Gastroenterology Research and Practice http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Cognitive Functions and Depression in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome Thu, 21 May 2015 14:40:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/438329/ Background. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with depression and depression with impaired cognitive functions. The primary aim was to study associations between depression and cognitive functions in patients with IBS. Methods. IBS (according to the Rome III criteria), cognitive functions (evaluated with a set of neuropsychological tests), and depression (measured with Beck Depression Inventory II and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale) were analysed in patients with idiopathic depression and in patients with unspecified neurological symptoms. Results. 18 and 48 patients with a mean age of 47 and 45 years were included in the “Depression” and “Neurological” group, respectively. In the “Depression” group, the degree of depression was significantly higher in patients with IBS than in those without. Depression was associated with impaired cognitive function in 6 out of 17 neuropsychological tests indicating reduced set shifting, verbal fluency, attention, and psychomotor speed. IBS was statistically significantly associated with depression but not with any of the tests for cognitive functions. Conclusions. IBS was associated with depression but not with impaired cognitive functions. Since the idiopathic depression was associated with cognitive deficits, the findings could indicate that the depression in patients with IBS differs from an idiopathic depression. Per G. Farup and Knut Hestad Copyright © 2015 Per G. Farup and Knut Hestad. All rights reserved. Prognostic Significance of Microvessel Density Determining by Endoglin in Stage II Rectal Carcinoma: A Retrospective Analysis Thu, 21 May 2015 11:49:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/504179/ Background. The role of endoglin in the Dukes B rectal cancer is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to examine the expression of endoglin (CD105) in resected rectal cancer and to evaluate the relationship between microvessels density (MVD), clinicopathological factors, and survival rates. Methods. The study included 95 primary rectal adenocarcinomas, corresponding to 67 adjacent and 73 distant normal mucosa specimens from surgical resection samples. Tumor specimens were paraffin-embedded and immunohistochemical staining for the CD105 endothelial antigen was performed to count CD105-MVD. For exact measurement of the CD105-MVD used a computer-integrated system Alphelys Spot Browser 2 was used. Results. The intratumoral CD105-MVD was significantly higher compared with corresponding adjacent mucosa () and distant mucosa specimens (). There was no significant difference in the CD105-MVD according to patients age, gender, tumor location, grade of differentiation, histological type, depth of tumor invasion, and tumor size. The overall survival rate was significantly higher in the low CD105-MVD group of patients than in the high CD105-MVD group of patients (log-rank test, ). Conclusion. CD105-assessed MVD could help to identify patients with possibility of poor survival in the group of stage II RC. Zeljko Martinovic, Drazen Kovac, and Mia Martinovic Copyright © 2015 Zeljko Martinovic et al. All rights reserved. Optimizing the Care and Health of Women with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Thu, 21 May 2015 11:24:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/435820/ Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease is increasing worldwide. Although diagnosis is equally found in men and women, the chronicity of IBD poses a unique impact on the milestones of a woman’s life. As the gastroenterologist becomes increasingly important in the health maintenance of patients with IBD, this review stresses the unique gender issues in women with IBD related to menstruation, cervical cancer, sexual health, contraception, and menopause that may affect the course of disease, treatment decisions, and quality of life. Judy Nee and Joseph D. Feuerstein Copyright © 2015 Judy Nee and Joseph D. Feuerstein. All rights reserved. IFN-λ: A New Class of Interferon with Distinct Functions-Implications for Hepatitis C Virus Research Wed, 20 May 2015 11:08:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/796461/ Pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) is widely used to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection with notorious adverse reactions since the broad expression of IFN-α receptors on all nucleated cells. Accordingly, a Type III IFN with restricted receptors distribution is much safer as an alternative for HCV therapy. