About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 457901, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/457901
Review Article

Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

1Gastroenterology Specialty Center, Damascus, Syria
2Syrian National Cancer Registry, Office in Charge, Damascus, Syria
3Lab of Human Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Department, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria (AECS), Damascus, Syria

Received 5 October 2012; Accepted 4 April 2013

Academic Editor: Kamran Bagheri Lankarani

Copyright © 2013 Fayez Sandouk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Prevent Cancer Foundation, Alexandria, Va, USA, 22314. 703. 836. 4412 800. 227. 2732 .CFC #11074/United Way #0481.
  2. B. Vogelstein, E. R. Fearon, S. R. Hamilton et al., “Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 319, no. 9, pp. 525–532, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. K. W. Kinzler and B. Vogelstein, “Lessons from hereditary colorectal cancer,” Cell, vol. 87, no. 2, pp. 159–170, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. H. T. Lynch and A. de la Chapelle, “Hereditary colorectal cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 10, pp. 919–932, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. F. A. Vasen, “The Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer),” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, supplement 2, pp. 113–126, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. M. Grady, “Molecular basis for subdividing hereditary colon cancer?” Gut, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1676–1678, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. D. Lewis, J. J. Deren, and G. R. Lichtenstein, “Cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology Clinics of North America, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 459–477, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. D. M. Parkin, “Global cancer statistics in the year 2000,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 2, no. 9, pp. 533–543, 2001.
  9. S. Hutfless and A. N. Kalloo, “Screening colonoscopy: a new frontier for nurse practitioners,” Clinical Gatroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 106–108, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. D. Schottenfeld and S. J. Winawer, “Cancers of the large intestine,” in Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, D. Schottenfeld and J. F. Fraumeni, Eds., pp. 813–840, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  11. D. M. Parkin, S. Whelan, J. Ferlay, L. Teppo, and D. B. Thomas, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2002.
  12. B. W. Stewart and P. Kleihues, World Cancer Report, InternationalAgency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France, 2003.
  13. “Incidence des cancers a Rabat 2006–2008,” Counceil du register du cancer de Rabat.
  14. R. Ansari, M. Mahdavinia, and A. R. Sajadi, “Incidence and age distribution of colorectal cancer in Iran: results of a population-based cancer registry,” Cancer Letters, vol. 240, no. 1, pp. 1–5, 2005.
  15. F. Al Jerf and Syrian National Cancer Registry, “The problem in ministry of health in Syria is that they have not put those data in the websites until now,” Office in charge in Syrian National Cancer Registry, 2009.
  16. “Ministry of health: results of Iraqi cancer registry,” 1999.
  17. M. I. Ayyub, A. O. Al-Radi, A. M. Khazeindar, A. H. Nagi, and I. A. Maniyar, “Clinicopathological trends in colorectal cancer in a tertiary care hospital,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 160–163, 2002. View at Scopus
  18. K. I. Rasul, A. S. Awidi, A. A. Mubarak, and U. M. Al-Homsi, “Study of colorectal cancer in Qatar,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 705–707, 2001. View at Scopus
  19. E. Jullumstrø, A. Wibe, S. Lydersen, and T. H. Edna, “Colon cancer incidence, presentation, treatment and outcomes over 25 years,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 512–518, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. D. Heys, T. J. O'Hanrahan, J. Brittenden, and O. Eremin, “Colorectal cancer in young patients: a review of the literature,” European Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 225–231, 1994. View at Scopus
  21. L. A. G. Ries, D. Melbert, M. Krapcho et al., Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Cancer Statistics Review 1975–2005, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2008.
