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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 393015, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/393015
Review Article

Helicobacter pylori-Induced Chronic Gastritis and Assessing Risks for Gastric Cancer

1Department of Pathology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, 1425 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10029, USA
2Centre for Translational Research in Oncology (CITO) and Department of Hematology and Oncology, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Marcoleta 391, 8330074 Santiago, Chile

Received 27 December 2012; Accepted 25 February 2013

Academic Editor: N. Ananthakrishnan

Copyright © 2013 Gonzalo Carrasco and Alejandro H. Corvalan. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Chronic gastritis is an inflammation of the gastric mucosa and has multiple etiologies. Here we discuss the pathological alterations induced by Helicobacter pylori (HP) leading to chronic gastritis and the epigenetic bases underlying these changes. We review the histology of the normal gastric mucosa and overview the role of HP in the multistep cascade of GC. We attempt to define the role of the Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA) staging system in assessing the risk of GC. The epigenetic bases of chronic gastritis, mainly DNA methylation, are presented through examples such as (i) the methylation of the promoter region of E-cadherin in HP-induced chronic gastritis and its reversion after HP eradication and (ii) the association of methylation of the promoter region of Reprimo, a p53-mediated cell cycle arrest gene, with aggressive HP strains in high risk areas for GC. In addition, we discuss the finding of RPRM as a circulating cell-free DNA, offering the opportunity for noninvasive risk assessment of GC. Finally, the integration of OLGA and tissue biomarkers, by systems pathology approach, suggests that severe atrophy has a greater risk for GC development if, in addition, overexpressed p73. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01774266.