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) near the human IFN-λ3 gene, IL-28B, correlate strongly with the ability to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) to therapy with pegylated IFN-α plus ribavirin in patients infected with chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, we also discuss the most recent findings: IFN-λ4 predicts treatment outcomes of HCV infection. In consideration of the apparent limitations of current HCV therapy, especially high failure rate and universal side effects, prediction of treatment outcomes prior to the initiation of treatment and developing new alternative drugs are two important goals in HCV research. Bing Liu, Ian McGilvray, and Limin Chen Copyright © 2015 Bing Liu et al. All rights reserved. Multidisciplinary Care of Patients with Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Updates in Management Tue, 19 May 2015 13:36:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/860861/ Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly fatal primary cancer of the bile ducts which arises from malignant transformation of bile duct epithelium. While being an uncommon malignancy with an annual incidence in the United States of 5000 new cases, the incidence has been increasing over the past 30 years and comprises 3% of all gastrointestinal cancers. Cholangiocarcinoma can be classified into intrahepatic (ICC) and extrahepatic (including hilar and distal bile duct) according to its anatomic location within the biliary tree with respect to the liver. This paper reviews the management of ICC, focusing on the epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and surgical and nonsurgical management. Kelly J. Lafaro, David Cosgrove, Jean-Francois H. Geschwind, Ihab Kamel, Joseph M. Herman, and Timothy M. Pawlik Copyright © 2015 Kelly J. Lafaro et al. All rights reserved. Characteristics and Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Assessed Circumferential Margin in Rectal Cancer Tue, 19 May 2015 08:08:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/410150/ Purpose. To study the characteristics and prognostic significance of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging- (MRI-) assessed circumferential margin (CRM) in rectal cancer. Methods. Patients underwent preoperative high resolution pelvic MRI, followed by resection of primary tumor. The relationship between MRI-assessed CRM and pathological CRM (pCRM) was studied, and survival analysis was used to determine the prognostic significance of MRI-assessed CRM. Results. Of all the 203 patients, the total accuracy of MRI-assessed CRM for predicting involvement of pCRM was 84.2%, sensitivity was 50%, and specificity was 86.8%. Anterior tumors were more possible to assess involvement of CRM by MRI, while the false positive rate was significantly higher than lateral or posterior tumor (87.5% versus 50%, ). The 3-year local recurrence, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were 35.6%, 58.1%, and 85.2% in patients with involved mrCRM, compared with 8.9%, 78.9%, and 92.3% in patients with clear mrCRM. In multivariate analysis, MRI-assessed CRM found an independent risk factor for local recurrence, with a hazard ratio of 3.49 (). Conclusions. High resolution MRI was accurate to assess CRM preoperatively, while anterior tumor should be assessed more cautiously. Involvement of mrCRM was significantly associated with local recurrence regardless of pCRM status. Xiaoji Ma, Xinxiang Li, Linghui Xu, Debing Shi, Tong Tong, Dan Huang, Ying Ding, Sanjun Cai, and Junjie Peng Copyright © 2015 Xiaoji Ma et al. All rights reserved. Does Preendoscopy Rockall Score Safely Identify Low Risk Patients following Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage? Mon, 18 May 2015 14:19:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/410702/ Objective. To determine if preendoscopy Rockall score (PERS) enables safe outpatient management of New Zealanders with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGIH). Methods. Retrospective analysis of adults with UGIH over 59 consecutive months. PERS, diagnosis, demographics, need for endoscopic therapy, transfusion or surgery and 30-day mortality and 14-day rebleeding rate, and sensitivity and specificity of PERS for enabling safe discharge preendoscopy were calculated. Results. 424 admissions with UGIH. Median age was 74.3 years (range 19–93 years), with 55.1% being males. 30-day mortality was 4.6% and 14-day rebleeding rate was 6.0%. Intervention was required in 181 (46.6%): blood transfusion (147 : 37.9%), endoscopic intervention (75 : 19.3%), and surgery (8 : 2.1%). 42 (10.8%) had PERS = 0 with intervention required in 15 (35.7%). Females more frequently required intervention, OR 1.73 (CI: 1.12–2.69). PERS did not predict intervention but did predict 30-day mortality: each point increase equated to an increase in mortality of OR 1.46 (CI: 1.11–1.92). Taking NSAIDs/aspirin reduced 30-day mortality, OR 0.22 (CI: 0.08–0.60). Conclusion. PERS identifies 10.8% of those with UGIH as low risk but 35.7% required intervention or died. It has a limited role in assessing these patients and should not be used to identify those suitable for outpatient endoscopy. Matthew R. Johnston, Iain A. Murray, Michael Schultz, Peter McLeod, Nathan O’Donnell, Heather Norton, Chelsea Baines, Emily Fawcett, Terry Fesaitu, Hin Leung, Jeong-Yoon Park, Adibah Salleh, Wei Zhang, and José A. García Copyright © 2015 Matthew R. Johnston et al. All rights reserved. Role of TLR4  rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T Polymorphisms in the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Mon, 18 May 2015 12:22:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/141070/ Objective. The present meta-analysis investigated the contribution of TLR4 rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T genetic polymorphisms in increasing the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Databases were searched using a combination of keywords related to TLR4 and IBD. Relevant studies were selected based on strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of the data extracted from the selected studies was performed using CMA 2.0 statistical analysis software. Results. Out of the 70 studies retrieved by database search, only 13 studies were eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis and these 13 studies contained a total number of 4409 IBD patients and 5693 healthy controls. