Table 1: Results of sacral anterior root stimulation in patients with spinal cord injury and bowel dysfunction. As illustrated endpoints vary between studies with some lacking well-defined endpoint for bowel function.

Patients
( )
Median followup
(years)
Patients using SARS for defecation
( )
Frequency of defecation with use of SARS
(median or compared to preoperative)
Time used for defecation with use of SARS
(median or compared to preoperative)
Patients with complete evacuation using SARS
( )

Binnie et al. [18]102.6105.5/week
Brindley [75]503.8Increased Improved
Brindley and Rushton [76]506.827Decreased
Creasey et al. [77]171174/week12 min*
Egon et al. [78]685.451Reduced in all21
Kerrebroeck et al. [24]18411036
MacDonagh et al. [19]122.2128.328.9 min*6
Madersbacher and Fischer [79]70.5–221
Kutzenberger et al. [80]4406.64014.9/week
Sarrias et al. [81] 774
Vall s et al. [82]1812188.2/weekDecreased8
Varma et al. [17]51.2Not improved
Vastenholt et al. [83]37722Decreased
van der Aa et al. [84]370.25–1327IncreasedDecreased