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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 924769, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/924769
Research Article

Effect of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate on Helicobacter pylori-Induced Apoptosis in AGS Cells

1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
2Department of Pediatrics, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung City 824, Taiwan
3School of Pharmacy, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
4Department of Medical Imaging, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
5Department of Nutritional Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
6Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
8Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung City 812, Taiwan
9Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
10Graduate Institute of Public Health, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan
12School of Medicine, College of Medicine, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung City 840, Taiwan

Received 19 July 2013; Accepted 31 October 2013

Academic Editor: Lin-Li Chang

Copyright © 2013 Chuang-Hao Lin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Plastic products are wildly used in human life. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is an essential additive in plastic manufacturing and is used as plasticizer for many products including plastic food packaging. DEHP is a teratogenic compound and can cause potent reproductive toxicity. DEHP can also cause liver damage, peroxisome proliferation, and carcinogenesis. DEHP is also strongly associated with peptic ulcers and gastric cancer; however, the underlying effect and mechanism of DEHP on the gastrointestinal tract are not entirely clear. The oral infection route of H. pylori parallels the major ingestion route of DEHP into the human body. Therefore, we wanted to study the effect of DEHP and H. pylori exposure on the human gastric epithelial cell line, AGS (gastric adenocarcinoma). The viability of the AGS cell line was significantly lower in 80 μM-DEHP and H. pylori (MOI = 100 : 1) coexposure than DEHP or H. pylori alone. DEHP and H. pylori coexposure also induced caspase-3 activation, and increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and DNA fragmentation in AGS cells. These results indicate that DEHP can enhance H. pylori cytotoxicity and induce gastric epithelial cell apoptosis. Therefore, it is possible that DEHP and H. pylori coexposure might enhance the disruption of the gastric mucosa integrity and potentially promote the pathogenesis of gastric carcinogenesis.