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that TLR4 rs4986790A>G polymorphism is associated with an increased risk of IBD (allele model: OR = 1.268, 95% CI = 1.124~1.431, and ; dominant model: OR = 1.240, 95% CI = 1.090~1.409, and ). Similarly, TLR4 rs4986791C>T polymorphism also conferred an increased risk of IBD (allele model: OR = 1.259, 95% CI = 1.092~1.453, and ; dominant model: OR = 1.246, 95% CI = 1.072~1.447, and ). Conclusion. Our meta-analysis results demonstrate that TLR4 rs4986790A>G and rs4986791C>T genetic polymorphisms are associated with the etiopathogenesis of IBD. Ran Ao, Ying Wang, Dao-Rong Zhnag, and Ya-Qi Du Copyright © 2015 Ran Ao et al. All rights reserved. Infections Requiring Hospitalization as Predictors of Pediatric-Onset Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Thu, 14 May 2015 08:17:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/690581/ Objectives. To assess the relationship between infections and the risk of pediatric-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. We conducted a nested case-control study of 501 incident cases aged ≤17 years and 9,442 controls who were members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California for at least one consecutive year between 1996 and 2006. IBD was confirmed and the incidence date was adjudicated by pediatric gastroenterologists. Hospitalized infections were identified from the principal diagnosis code of electronic inpatient records. Medications to treat infections were identified during the hospitalization. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess the associations between hospitalized infections, medications, and Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Results. In the year prior to diagnosis, both hospitalized infection of any system (OR 6.3; 95% CI 1.6–23.9) and hospitalized intestinal infection (OR 19.4; 95% CI 2.6–143.2) were associated with CD. Hospitalized infections of any system were inversely associated with UC after excluding the year prior to diagnosis (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.9). No UC case had a hospitalized gastrointestinal infection prior to diagnosis. Conclusion. Infections appear to play opposite roles prior to the diagnosis of CD and UC. Infections may be associated with an increased risk of CD and a decreased risk of UC. Susan Hutfless, Oren Abramson, Melvin B. Heyman, Theodore M. Bayless, De-Kun Li, Kevin Winthrop, and Lisa J. Herrinton Copyright © 2015 Susan Hutfless et al. All rights reserved. Bringing Patient-Centered Care to the Fore in Diseases of the Pancreas Thu, 14 May 2015 06:34:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/459214/ Diseases of the pancreas are often very challenging for both patients and doctors as well as pose a considerable burden on healthcare system. Emerging evidence on the importance of shared-decision making in medicine stresses the need to integrate best clinical evidence and patient-reported outcomes to deliver optimal patient care. This paper argues that patient-centered care should no longer be a hermit in management of pancreatic diseases in the 21st century. Sayali A. Pendharkar and Maxim S. Petrov Copyright © 2015 Sayali A. Pendharkar and Maxim S. Petrov. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Ex Vivo Evaluation of Bile Concentrations by Narrow Band Imaging: A Pilot Study Wed, 13 May 2015 13:54:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/367848/ Background. Bile juice plays a major role in duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGERD). Several devices to directly measure the bile concentration have been proposed. We aimed to ex-vivo evaluate the bile concentration by narrow band imaging (NBI). Method. From six surgical cholecystectomies, the content of the gallbladders was aspirated and the total biliary acid (TBA) concentration was evaluated. 2 mL was employed for serial twofold dilutions. Each dilution was scoped. Images on white light (WL) and NBI were captured and grouped accordingly to NBI-appearance and TBA-concentration. Results. Nondiluted bile had a TBA-concentration of 61965 ± 32989 μmol/L. Final dilution (1 : 4096) had 1.16 μmol/L. NBI and correspondent WL images were grouped into seven groups, and an NBI/Bile scale was created. Conclusion. The scale showed that not only NBI scale but also white light scale could be useful to predict the bile concentration. This initial study shows that NBI has a potential role in the detection of DGERD and further investigation is warranted to distinguish the presence and the concentration of bile, especially at very low TBA concentrations. Roberta Maselli, Haruhiro Inoue, Haruo Ikeda, Manabu Onimaru, Akira Yoshida, Esperanza Grace Santi, Hiroki Sato, Nikolas Eleftheriadis, and Shin-ei Kudo Copyright © 2015 Roberta Maselli et al. All rights reserved. Diabetes and Insulin Therapy, but Not Metformin, Are Related