  22. S. Bulow, “Colorectal cancer in patients less than 40 years of age in Denmark, 1943–1967,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 327–336, 1980. View at Scopus
  23. P. M. Griffin, J. M. Liff, R. S. Greenberg, and W. S. Clark, “Adenocarcinomas of the colon and rectum in persons under 40 years old: a population-based study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1033–1040, 1991. View at Scopus
  24. D. C. MacGillivray, S. E. Swartz, A. M. Robinson, D. F. Cruess, and L. E. Smith, “Adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum in patients less than 40 years of age,” Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, vol. 172, no. 1, pp. 1–7, 1991. View at Scopus
  25. J. G. Guillem, J. P. L. Calle Jr., C. Cellini et al., “Varying features of early age-of-onset “sporadic” and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer patients,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. Mitry, A. M. Benhamiche, J. L. Jouve, F. Clinard, C. Finn-Faivre, and J. Faivre, “Colorectal adenocarcinoma in patients under 45 years of age: comparison with older patients in a well-defined French population,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 380–387, 2001. View at Scopus
  27. S.Y. Sheet, A.K. Sheikha, A.M. Saeed, H.A. Ameen, S.S. Mohammed, and M. Khasraw, “Colorectal cancer: is the incidence rising in young Iraqi patients?” Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 380–381, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. W. H. Isbister, “Colorectal cancer below age 40 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 62, no. 6, pp. 468–472, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. R. Malekzadeh, F. Bishehsari, M. Mahdavinia, and R. Ansari, “Epidemiology and molecular genetics of colorectal cancer in iran: a review,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 161–169, 2009.
  30. A. S. Soliman, M. L. Bondy, B. Levin et al., “Colorectal cancer in Egyptian patients under 40 years of age,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 26–30, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. P. Haghighi, K. Nasr, E. A. Mohallatee et al., “Colorectal polyps and carcinoma in Southern Iran,” Cancer, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 274–278, 1977.
  32. S. V. Hosseini, A. Izadpanah, and H. Yarmohammadi, “Epidemiological changes in colorectal cancer in Shiraz, Iran: 1980–2000,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 74, no. 7, pp. 547–549, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. C. Vakili and V. Fatourechi, “Age distribution of patients with carcinoma of the colon in a general hospital in Iran,” Surgery, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 118–119, 1976. View at Scopus
  34. J. Ferlay, F. Bray, P. Pisani, and D. M. Parkin, GLOBOCAN, 2002: Cancer Incidence, Mortality, and Prevalence Worldwide, Version 2. 0, IARC Cancer Base Number 5, IARC Press, Lyon, France, 2004.
  35. S. Semnani, A. Sadjadi, S. Fahimi et al., “Declining incidence of esophageal cancer in the Turkmen Plain, eastern part of the Caspian Littoral of Iran: a retrospective cancer surveillance,” Cancer Detection and Prevention, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 14–19, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. D. M. Parkin, S. Whelan, J. Ferlay, L. Teppo, and D. B. Thomas, Cancer Incidence in Five Continents, IARC, Lyon, France, 2005.
  37. T. M. Al-Jaberi, F. Ammari, K. Gharieybeh et al., “Colorectal adenocarcinoma in a defined Jordanian population from 1990 to 1995,” Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, vol. 40, no. 9, pp. 1089–1094, 1997.
  38. M. Mahdavinia, F. Bishehsari, R. Ansari et al., “Family history of colorectal cancer in Iran,” BMC Cancer, vol. 5, article 112, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. E. R. Fearon and B. Vogelstein, “A genetic model for colorectal tumorigenesis,” Cell, vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 759–767, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. D. Wood, D. W. Parsons, S. Jones, et al., “The genomic landscapes of human breast and colorectal cancers,” Science, vol. 318, no. 5853, pp. 1108–1113, 2007.
