About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 398172, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/398172
Research Article

Hepatic Encephalopathy after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in Patients with Recurrent Variceal Hemorrhage

1Institute of Radiology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 7, 1525 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2Department of Ginecology, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 7, 1525 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3Department of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, University Medical Centre Maribor, University of Maribor, Ljubljanska Ulica 5, 2000 Maribor and Medical Faculty, Slomškov trg 15, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia

Received 14 September 2012; Accepted 22 December 2012

Academic Editor: Everson Artifon

Copyright © 2013 Popovič Peter et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Garcia-Tsao, A. J. Sanyal, N. D. Grace, and W. D. Carey, “Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices and variceal hemorrhage in cirrhosis,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 922–938, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. Schuppan and N. H. Afdhal, “Liver cirrhosis,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9615, pp. 838–851, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. F. Fanelli, F. M. Salvatori, P. Rabuffi et al., “Management of refractory hepatic encephalopathy after insertion of TIPS: long-term results of shunt reduction with hourglass-shaped balloon-expandable stent-graft,” American Journal of Roentgenology, vol. 193, no. 6, pp. 1696–1702, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. O. Riggio, S. Angeloni, and L. Ridola, “Hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: still a major problem,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 2237–2238, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. D. Boyer and Z. J. Haskal, “AASLD Practice Guedelines: the role of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) in the management of portal hypertension,” Hepatology, vol. 51, no. 1, p. 306, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. Zheng, Y. Chen, J. Bai et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus endoscopic therapy in the secondary prophylaxis of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients: meta-analysis update,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 507–516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Masson, H. A. Mardini, J. D. Rose, and C. O. Record, “Hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion: a decade of experience,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, vol. 101, no. 6, pp. 493–501, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. O. Riggio, S. Angeloni, F. M. Salvatori et al., “Incidence, natural history, and risk factors of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent grafts,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 2738–2746, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Bai, X. Qi, Z. Yang et al., “Predictors of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in cirrhotic patients: a systematic review,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 943–951, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. Riggio, A. Masini, C. Efrati et al., “Pharmacological prophylaxis of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: a randomized controlled study,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 674–679, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Groupe d’Etudes des Anastamoses Intr-Hepatiques (Toulouse BLNCPF), “TIPS versus sclerotherapy + propanolol in the prevention of variceal rebleeding: preliminary results of a multicenter randomized trial,” Hepatology, vol. 22, supplement, p. 229A, 1995.
  12. A. Escorsell, R. Banares, R. Gilabert, et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus propranolol + isosorbide - mononitrate (P+I) for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis. Results of a randomized controlled trial,” Hepatology, no. 8, supplement, p. 770A, 1998.
  13. J. Cabrera, M. Maynar, R. Granados et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus sclerotherapy in the elective treatment of variceal hemorrhage,” Gastroenterology, vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 832–839, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. J. Sanyal, A. M. Freedman, V. A. Luketic et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts compared with endoscopic sclerotherapy for the prevention of recurrent variceal hemorrhage: a randomized, controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 11, pp. 849–857, 1997. View at Scopus
  15. J. P. Cello, E. J. Ring, E. W. Olcott et al., “Endoscopic sclerotherapy compared with percutaneous transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt after initial sclerotherapy in patients with acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized, controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 126, no. 11, pp. 858–865, 1997. View at Scopus
  16. M. Rössle, P. Deibert, K. Haag et al., “Randomised trial of transjugular-intrahepatic-portosystemic shunt versus endoscopy plus propranolol for prevention of variceal rebleeding,” The Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9058, pp. 1043–1049, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. Sauer, L. Theilmann, W. Stremmel, C. Benz, G. M. Richter, and A. Stiehl, “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt versus sclerotherapy plus propranolol for variceal rebleeding,” Gastroenterology, vol. 113, no. 5, pp. 1623–1631, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Merli, F. Salerno, O. Riggio et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus endoscopic sclerotherapy for the prevention of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis: a randomized multicenter trial,” Hepatology, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 48–53, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. García-Villarreal, F. Martínez-Lagares, A. Sierra et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt versus endoscopic sclerotherapy for the prevention of variceal rebleeding after recent variceal hemorrhage,” Hepatology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 27–32, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Jalan, E. H. Forrest, A. J. Stanley et al., “A randomized trial comparing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt with variceal band ligation in the prevention of rebleeding from esophageal varices,” Hepatology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 1115–1122, 1997. View at Scopus
  21. G. Pomier-Layrargues, J. P. Villeneuve, M. Deschênes et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic variceal ligation in the prevention of variceal rebleeding in patients with cirrhosis: a randomised trial,” Gut, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 390–396, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. Narahara, H. Kanazawa, H. Kawamata et al., “A randomized clinical trial comparing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with endoscopic sclerotherapy in the long-term management of patients with cirrhosis after recent variceal hemorrhage,” Hepatology Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 189–198, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. V. Gülberg, M. Schepke, G. Geigenberger et al., “Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting is not superior to endoscopic variceal band ligation for prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients: a randomized, controlled trial,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 338–343, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Z. Yang, G. Han, Q. Wu et al., “Patency and clinical outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents versus bare stents: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1718–1725, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. C. Garcia-Pagan, K. Caca, C. Bureau, et al., “Early use of TIPS in patienst with cirrhosis and variceal bleeding,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 362, no. 25, pp. 2370–2379, 2010.
  26. C. Bureau, J. C. Garcia-Pagan, P. Otal et al., “Improved clinical outcome using polytetrafluoroethylene-coated stents for TIPS: results of a randomized study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 469–475, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Angermayr, M. Cejna, F. Koenig et al., “Survival in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: ePTFE-covered stentgrafts versus bare stents,” Hepatology, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1043–1050, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. C. Bureau, J. C. G. Pagan, G. P. Layrargues et al., “Patency of stents covered with polytetrafluoroethylene in patients treated by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: long-term results of a randomized multicentre study,” Liver International, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 742–747, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Tripathi, J. Ferguson, H. Barkell et al., “Improved clinical outcome with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt utilizing polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 225–232, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. O. Riggio, L. Ridola, S. Angeloni et al., “Clinical efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt created with covered stents with different diameters: results of a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Hepatology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 267–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. I. J. Sarfeh, E. B. Rypins, and G. R. Mason, “A systematic appraisal of portacaval H-graft diameters. Clinical and hemodynamic perspectives,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 356–363, 1986. View at Scopus
  32. K. Johansen, “Partial portal decompression for variceal hemorrhage,” American Journal of Surgery, vol. 157, no. 5, pp. 479–482, 1989. View at Scopus