to Hepatocellular Cancer Risk Wed, 13 May 2015 09:21:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/570356/ Introduction. Metabolic conditions, including type 2 diabetes, have been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk. We have further analyzed the role of diabetes and antidiabetic treatments on HCC. Methods. Data derived from a hospital-based case-control study (Italy, 2005–2012) on 224 HCC patients and 389 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Results. Sixty-nine (30.9%) cases versus 52 (13.5%) controls reported a diabetes diagnosis, corresponding to a multivariate OR of 2.25 (95% confidence interval, CI = 1.42–3.56). A stronger excess risk emerged for a longer time since diabetes diagnosis (OR = 2.96 for <10 years and 5.33 for ≥10 years). Oral therapies were inversely, though not significantly, related to HCC risk, OR being 0.44 for metformin and 0.88 for sulfonylureas; conversely, insulin was nonsignificantly directly associated (OR = 1.90). Compared to nondiabetic subjects who were never smokers, those who were diabetics and ever smokers had an OR of 6.61 (95% CI 3.31–13.25). Conclusion. Our study confirms an over 2-fold excess HCC risk in diabetics, with a stronger excess risk in diabetic subjects who are also tobacco smokers. Metformin may decrease the risk of HCC, whereas insulin may increase the risk. Luca Miele, Cristina Bosetti, Federica Turati, Gianlodovico Rapaccini, Antonio Gasbarrini, Carlo La Vecchia, Stefania Boccia, and Antonio Grieco Copyright © 2015 Luca Miele et al. All rights reserved. Clinicopathological Characteristics of Serrated Polyposis Syndrome in Korea: Single Center Experience Tue, 12 May 2015 14:07:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/842876/ Background/Aim. Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a rare condition characterized by multiple serrated polyps throughout the colon and rectum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathological characteristics of SPS in Koreans. Methods. This retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed using information from the endoscopy, clinical records, and pathology database system of Uijeongbu St. Mary’s Hospital. Consecutive patients satisfying the updated 2010 World Health Organization criteria for SPS between June 2011 and May 2014 were enrolled. Results. Of the 17,552 patients who underwent colonoscopies during the study period, 11 (0.06%) met the criteria for SPS. The mean age of these patients was 55.6 years. Ten patients (91%) were males. None had a family history of CRC or a first-degree relative with SPS. Seven patients (64%) had synchronous advanced adenoma. One patient had coexistence of SPS with CRC that was diagnosed at the initial colonoscopy. Five patients (45%) had more than 30 serrated polyps. One of the patients underwent surgery and 10 underwent endoscopic resection. Conclusion. The prevalence of SPS in this study cohort was comparable to that in Western populations. Considering the high risk of CRC, correct diagnosis and careful follow-up for SPS are necessary. Hyung-Keun Kim, Kyung-Jin Seo, Hyun Ho Choi, Sung Soo Kim, Hiun-Suk Chae, Ok-Ran Shin, Chang Hyuck Ahn, and Young-Seok Cho Copyright © 2015 Hyung-Keun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Starch Origin and Thermal Processing Affect Starch Digestion in a Minipig Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency Tue, 12 May 2015 13:34:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/872872/ Although steatorrhea is the most obvious symptom of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI), enzymatic digestion of protein and starch is also impaired. Low praecaecal digestibility of starch causes a forced microbial fermentation accounting for energy losses and meteorism. To optimise dietetic measures, knowledge of praecaecal digestibility of starch is needed but such information from PEI patients is rare. Minipigs fitted with an ileocaecal fistula with () or without () pancreatic duct ligation (PL) were used to estimate the rate of praecaecal disappearance (pcD) of starch. Different botanical sources of starch (rice, amaranth, potato, and pea) were fed either raw or cooked. In the controls (C), there was an almost complete pcD (>92%) except for potato starch (61.5%) which was significantly lower. In PL pcD of raw starch was significantly lower for all sources of starch except for amaranth (87.9%). Thermal processing increased pcD in PL, reaching values of C for starch from rice, potato, and pea. This study clearly underlines the need for precise specification of starch used for patients with specific dietetic needs like PEI. Data should be generated in suitable animal models or patients as tests in healthy individuals would not have given similar conclusions. Anne Mößeler, Sandra Vagt, Martin Beyerbach, and Josef Kamphues Copyright © 2015 Anne Mößeler et al. All rights reserved. Site-Specific Immunomodulator: A Novel Treatment for Crohn’s Disease Tue, 12 May 2015 09:26:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/231243/ We investigated the mechanism of action, safety, and efficacy of the Site-Specific Immunomodulator (SSI) QBECO, a novel immunotherapy for Crohn’s disease (CD). Using human monocytic THP-1 cells, we demonstrate that SSI QBECO (derived from the common colon bacteria E. coli) activates macrophages to an M1 phenotype (associated with