  41. A. O. Chan, A. S. Soliman, Q. Zhang et al., “Differing DNA methylation patterns and gene mutation frequencies in colorectal carcinomas from Middle Eastern countries,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 11, no. 23, pp. 8281–8287, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. Chatenoud, C. La Vecchia, S. Franceschi et al., “Refined-cereal intake and risk of selected cancers in Italy,” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 1107–1110, 1999. View at Scopus
  43. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  44. A. Djazayery and J. Pajooyan, “Food consumption patterns and nutritional problems in the Islamic Republic of Iran,” Nutrition and Health, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 53–61, 2000. View at Scopus
  45. P. Mokarram, F. Naghibalhossaini, M. Saberi Firoozi et al., “Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T genotype affects promoter methylation of tumor-specific genes in sporadic colorectal cancer through an interaction with folate/vitamin B12 status,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 14, no. 23, pp. 3662–3671, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Bishehsari, M. Mahdavinia, R. Malekzadeh, et al., “Patterns of K-rasmutation in colorectal carcinomas from Iran and Italy (a Gruppo Oncologico dell'Italia Meridionale study): influence of microsatellite instability status andcountry of origin,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 17, supplement 7, pp. vii91–vii96, 2006.
  47. “Practice Guidelines in oncology, Version 1,” National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), 2010, http://www.nccn.org/.
  48. R. E. Ley, P. J. Turnbaugh, S. Klein, and J. I. Gordon, “Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity,” Nature, vol. 444, no. 7122, pp. 1022–1023, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. L. A. A. Brosens, A. van Hattem, L. M. Hylind, et al., “Risk of colorectal cancer in juvenile polyposis,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 965–967, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. W. A. van Hattem, L. A. A. Brosens, W. W. J. de Leng et al., “Large genomic deletions of SMAD4, BMPR1A and PTEN in juvenile polyposis,” Gut, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 623–627, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. L. A. Brosens, W. A. van Hattem, M. C. Kools et al., “No TGFBRII germline mutations in juvenile polyposis patients without SMAD4 or BMPR1A mutation,” Gut, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 154–156, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. R. B. Sartor, “Therapeutic manipulation of the enteric microflora in inflammatory bowel diseases: antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1620–1633, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. B. Sheil, F. Shanahan, and L. O'Mahony, “Probiotic effects on inflammatory bowel disease,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, article S819, 2007.
  54. A. Motlagh, P. Azadeh, A. Fazlalizadeh et al., “Expression of epirdermal growth factor receptor as a predictive factor for rectal cancer,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 301–308, 2007. View at Scopus
  55. F. Mehrkhani, S. Nasiri, K. Donboli, A. Meysamie, and A. Hedayat, “Prognostic factors in survival of colorectal cancer patients after surgery,” Colorectal Disease, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 157–161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. Moghimi-Dehkordi, A. Safaee, and M. R. Zali, “Prognostic factors in 1,138 Iranian colorectal cancer patients,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 683–688, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Frigola, X. Solé, M. F. Paz et al., “Differential DNA hypermethylation and hypomethylation signatures in colorectal cancer,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 319–326, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. L. Axell, D. Ahnen, and K. Markey, “Basic concepts for genetic testing in common hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes,” Current Colorectal Cancer Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 73–84, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  59. J. P. Terdiman, P. G. Conrad, and M. H. Sleisenger, “Genetic testing in hereditary colorectal cancer: Indications and procedures,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 94, no. 9, pp. 2344–2356, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. Bougatef, R. Marrakchi, A. Moussa et al., “First genetic analysis in Tunisian familial adenomatous polyposis probands,” Oncology Reports, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 1213–1218, 2008. View at Scopus
  61. J. R. Sampson, S. Dolwani, S. Jones et al., “Autosomal recessive colorectal adenomatous polyposis due to inherited mutations of MYH,” The Lancet, vol. 362, no. 9377, pp. 39–41, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. N. O. Davidson, “Genetic testing in colorectal cancer: who, when, how and why,” The Keio Journal of Medicine, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 14–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. S. Fearnhead, M. P. Britton, and W. F. Bodmer, “The ABC of APC,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 721–733, 2001. View at Scopus
  64. A. K. Rustgi, “The genetics of hereditary colon cancer,” Genes and Development, vol. 21, no. 20, pp. 2525–2538, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. Wu, C. S. Richards, W. Wu et al., “Detection of sequence variations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography,” Genetic Testing, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 281–290, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Batra, H. Valdimarsdottir, M. McGovern, S. Itzkowitz, and K. Brown, “Awareness of genetic testing for colorectal cancer predisposition among specialists in gastroenterology,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 729–733, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. T. Wijnen, H. F.A. Vasen, P. M. Khan, et al., “clinical findings with implications for genetic testing in families with clustering of colorectal cancer,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 339, no. 8, pp. 511–518, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  68. C. Soravia, T. Berk, and Z. Cohen, “Genetic testing and surgical decision making in hereditary colorectal cancer,” International Journal of Colorectal Disease, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2000. View at Scopus
