Table 2: Distribution of lifestyle characteristics of participants with and without gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD).

VariableNo GERDGERDOR (95% CI)bP value

Smoking<0.001 (2) c
 Current smoker129 (67.9)a61 (32.1)12.3 (7.17–21.15)<0.001
 Former smoker75 (78.9)
20 (21.1)6.95 (3.57–13.5)<0.001
 Never smoker521 (96.3)20 (3.7)1.00 (reference)
Alcohol consumption
 No/Occasional intake539 (89.4)64 (10.6)1.00 (reference)0.006
 Moderate/Heavy intake152 (81.7)34 (18.3)1.88 (1.20–2.96)
Physical activity<0.001 (2)
 Low150 (78.9)40 (21.1)6.32 (2.75–14.54)0.004
 Moderate370 (53.9)51 (12.1)3.27 (1.45–7.36)<0.001
 High166 (96.0)7 (4.0)1.00 (reference)
Fried food frequency<0.001 (2)
 Frequent consumption266 (81.8)59 (18.2)3.13 (1.86–5.91)<0.001
 Moderate consumption 224 (90.0)25 (10.0)1.67 (0.87–3.20)0.125
 Rare/no consumption 239 (93.7)16 (6.3)1.00 (reference)
Meat consumption frequency0.050 (2)
 Frequent consumption548 (85.9)90 (14.1)3.45 (0.82–14.50)0.091
 Moderate consumption 99 (92.5)8 (7.5)1.70 (0.35–8.33)0.515
 Rare/no consumption42 (95.5)2 (4.5)1.00 (reference)
BMI (kg/m2)26.2 (5.48)d28.7 (5.91)1.08 (1.04–1.13)<0.001
BMI<0.001 (2)
 <25265 (93.3)19 (6.7)1.00 (reference)
 25–29.9306 (87.9)42 (12.1)1.91 (1.09–3.37)0.025
 ≥30128 (76.2)40 (23.8)4.36 (2.43–7.83)<0.001

Numbers and row percentages (in parentheses). Discrepancies in the totals are due to missing covariate values.
Unadjusted (crude) odds ratios (ORs: GERD versus no GERD), 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), and P values from binary logistic regression.
Overall P value and degrees of freedom (in parentheses).
Median and interquartile range (in parentheses).