Table 1: Summary of treatment modalities evaluated in RCD.

TherapyNo. of patientsTherapeutic effectNotes and side effectsReference

Thioguanine12 RCDI10 patients tolerated TG. clinical and histological response was observed in 83% and 78% respectively1 patient died within 4 months of therapy due to progression of RCDI. Side effects: muscle spasms, elevation of biochemical liver tests[44]

Azathioprine and Prednisone10 RCDI
8 RCDII
Clinical improvement in all patients in both groups. 8 RCD type I patients responded histologically, complete histological normalization in 4 patients7 RCDII patients died from EATL[41]

Mesalamine and Budesonide10 RCDI5 patients had complete symptom relief. No conclusion on histological improvement4 patients had concomitant microscopic colitis. Side effect: headaches[40]

Budesonide23 RCDI
5 RCDII
Overall, 76% of the patients had a clinical response to budesonide, considered as complete response in 55%. No histological improvement in any patient. RCDII patients had persistent clonal proliferation of IELs1 patient with RCDII died of sepsis and malnutrition. 7 patients had concomitant microscopic colitis. There were no serious adverse events reported[39]

Infliximab1 RCDIExcellent clinical results. Treatment was continued over the following 2 years with a return to near normal histologyNo serious adverse events reported[43]

Infliximab1 RCDIComplete clinical improvement. Marked histological improvementNo serious adverse events reported[42]

Cyclosporin13
(no differentiation)
Clinical response in 8 patients. Normalisation of histology in 5 patientsNo serious adverse events reported[54]

Cladribine32 RCDIIClinical response was observed in 81%, complete histological response in 47% and immunological response in 41%. 5 year survival in those who responded was 83% compared to 22% in those who did notIn total, 12 of 32 patients died of whom 42% died of EATL[47]

Autologous stem cell transplantation18 RCDII13 patients were feasible for auto-SCT and transplanted successfully. Majority showed clinical improvement. 5 patients showed compete histological remission. 4-year survival rate was 66%In 5 patients, auto-SCT could not be performed; they all died with a median survival of 5.5 months. 1 patient died because of transplant-related complications. EATL was observed in one transplanted patient, after 4 years of follow-up[53]