages is an effective screening test for gastroesophageal reflux disease in lung transplant recipients,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 859–864, 2010.
- V. Mertens, K. Blondeau, A. Pauwels et al., “Azithromycin reduces gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in lung transplant recipients,” Digestive Diseases and Sciences, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 972–979, 2009.
- K. Blondeau, V. Mertens, B. A. Vanaudenaerde et al., “Gastro-oesophageal reflux and gastric aspiration in lung transplant patients with or without chronic rejection,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 707–713, 2008.
- K. Blondeau, V. Mertens, B. A. Vanaudenaerde et al., “Nocturnal weakly acidic reflux promotes aspiration of bile acids in lung transplant recipients,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 141–148, 2009.
- R. Vos, K. Blondeau, B. M. Vanaudenaerde et al., “Airway colonization and gastric aspiration after lung transplantation: do birds of a feather flock together?” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 27, no. 8, pp. 843–849, 2008.
- F. D'Ovidio, M. Mura, M. Tsang et al., “Bile acid aspiration and the development of bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 1144–1152, 2005.
- C. J. Timms, D. H. Yates, and P. S. Thomas, “Diagnosing GORD in respiratory medicine,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 2, article 40, 2011.
- F. De Giorgi, M. Palmiero, I. Esposito, F. Mosca, and R. Cuomo, “Pathophysiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease,” Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 241–246, 2006.
- U. Peitz, T. Wex, M. Vieth et al., “Correlation of serum pepsinogens and gastrin-17 with atrophic gastritis in gastroesophageal reflux patients: a matched-pairs study,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 82–89, 2011.
- B. Jovov, J. Que, N. A. Tobey, Z. Djukic, B. L. M. Hogan, and R. C. Orlando, “Role of e-cadherin in the pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 6, pp. 1039–1047, 2011.
- R. W. Corwin and R. S. Irwin, “The lipid-laden alveolar macrophage as a marker of aspiration in parenchymal lung disease,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 576–581, 1985.
- E. Nussbaum, J. C. Maggi, R. Mathis, and S. P. Galant, “Association of lipid-laden alveolar macrophages and gastroesophageal reflux in children,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 190–194, 1987.
- P. Ahrens, C. Noll, R. Kitz, P. Willigens, S. Zielen, and D. Hofmann, “Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages (LLAM): a useful marker of silent aspiration in children,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 83–88, 1999.
- P. M. Fisichella, C. S. Davis, and E. J. Kovacs, “A review of the role of GERD-induced aspiration after lung transplantation,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1201–1204, 2012.
- K. Mise, V. Capkun, A. Jurcev-Savicevic, Z. Sundov, A. Bradaric, and S. Mladinov, “The influence of gastroesophageal reflux in the lung: a case-control study,” Respirology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 837–842, 2010.
- A. Pauwels, A. Decraene, K. Blondeau et al., “Bile acids in sputum and increased airway inflammation in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Chest, vol. 141, no. 6, pp. 1568–1574, 2012.
- E. Ervine, C. McMaster, W. McCallion, and M. D. Shields, “Pepsin measured in induced sputum—a test for pulmonary aspiration in children?” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1938–1941, 2009.
- M. T. Elabiad and J. Zhang, “Detection of pepsinogen in the neonatal lung and stomach by immunohistochemistry,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 401–403, 2011.
- K. D. Gerson, C. D. Foster, P. Zhang, Z. Zhang, M. M. Rosenblatt, and S. H. Guttentag, “Pepsinogen C proteolytic processing of surfactant protein B,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 283, no. 16, pp. 10330–10338, 2008.
- D. Köksal, B. Özkan, C. Pimpek, A. P. Köksal, Y. Adaçkýran, and N. Papmaz, “Lipid-laden alveolar macrophage index in sputum is not useful in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary symptoms secondary to gastroesophageal reflux,” Archives of Medical Research, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 485–489, 2005.
- D. Honeybourne, J. Babb, P. Bowie et al., “British Thoracic Society guidelines on diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy,” Thorax, vol. 56, supplement 1, pp. i1–i21, 2001.
- V. Starosta, R. Kitz, D. Hartl, V. Marcos, D. Reinhardt, and M. Griese, “Bronchoalveolar pepsin, bile acids, oxidation, and inflammation in children with gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Chest, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1557–1564, 2007.
- A. C. Church, K. Goldsmith, and P. Sivasothy, “Aspiration and development of subglottic stenosis in patients with Wegeners granulomatosis,” Journal of Laryngology and Otology, vol. 124, no. 4, pp. 393–396, 2010.
- O. Sacco, M. Silvestri, F. Sabatini, G. Mattioli, and G. A. Rossi, “Bronchoalveolar lavage and esophageal pH monitoring data in children with “difficult to treat” respiratory symptoms,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 313–319, 2000.
- H. Bibi, E. Khvolis, D. Shoseyov et al., “The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in children with tracheomalacia and laryngomalacia,” Chest, vol. 119, no. 2, pp. 409–413, 2001.
- O. Sacco, M. Silvestri, F. Sabatini et al., “IL-8 and airway neutrophilia in children with gastroesophageal reflux and asthma-like symptoms,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 307–315, 2006.
- R. Kitz, H. J. Boehles, M. Rosewich, et al., “Lipid-laden alveolar macrophages and pH monitoring in gastroesophageal reflux-related respiratory symptoms,” Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 673637, 5 pages, 2012.
- M. Griese, N. Maderlechner, P. Ahrens, and R. Kitz, “Surfactant proteins A and D in children with pulmonary disease due to gastroesophageal reflux,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 165, no. 11, pp. 1546–1550, 2002.
- P. Rosias, “Methodological aspects of exhaled breath condensate collection and analysis,” Journal of Breath Research, vol. 6, no. 2, Article ID 027102, 2012.
- A. Fahim, P. W. Dettmar, A. H. Morice, and S. P. Hart, “Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective study,” Medicina, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 200–205, 2011.
- K. Terada, S. Muro, S. Sato et al., “Impact of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms on COPD exacerbation,” Thorax, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 951–961, 2008.
- A. C. Almstrand, E. Ljungström, J. Lausmaa, B. Bake, P. Sjövall, and A. C. Olin, “Airway monitoring by collection and mass spectrometric analysis of exhaled particles,” Analytical Chemistry, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 662–668, 2009.
- A. C. Almstrand, B. Bake, E. Ljungström et al., “Effect of airway opening on production of exhaled particles,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 584–588, 2010.
- R. Trinick, N. Johnston, A. M. Dalzell, and P. S. McNamara, “Reflux aspiration in children with neurodisability—a significant problem, but can we measure it?” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 291–298, 2012.
- S. Knauer-Fischer and F. Ratjen, “Lipid-laden macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid as a marker for pulmonary aspiration,” Pediatric Pulmonology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 419–422, 1999.
- A. Fahim, M. Crooks, and S. P. Hart, “Gastroesophageal reflux and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a review,” Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 634613, 7 pages, 2011.
- C. S. Davis, J. Gagermeier, D. Dilling et al., “A review of the potential applications and controversies of non-invasive testing for biomarkers of aspiration in the lung transplant population,” Clinical Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. E54–E61, 2010.