enhanced capacity to eliminate bacteria and activate innate immune responses). We assessed SSI QBECO in a compassionate use protocol of ten adult patients with active CD. Patients with moderate to severe clinical symptoms receiving conventional CD treatments and/or complementary therapies were included, except patients receiving anti-TNF medications. SSI QBECO was self-administered subcutaneously every second day, for a minimum of 2.5 months and a maximum of 11 months. All 10 patients reported improvement of symptoms while on the SSI QBECO treatment. Seven patients reported full resolution of clinical symptoms during a course of SSI QBECO of at least three months. Three patients have experienced ongoing sustained clinical remission after discontinuing all medications, including SSI treatment. The longest case of clinical remission is still ongoing (>4 years). No serious severe adverse clinical events were reported. Collectively, we conclude that treatment with the immunoactive SSI QBECO was well tolerated and effective for treatment of Crohn’s disease in this case series. Brian Bressler, Kevin P. Bethel, Ralf Kleef, Sophie L. Reynolds, Simon Sutcliffe, David W. Mullins, and Hal Gunn Copyright © 2015 Brian Bressler et al. All rights reserved. Combination of Triple Therapy and Chronic PPI Use May Decrease Risk of Colonic Adenomatous Polyps in Helicobacter pylori Infection Tue, 12 May 2015 08:57:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/638547/ Aim. The aim of the paper is to determine association between H. pylori and colonic adenomatous polyps and to explore whether treatment or chronic PPI use can mitigate this risk. Methods. This case-control study included 943 patients who had H. pylori testing and underwent colonoscopy. Presence of polyps was the outcome of interest, whereas age, sex, race, H. pylori infection, triple therapy, and chronic PPI use were independent variables. Multivariate regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios at 95% confidence intervals. This study was approved by the New York Medical College Institutional Review Board. Results. H. pylori was associated with increased odds of colonic adenomatous polyps (adjusted OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04–1.77), with stronger association among patients older than 50 (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.18–2.33). Triple therapy (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.44–1.07) or chronic PPI use (OR 0.69, 95% CI 0.43–1.09) decreased odds of polyp formation. Analysis revealed a statistically significant reduction in patients who received both triple therapy and chronic PPI, lowering the odds by 60% (adjusted OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.27–0.67). Conclusion. There is increased risk of colonic adenomatous polyps among H. pylori-infected patients. Triple therapy or chronic PPI use may mitigate this risk, with further reduction when these two interventions are combined. Rina Zuniga, Josef Bautista, Katherine Sapra, Keith Westerfield, Susan Williams, and Alexander M. Sy Copyright © 2015 Rina Zuniga et al. All rights reserved. Gastrointestinal Biopsies for the Diagnosis of Alpha-Synuclein Pathology in Parkinson’s Disease Mon, 11 May 2015 14:00:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/476041/ The diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) relies on clinical features whereas pathological confirmation is only possible with autopsy examination. The neuropathological hallmarks of PD are neuronal loss and the presence of inclusions termed Lewy bodies/neurites in affected regions. A major component of these inclusions is phosphorylated alpha-synuclein (α-SYN) protein. There is evidence that α-SYN pathology is widely distributed outside the central nervous system in patients with PD. The gastrointestinal tract is importantly affected by α-SYN containing inclusions and typically there is a rostrocaudal gradient for the distribution of the pathology. The highest amounts of Lewy bodies/neurites are found at the submandibular gland together with the lower esophagus and the lowest amounts are found in the rectum. Autopsy findings prompted research aimed at achieving in vivo pathological diagnosis of PD by demonstrating the presence of α-SYN pathology in biopsy material of these peripheral accessible tissues. So far, biopsy studies of the gut have demonstrated the presence of α-SYN pathology in the salivary glands, stomach, duodenum, colon, and rectum. Further research is necessary in order to determine which are the most sensitive targets for in vivo α-SYN pathology detection and the safest techniques for these approaches in patients with PD. Maria Graciela Cersosimo Copyright © 2015 Maria Graciela Cersosimo. All rights reserved. Positron Emission Tomography for the Response Evaluation following Treatment with Chemotherapy in Patients Affected by Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Selected Review Mon, 11 May 2015 12:20:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/706808/ The aim of the present paper is to review the scientific literature concerning the usefulness of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of response to chemotherapy in patients affected by liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Material and Methods. Studies were identified by searching PubMed electronic databases. Both