  69. British Society of Gastroenterology and Association of Coloproctology for Great Britain and Ireland.
  70. J. Meuller, G. Kanter-Smoler, A. O. H. Nygren et al., “Identification of genomic deletions of the APC gene in familial adenomatous polyposis by two independent quantitative techniques,” Genetic Testing, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 248–256, 2004. View at Scopus
  71. American Gastroenterological Association, Department of Health and Ageing, AR-DRG Version 6. 0. Canberra, ACT, 2008 & Department of Health Victoria, Victorian health services policy and funding guidelines 2010-11—technical guidelines, Melbourne, Australia, 2010.
  72. G. Michils, S. Tejpar, R. Thoelen et al., “Large deletions of the APC gene in 15% of mutation-negative patients with classical polyposis (FAP): a Belgian study,” Human Mutation, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 125–134, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. L. A. Aaltonen, R. Salovaara, P. Kristo et al., “Incidence of hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and the feasibility of molecular screening for the disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 21, pp. 1481–1487, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. H. Hampel, W. L. Frankel, E. Martin et al., “Screening for the Lynch syndrome (hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer),” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 18, pp. 1851–1860, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. E. Vilar and S. B. gruber, “Microsatellite instability in colorectal cancer-the stable evidence,” Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 153–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  76. S. M.Y. Ho, J. W.C. Ho, G. A. Bonanno, A. T.W. Chu, and E. M.S. Chan, “Hopefulness predicts resilience after hereditary colorectal cancer genetic testing: a prospective outcome trajectories study,” BMC Cancer, vol. 10, article 279, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. M. M. Center, A. Jemal, and E. Ward, “International trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1688–1694, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. R. L. Siegel, A. Jemal, and E. M. Ward, “Increase in incidence of colorectal cancer among young men and women in the United States,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 1695–1698, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. I. El-Sebai, “Advanced bilharzial intestinal manifestations. The relation to cancer,” Kasr El-Aini Journal of Surgery, vol. 2, pp. 905–933, 1961.
  81. J. Amano, “Clinico pathological studies on the gastrointestinal schistosomiasis,” Japanese Journal of Parasitology, vol. 30, pp. 135–149, 1981.
  82. C. Ming-Chai, C. Chi-Yuan, C. Pei-Yu, and H. Jen-Chun, “Evolution of colorectal cancer in schistosomiasis. Transitional mucosal changes adjacent to large intestinal carcinoma in colectomy specimens,” Cancer, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1661–1675, 1980. View at Scopus
  83. R. M. Dimmette, A. M. Elwi, and H. F. Sproat, “Relationship of schistosomiasisto polyposis and adenocarcinoma of large intestine,” The American Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 266–276, 1956.
  84. M. Rutter, B. Saunders, K. Wilkinson et al., “Severity of inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 451–459, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. T. A. Brentnall, R. C. Haggitt, P. S. Rabinovitch et al., “Risk and natural history of colonic neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 331–338, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. J. Askling, P. W. Dickman, P. Karlén et al., “Family history as a risk factor for colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease,” Gastroenterology, vol. 120, no. 6, pp. 1356–1362, 2001. View at Scopus
  87. U. A. Heuschen, U. Hinz, E. H. Allemeyer et al., “Backwash ileitis is strongly associated with colorectal carcinoma in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 841–847, 2001. View at Scopus
  88. F. S. Velayos, E. V. Loftus, T. Jess et al., “Predictive and protective factors associated with colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a case-control study,” Gastroenterology, vol. 130, no. 7, pp. 1941–1949, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. S. H. Itzkowitz and N. Harpaz, “Diagnosis and management of dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases,” Gastroenterology, vol. 126, no. 6, pp. 1634–1648, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. Medicare Australia, Medicare Item Statistics Reports, 2010.
