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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 457901, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/457901
Review Article

Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

1Gastroenterology Specialty Center, Damascus, Syria
2Syrian National Cancer Registry, Office in Charge, Damascus, Syria
3Lab of Human Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus, Syria

Received 5 October 2012; Accepted 4 April 2013

Academic Editor: Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

Copyright © 2013 Fayez Sandouk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR) and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE) and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families.