prospective and retrospective studies were included. Information regarding the figure of merit of PET for the evaluation of therapy response was extracted and analyzed. Results. Existing data suggests that 18F-FDG PET/CT may have an outstanding role in evaluating the response. The sensitivity of PET in detecting therapy response seems to be greater than conventional imaging (CT and MRI). PET/CT response is strictly related to better overall survival and progression-free survival. Conclusions. PET/CT is more than a promising technique to assess the response to chemotherapy in colorectal and liver metastases. However, to be fully validated, this examination needs further studies by recruiting more patients. Alberto Zaniboni, Giordano Savelli, Claudio Pizzocaro, Pietro Basile, and Valentina Massetti Copyright © 2015 Alberto Zaniboni et al. All rights reserved. Rescue Therapy with a Proton Pump Inhibitor Plus Amoxicillin and Rifabutin for Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 11 May 2015 06:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/415648/ Background. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trials for eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) that included a treatment arm with a proton pump inhibitor, rifabutin, and amoxicillin. Materials and Methods. We selected clinical trials that examined the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapies and included a study arm using the test regimen from major medical literature databases and abstracts from major gastroenterology meetings. We also did subgroup and sensitivity analyses. Results. Twenty-one studies were included in systematic review. The total eradication rates of the test regimen were 70.4% by intent-to-treat (ITT) and 72.0% by per-protocol (PP) analyses. The pooled odds ratio (OR) was 0.55 using fixed effects model () for the test regimen versus other triple regimens. The total eradication rates were 68.4% for the test regimen and 81.9% in the control group by ITT, while the OR was 1.08 using random effects model (). The pooled eradication rate was 66.4% for the test regimen and 67.4% for the control group by ITT. The total adverse effects incidence were 25.1% for the test regimen. Conclusions. The test regimen for H. pylori rescue therapy may be not superior to control regimens in efficacy. Xiaoqun Liu, Hui Wang, Zhifa Lv, Youhua Wang, Ben Wang, Yong Xie, Xiaojiang Zhou, and Nonghua Lv Copyright © 2015 Xiaoqun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Value of Semiquantitative Analysis of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging with GD-EOB-DTPA in Focal Liver Lesions Characterization: A Feasibility Study Wed, 06 May 2015 13:14:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/630273/ Purpose. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DSCE-MRI) in differentiation between benign and malignant liver lesions by assessment of tumoral perfusion parameters. Methods Materials. Seventy-three patients with known focal liver lesions, including 45 benign (16 FNH, 27 angiomas, and 2 abscesses) and 28 malignant ones (17 metastases, 9 HCCs, and 2 cholangiocarcinoma) underwent 1.5 T MRI upper abdominal study, with standard protocol that included dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences. On dedicated workstation, time-intensity curves were determined and the following perfusion parameters were calculated: relative arterial, venous and late enhancement (RAE, RVE, RLE), maximum enhancement (ME), relative enhancement (RE), and time to peak (TTP). Results. All diagnoses were established either by histopathology or imaging follow-up. Perfusion mean values calculated in benign lesions were RAE 33.8%, RVE 66.03%, RLE 80.63%, ME 776.00%, MRE 86.27%, and TTP 146.95 sec. Corresponding perfusion values calculated in malignant lesions were RAE 22.47%, RVE 40.54%, RLE 47.52%, ME 448.78%, MRE 49.85%, and TTP 183.79 sec. Statistical difference () was achieved in all the perfusion parameters calculated, obtaining different cluster of perfusion kinetics between benign and malignant lesions. Conclusions. DSCE-MRI depicts kinetic differences in perfusion parameters among the different common liver lesions, related to tumour supply and microvascular characteristics. Davide Ippolito, Maddalena Colombo, Chiara Trattenero, Pietro Andrea Bonaffini, Cammillo Talei Franzesi, Davide Fior, and Sandro Sironi Copyright © 2015 Davide Ippolito et al. All rights reserved. Primary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Changes in Children with Helicobacter pylori Infection over 13 Years in Northern Italy Wed, 06 May 2015 12:10:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/717349/ The eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is still a challenge for gastroenterologists. One of the main causes of failure in H. pylori eradication is the antibiotic resistance mainly to clarithromycin. Culture from biopsies is maybe the most used method among the antimicrobial susceptibility techniques. In this study, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children with H. pylori infection over 13 years and we confirmed that clarithromycin resistance has been increased (16% versus 26%) though with no statistically signficant value. Therefore, clarithromycin should not be used in empiric treatment of H. pylori eradication therapy in children, but its use should be