  91. Bressler 2007, Farrar 2006, Robertson.
  92. Rex, Heibig gastroenterology, 2007.
  93. S. N. Hong, W. H. Choe, J. H. Lee et al., “back-to-back trial evaluating the usefulness of i-SCAN in screening colonoscopy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1011.e2–1021.e2, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. M. A. Bianco, L. Cipolletta, G. Rotondano et al., “Prevalence of nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasia: an Italian multicenter observational study,” Endoscopy, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 279–285, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  95. S. Kudo, S. Tamura, T. Nakajima, H. Yamano, H. Kusaka, and H. Watanabe, “Diagnosis of colorectal tumorous lesions by magnifying endoscopy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 1996.
  96. http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CFMQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.curetoday.com%2Findex.cfm%2Ffuseaction%2Farticle.PrintArticle%2Farticle_id%2F167&ei=mDPVT9eNAtDn8QP1ovSjAw&usg=AFQjCNHFYcyCUIU9jvvWfdhk4cwa03UPEA.
  97. H. F. A. Vasen, “The Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer),” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, supplement 2, pp. 113–126, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. W. M. Grady, “Molecular basis for subdividing hereditary colon cancer?” Gut, vol. 54, no. 12, pp. 1676–1678, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. National Hospital Cost Data Collection, Cost Report Round 13 (2008-2009), Commonwealth Department of Health and Ageing, Canberra, Australia, 2010.
  100. F. W. Nugent, R. C. Haggitt, and P. A. Gilpin, “Cancer surveillance in ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 100, no. 5, part 1, pp. 1241–1248, 1991. View at Scopus
  101. J. Bishop, P. Glass, E. Tracey, et al., Health Economics Review of Bowel Cancer Screening in Australia, 2008.
  102. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Australian Cancer Incidence and Mortality [ACIM], workbook for colorectal cancer.
  103. Cancer Institute NSW Monograph, Catalogue Number: SM-2008- 1.Cancer Institute NSW, 2008.
  104. C. Platell, P. Salama, N. Barwood, and G. Makin, “Performing a colonoscopy 12 months after surgery for colorectal neoplasia,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Surgery, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 282–285, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. C. Hassan, P. Gaglia, A. Zullo et al., “Endoscopic follow-up after colorectal cancer resection: an Italian multicentre study,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 45–50, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. N. Hyman, J. Moore, P. Cataldo, and T. Osler, “The high yield of 1-year colonoscopy after resection: Is it the handoff?” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 648–652, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. H. Aste, S. Saccomanno, V. Pugliese, and L. Santi, “Colonoscopy in patients previously submitted to partial colectomy for colorectal cancer,” Acta Endoscopica, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 219–227, 1982. View at Scopus
  108. S. N. Hong, W. H. Choe, J. H. Lee et al., “Prospective, randomized, back-to-back trial evaluating the usefulness of i-SCAN in screening colonoscopy,” Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1011–1102, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  109. American Cancer Society, CRC prevention, 2011.
  110. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research, Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), Washington, DC, USA, 2007.
  111. D. Braithwaite, J. Emery, F. Walter, A. T. Prevost, and S. Sutton, “Psychological impact of genetic counseling for familial cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 96, no. 2, pp. 122–133, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. A. Miles, Health Behaviour Research Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK.
  113. A. Liljegren, G. Lindgren, Y. Brandberg et al., “Individuals with an increased risk of colorectal cancer: perceived benefits and psychological aspects of surveillance by means of regular colonoscopies,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1736–1742, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  114. S. L. Gearhart and N. Ahuja, Early Diagnosis and Treatmentof Colorectal Cancer, Elsevier Saunders, 2011.