Table 1: Characteristics of selected RCTs.

ReferencesCountriesRegimens I/II/III/IV (%)T3/4 (%)N+ (%)DFSOSMedian (range)Jadad score
HR (95% CI)HR (95% CI)Follow-up (month)

Chemoradiotherapy versus chemotherapy
Lee et al.
2012 [12]
Korea XP/XRT/XP23021.3/36.5/30.8/11.3NR88.30.73 (0.52–1.04)53.2 (36.9–77.3)3
XP22821.9/37.7/28.6/11.8NR84.6
Zhu et al. 2012 [13]ChinaRT/FL16810.8/19.4/55.4/14.510084.90.74 (0.56–0.97)0.80 (0.6–1.06)42.53
FL1659.1/18.2/58.2/14.510086.7
Kim et al. 2012 [14]KoreaRT/FL460/0/73.9/26.169.51000.62 (0.33–1.14)0.76 (0.39–1.48)86.7 (60.3–116.5)3
FL440/0/75/2556.895.4

Observation versus chemotherapy
Cirera et al. 1999 [15]Spain MMC/tegafur760/0/100/092801.82 (1.18, 2.79)1.67 (1.08, 2.57)37 (3–122)4
Observation720/0/100/08997
Nakajima et al. 2007 [16]JapanUracil-tegafur930/100/0/001002.27 (1.28, 1.04)2.08 (1.13, 3.85)74.45
Observation950/100/0/00100
Sasako et al. 2011 [17]Japan S-1 5290.2/49.9/42.3/7.645.190.41.54 (1.27, 1.86)1.49 (1.20, 1.85)603
Observation5300/53.2/40.2/6.646.187.9
Bang et al. 2012 [18]KoreaXELOX5201/49/51/045911.79 (1.40, 2.28)1.39 (1.00, 1.93)34.2 (25.4–41.7)3
Observation5150/51/49/04589

RCTs: randomized controlled trials; : number of patients; I/II/III/IV: cancer stage; IV refers to T4N1-3M0 and T1-3N3M0; T3/4: percentage of T3 and T4 stage; N+: percentage of node positive; DFS: disease-free survival; OS: overall survival; HR: hazard ratio; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval.
NR: not report.
XP: capecitabine + cisplatin; XRT: radiotherapy with capecitabine; RT: radiotherapy; FL: fluorouracil plus leucovorin; MMC: mitomycin; XELOX: oxaliplatin + capecitabine.