- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 293206, 6 pages
Gluten Sensitivity Presenting as a Neuropsychiatric Disorder
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6K 4C1
2Department of Family Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2C8
Received 20 October 2013; Revised 25 December 2013; Accepted 2 January 2014; Published 12 February 2014
Academic Editor: R. Eliakim
Copyright © 2014 Stephen J. Genuis and Rebecca A. Lobo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- M. Hadjivassiliou, A. Gibson, G. A. Davies-Jones, A. J. Lobo, T. J. Stephenson, and A. Milford-Ward, “Does cryptic gluten sensitivity play a part in neurological illness?” The Lancet, vol. 347, no. 8998, pp. 369–371, 1996.
- M. Hadjivassiliou, D. S. Sanders, R. A. Grünewald, N. Woodroofe, S. Boscolo, and D. Aeschlimann, “Gluten sensitivity: from gut to brain,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 318–330, 2010.
- K. Burk, S. Bösch, C. A. Müller et al., “Sporadic cerebellar ataxia associated with gluten sensitivity,” Brain, vol. 124, no. 5, pp. 1013–1019, 2001.
- F. Dickerson, C. Stallings, A. Origoni et al., “Markers of gluten sensitivity and celiac disease in recent-onset psychosis and multi-episode schizophrenia,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 100–104, 2010.
- F. Dickerson, C. Stallings, A. Origoni, C. Vaughan, S. Khushalani, and R. Yolken, “Markers of gluten sensitivity in acute mania: a longitudinal study,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 68–71, 2012.
- K. Rostami and S. Hogg-Kollars, “A patient's journey. Non-coeliac gluten sensitivity,” British Medical Journal, vol. 345, Article ID e7982, 2012.
- A. Morant, “Psychosis and silent celiac disease in a down syndrome adolescent: a case report,” Case Reports in Pediatrics, vol. 2011, Article ID 970143, 3 pages, 2011.
- J. Serratrice, P. Disdier, A. Kaladjian et al., “Psychosis revealing a silent celiac disease in a young women with trisomy 21,” Presse Medicale, vol. 31, no. 33, pp. 1551–1553, 2002.
- M. M. Singh and S. R. Kay, “Wheat gluten as a pathogenic factor in schizophrenia,” Science, vol. 191, no. 4225, pp. 401–402, 1976.
- A. de Santis, G. Addolorato, A. Romito et al., “Schizophrenic symptoms and SPECT abnormalities in a coeliac patient: regression after a gluten-free diet,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 242, no. 5, pp. 421–423, 1997.
- M. Hadjivassiliou, R. H. Kandler, A. K. Chattopadhyay et al., “Dietary treatment of gluten neuropathy,” Muscle and Nerve, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 762–766, 2006.
- P. Canales, V. P. Mery, F. J. Larrondo, F. L. Bravo, and J. Godoy, “Epilepsy and celiac disease: favorable outcome with a gluten-free diet in a patient refractory to antiepileptic drugs,” Neurologist, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 318–321, 2006.
- S. J. Genuis and T. P. Bouchard, “Celiac disease presenting as autism,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 114–119, 2010.
- N. K. Goel, R. D. McBane, and P. S. Kamath, “Cardiomyopathy associated with celiac disease,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 674–676, 2005.
- R. Rajput and S. Chatterjee, “Primary infertility as a rare presentation of celiac disease,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 94, no. 7, pp. 2771.e5–2771.e7, 2010.
- V. Hyrailles, D. Desprez, L. Beauerère et al., “Uveitis complicating celiac disease and cured by gluten-free diet,” Gastroenterologie Clinique et Biologique, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 543–544, 1995.
- C. C. Pereira, P. H. S. Corrêa, and A. Halpern, “Case report: recently diagnosed celiac disease as aggravating factor of osteoporosis in old woman,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1127–1132, 2006.
- I. Aziz and D. S. Sanders, “Emerging concepts: from coeliac disease to non-coeliac gluten sensitivity,” The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 71, pp. 576–580, 2012.
- A. Carroccio, P. Mansueto, G. Iacono, et al., “Non-celiac wheat sensitivity diagnosed by double-blind placebo-controlled challenge: exploring a new clinical entity,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 107, pp. 1898–1906, 2012.
- D. E. Loft, C. U. Nwokolo, and P. J. Ciclitira, “The diagnosis of gluten sensitivity and coeliac diseas—the two are not mutually inclusive,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 911–913, 1998.
- J. Brostoff and L. Gamlin, Food Allergies and Food InTolerance: The Complete Guide to Their Identification and Treatment, Inner Traditions International, Rochester, NY, USA, 2000.
- J. R. Biesiekierski, E. D. Newnham, P. M. Irving et al., “Gluten causes gastrointestinal symptoms in subjects without celiac disease: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 106, no. 3, pp. 508–514, 2011.
- A. Sapone, J. C. Bai, C. Ciacci et al., “Spectrum of gluten-related disorders: consensus on new nomenclature and classification,” BMC Medicine, vol. 10, article 13, 2012.
- Enterolab, “Specialized Laboratory Testing for Optimal Intestinal and Overall Health,” 2013, https://www.enterolab.com/Default.aspx.
- M. Kappler, S. Krauss-Etschmann, V. Diehl, H. Zeilhofer, and S. Koletzko, “Detection of secretory IgA antibodies against gliadin and human tissue transglutaminase in stool to screen for coeliac disease in children: validation study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7535, pp. 213–214, 2006.
