Table 2: Results from sacral nerve stimulation in patients with neurogenic bowel dysfunction.

Etiology ( )Successful PNE-test (%)Symptoms baselineSymptoms followup (months)

Ganio et al. [31]SCI trauma (2)
SCI surgery (4)
Spastic paresis (1)
Tethered cord (1)
Pelvic nerve lesion (1)
Poliomyelitis (1)
6 (60)Median 2 incontinence episodes per week

Gstaltner et al. [85]Cauda equina (11)8 (73)Median WexInc. 15Median WexInc. 5

Holzer et al. [33]SCI surgery (17)
Myelomeningocele (4)
Friedrich’s ataxia (1)
MS (1)
Diabetic neuropathy (1)
Spinal insult (1)
18 (72)Median 7 incontinence episode/3 weeks
Median 2 incontinence episode/3 weeks
(35)

Jarrett et al. [34]Disc prolapse (6)
Trauma (4)
Spinal stenosis (1)
Neurosurgery (2)
12 (92)Mean 9.33 incontinence episodes per week
Mean 2.39 incontinence episodes per week (12)

Lombardi et al. [86]Spinal cord injury (39)23 (59)
12 constipation
11 incontinence
Mean WexCon. 19.91 (12)
Mean WexInc. 13.09 (11)
Mean WexCon 6.82 (44.3)
Mean WexInc. 4.91 (46)

Rosen et al. [32]Spinal cord injury (6)
Spinal cord surgery (4)
Meningomyelocele (2)
Multiple sclerosis (1)
Friedreich’s ataxia (1)
Spinal stroke (1)
11 (73)Median 7 incontinence episode per 3 weeksMedian 2 incontinence episode per 3 weeks (15)

WexInc: Wexner fecal incontinence score, WexCon: Wexner constipation score.