limited only to children with known antimicrobial susceptibility. On the other hand, metronidazole resistance has decreased over this time period in statistically significant manner (56% versus 33%, ). Furthermore, ampicillin resistance has been confirmed to be very rare (3% versus 0%) in children with H. pylori infection. In conclusion, in H. pylori infection, if we do not know the antibiotic susceptibility of patients, we should recommend an eradication therapy based on the local distribution of antibiotic resistance rates trying to limit the therapeutic failures. Marco Manfredi, Pierpacifico Gismondi, Valentina Maffini, Barbara Bizzarri, Fabiola Fornaroli, Carmen Madia, Antonino Salerno, A. Marta Cangelosi, and Gian Luigi de’Angelis Copyright © 2015 Marco Manfredi et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Three Methods Used in the Diagnosis of Extraesophageal Reflux in Children with Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion Wed, 06 May 2015 09:46:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/547959/ Objectives. Detection of extraesophageal reflux (EER) in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME) using three different diagnostic methods. Methods. Children between 1 and 7 years with OME who underwent adenoidectomy and myringotomy with insertion of a ventilation tube were included in this prospective study. EER was detected using three methods: oropharyngeal pH was monitored for 24 hours using the Restech system; detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid obtained during myringotomy was done using Peptest, and detection of pepsin in an adenoid specimen was done immunohistochemically. Results. Altogether 21 children were included in the study. Pathological oropharyngeal pH was confirmed in 13/21 (61.9%) children. Pepsin in the middle ear fluid was present in 5/21 (23.8%) children; these 5 patients were diagnosed with the most severe EER established through monitoring of oropharyngeal pH. No specimen of adenoids tested was positive for pepsin upon immunohistochemical examination. Conclusions. Diagnosis of EER in patients with OME using Restech is sensitive but less specific when compared to the detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid using Peptest. Pepsin in the middle ear was consistently present in patients with RYAN score above 200, and these patients in particular could potentially profit from antireflux therapy. Martin Formánek, Pavel Komínek, Petr Matoušek, Radoslava Tomanova, Ondřej Urban, and Karol Zeleník Copyright © 2015 Martin Formánek et al. All rights reserved. Current Review of Genetically Modified Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Prevention and Treatment of Colitis Using Murine Models Mon, 04 May 2015 14:13:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/146972/ Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are disorders of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by recurrent inflammation that requires lifelong treatments. Probiotic microorganisms appear as an alternative for these patients; however, probiotic characteristics are strain dependent and each probiotic needs to be tested to understand the underlining mechanisms involved in their beneficial properties. Genetic modification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was also described as a tool for new IBD treatments. The first part of this review shows different genetically modified LAB (GM-LAB) described for IBD treatment since 2000. Then, the two principally studied strategies are discussed (i) GM-LAB producing antioxidant enzymes and (ii) GM-LAB producing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Different delivery systems, including protein delivery and DNA delivery, will also be discussed. Studies show the efficacy of GM-LAB (using different expression systems) for the prevention and treatment of IBD, highlighting the importance of the bacterial strain selection (with anti-inflammatory innate properties) as a promising alternative. These microorganisms could be used in the near future for the development of therapeutic products with anti-inflammatory properties that can improve the quality of life of IBD patients. Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc, Silvina del Carmen, Jean-Marc Chatel, Anderson Miyoshi, Vasco Azevedo, Philippe Langella, Luis G. Bermúdez-Humarán, and Jean Guy LeBlanc Copyright © 2015 Alejandra de Moreno de LeBlanc et al. All rights reserved. Standard Triple Therapy versus Sequential Therapy in Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Double-Blind, Randomized, and Controlled Trial Mon, 04 May 2015 13:37:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/818043/ Aim. To compare 10-day standard triple therapy versus sequential therapy as first-line treatment in patients infected with H. pylori. Methods. One hundred H. pylori positive patients (diagnosed by rapid urease test and histology), with average age of 47.2, M/F = 28/72, were randomized to receive either standard triple treatment (TT) as follows: lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 1 g, b.i.d. for ten days, or sequential treatment (ST) as follows: lansoprazole 30 mg, amoxicillin and placebo 1.0 g b.i.d for the first five days, followed by lansoprazole 30 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and tinidazole 500 mg b.i.d, for the remaining five days. Eradication