- M. Brottveit, P. O. Vandvik, S. Wojniusz, A. Lovik, K. E. Lundin, and B. Boye, “Absence of somatization in non-coeliac gluten sensitivity,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 47, pp. 770–777, 2012.
- British Medical Journal, Poll Archive. Polls in 2012, http://www.bmj.com/about-bmj/poll-archive.
- I. Aziz, M. Hadjivassiliou, and D. S. Sanders, “Does gluten sensitivity in the absence of coeliac disease exist?” British Medical Journal, vol. 345, Article ID e7907, 2012.
- J. R. Biesiekierski, S. L. Peters, E. D. Newnham, O. Rosella, J. G. Muir, and P. R. Gibson, “No effects of gluten in patients with self-reported non-celiac gluten sensitivity after dietary reduction of fermentable, poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates,” Gastroenterology, vol. 145, no. 2, pp. 320–328, 2013.
- I. Mascord, D. Freed, and B. Durrant, “Antibodies to foodstuffs in schizophrenia,” British Medical Journal, vol. 1, no. 6123, p. 1351, 1978.
- H. G. Kinnell, E. Kirkwood, and C. Lewis, “Food antibodies in schizophrenia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 1982.
- A. Ashkenazi, D. Krasilowsky, and S. Levin, “Immunologic reaction of psychotic patients to fractions of gluten,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 136, no. 10, pp. 1306–1309, 1979.
- K. L. Reichelt and J. Landmark, “Specific IgA antibody increases in schizophrenia,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 410–413, 1995.
- I. Wilke, V. Arolt, M. Rothermundt, C. Weitzsch, M. Hornberg, and H. Kirchner, “Investigations of cytokine production in whole blood cultures of paranoid and residual schizophrenic patients,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 246, no. 5, pp. 279–284, 1996.
- J. Wei and G. P. Hemmings, “Gene, gut and schizophrenia: the meeting point for the gene-environment interaction in developing schizophrenia,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 547–552, 2005.
- S. J. Genuis, “Sensitivity-related illness: the escalating pandemic of allergy, food intolerance and chemical sensitivity,” Science of the Total Environment, vol. 408, no. 24, pp. 6047–6061, 2010.
- C. S. Miller, “Toxicant-induced loss of tolerance—an emerging theory of disease?” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 445–453, 1997.
- N. Ashford and C. Miller, Chemical Exposures: Low Levels and High Stakes, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1998.
- S. J. Genuis and A. K. Siy, “Nutritional supplementation and dietary restriction in the resolution of enthesitis-related arthritis,” JRSM Short Reports, vol. 2, no. 4, p. 32, 2011.
- M. L. Pall, “Multiple chemical sensitivity: toxicological questions and mechanisms,” in General and Applied Toxicology, B. Ballantyne, T. C. Marrs, and T. Syversen, Eds., chapter 20, John Wiley and Sons, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2009.
- M. L. Pall, Explaining “Unexplained Illness”: Disease Paradigm for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Multiple Chemical Sensitivity, Fibromyalgia, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Gulf War Syndrome and Others, Harrington Park Press, New York, NY, USA, 2007.
- S. J. Genuis, “Chemical sensitivity: pathophysiology or pathopsychology?” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 35, pp. 572–577, 2013.
- NHANES, “4th National Report on Exposure to Environmental Chemical Exposures,” 2012, http://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport.pdf.
- S. J. Genuis, “The chemical erosion of human health: adverse environmental exposure and in-utero pollution—determinants of congenital disorders and chronic disease,” Journal of Perinatal Medicine, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 185–195, 2006.
- World Health Organization, “Sate of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012: Summary for Decision-Makers,” United Nations Environment Programme and the World Health Organization, 2013.
- T. Dantoft, J. Elberling, S. Brix, P. Szecsi, S. Vesterhauge, and S. Skovbjerg, “An elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in un-exposed individuals with multiple chemical sensitivity,” Psychoneuroendocrinology, vol. 40, pp. 140–150, 2014.
- C. de Luca, M. G. Scordo, E. Cesareo et al., “Biological definition of multiple chemical sensitivity from redox state and cytokine profiling and not from polymorphisms of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes,” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 248, no. 3, pp. 285–292, 2010.
- S. J. Genuis, “The pandemic of idiopathic multimorbidity,” Canadian Family Physician. In press.
- M. R. Joffres, T. Williams, B. Sabo, and R. A. Fox, “Environmental sensitivities: prevalence of major symptoms in a referral center: the Nova Scotia environmental sensitivities research center study,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 161–165, 2001.
- C. Hausteiner, S. Bornschein, J. Hansen, T. Zilker, and H. Förstl, “Self-reported chemical sensitivity in Germany: a population-based survey,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 208, no. 4, pp. 271–278, 2005.
- N. D. Berg, A. Linneberg, A. Dirksen, and J. Elberling, “Prevalence of self-reported symptoms and consequences related to inhalation of airborne chemicals in a Danish general population,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 81, no. 7, pp. 881–887, 2008.
- C. S. Miller and N. A. Ashford, “Multiple chemical intolerance and indoor air quality,” in Indoor Air Quality Handbook, J. D. Spengler, J. M. Samet, and J. F. McCarthy, Eds., chapter 27, MacGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 2000.
- R. Vanga and D. A. Leffler, “Gluten sensitivity: not celiac and not certain,” Gastroenterology, vol. 145, pp. 276–279, 2013.