Table 2: Indications for the OA.

Initially no fistula ( )Preexisting fistula ( )Any fistula overall ( ) value (any fistula versus no fistula)
No fistula ( )Fistula during NPWT ( )Fistula after NPWT ( )

Surgical/nontrauma95.7% (44)100.0% (5)100.0% (4)96.2% (25)97.1% (34)1.0
Traumatic4.4% (2)0.0% (0)0.0% (0)3.9% (1)2.9% (1)NA
Sepsis peritonitis50.0% (23)60.0% (3)50.0% (2)80.8% (21)74.3% (26)0.04
Bowel perforation19.6% (9)40.0% (2)50.0% (2)61.5% (16)57.1% (20) <0.0001
Ischemic bowel17.4% (8)20.0% (1)0.0% (0)11.5% (3)11.4% (4)0.54
Pancreatitis6.5% (3)0.0% (0)25.0% (1)3.9% (1)5.7% (2)1.0
Intra-abdominal abscess15.2% (7)60.0% (3)50.0% (2)15.4% (4)25.7% (9)0.27
Anastomotic dehiscence0.0% (0)0.0% (0)50.0% (2)26.9% (7)25.7% (9)<0.0001
Vascular15.2% (7)0.0% (0)0.0% (0)3.9% (1)2.9% (1)0.13
Intra-abdominal hemorrhage23.9% (11)0.0% (0)25.0% (1)11.5% (3)11.4% (4)0.25
Abdominal aortic aneurysm21.7% (10)0.0% (0)0.0% (0)7.7% (2)5.7% (2)0.06
Damage control surgery4.4% (2)0.0% (0)25.0% (1)3.9% (1)5.7% (2)1.0
Tumor resection13.0% (6)0.0% (0)25.0% (1)15.4% (4)14.3% (5)1.0
Other indication30.4% (14)20.0% (1)0.0% (0)15.4% (4)14.3% (5)0.12