rates were determined 60 days after treatment by urease, histology, or 13C-urea breath test. Results. In intention to treat (ITT) analysis, the rate of H. pylori eradication in the TT and ST groups was the same for both regimens as follows: 86% (43/50), 95% CI 93,3 to 73.4%. In Per protocol (PP) analysis, the rate of H. pylori eradication in the TT and ST groups was 87.8% (43/49), 95% CI 94,5 to 75.3% and 89.6% (43/48), 95% CI 95,8 to 77.3%, respectively. Conclusions. In Brazil, standard triple therapy is as equally effective as sequential therapy in eradicating Helicobacter pylori patients. This study was registered under Clinical Trials with number ISRCTN62400496. Jaime Natan Eisig, Tomás Navarro-Rodriguez, Ana Cristina Sá Teixeira, Fernando Marcuz Silva, Rejane Mattar, Decio Chinzon, Christiane Haro, Márcio Augusto Diniz, Joaquim Prado Moraes-Filho, Ronnie Fass, and Ricardo Correa Barbuti Copyright © 2015 Jaime Natan Eisig et al. All rights reserved. Hypomagnesemia Induced by Long-Term Treatment with Proton-Pump Inhibitors Mon, 04 May 2015 12:06:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/951768/ In 2006, hypomagnesemia was first described as a complication of proton-pump inhibitors. To address this issue, we systematically reviewed the literature. Hypomagnesemia, mostly associated with hypocalcemic hypoparathyroidism and hypokalemia, was reported in 64 individuals on long-term proton-pump inhibitors. Hypomagnesemia recurred following replacement of one proton-pump inhibitor with another but not with a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist. The association between proton-pump inhibitors and magnesium metabolism was addressed in 14 case-control, cross-sectional studies. An association was found in 11 of them: 6 reports found that the use of proton-pump inhibitors is associated per se with a tendency towards hypomagnesemia, 2 found that this tendency is more pronounced in patients concurrently treated with diuretics, carboplatin, or cisplatin, and 2 found a relevant tendency to hypomagnesemia in patients with poor renal function. Finally, findings likely reflecting decreased intestinal magnesium uptake were observed on treatment with proton-pump inhibitors. Three studies did not disclose any relationship between magnesium metabolism and treatment with histamine type-2 receptor antagonists. In conclusion, proton-pump inhibitors may cause hypomagnesemia. In these cases, switching to a histamine type-2 receptor antagonist is advised. Simone Janett, Pietro Camozzi, Gabriëlla G. A. M. Peeters, Sebastiano A. G. Lava, Giacomo D. Simonetti, Barbara Goeggel Simonetti, Mario G. Bianchetti, and Gregorio P. Milani Copyright © 2015 Simone Janett et al. All rights reserved. The Emerging Adult with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Challenges and Recommendations for the Adult Gastroenterologist Mon, 04 May 2015 12:02:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/260807/ Incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising. Adult gastroenterologists are seeing increasing numbers of young adults with IBD, a subpopulation with unique needs and challenges that can impair their readiness to thrive in an adult healthcare system. Most adult gastroenterologists might not have the training or resources to address these needs. “Emerging adulthood” is a useful developmental lens through which this group can be studied. With complex disease phenotype and specific concerns of medication side effects and reproductive health, compounded by challenges of geographical and social flux and lack of adequate health insurance, emerging adults with IBD (EAI) are at risk of disrupted care with lack of continuity. Lessons learned from structured healthcare transition process from pediatric to adult services can be applied towards challenges in ongoing care of this population in the adult healthcare system. This paper provides an overview of the challenges in caring for the post transition EAI from the perspective of adult gastroenterologists and offers a checklist of provider and patient skills that enable effective care. This paper discusses the system-based challenges in care provision and search for meaningful patient-oriented outcomes and presents a conceptual model of determinants of continuity of care in this unique population. Itishree Trivedi and Laurie Keefer Copyright © 2015 Itishree Trivedi and Laurie Keefer. All rights reserved. Transitioning the Adolescent with IBD from Pediatric to Adult Care: A Review of the Literature Mon, 04 May 2015 11:41:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/853530/ The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), has increased in pediatric populations over the last decade. Patients diagnosed during childhood often survive well into adulthood, and therefore their healthcare requires transfer to an adult gastroenterologist, usually at age 18 years. Transition has been defined in the literature as the “purposeful planned movement of adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions from child-centered to adult-oriented health care systems” (Blum et al., 1993). The purpose of this review is to establish the current state of knowledge regarding the transition from pediatric to adult care in IBD. This review highlights that developmentally appropriate transitional care is now recognized as a healthcare priority and thoughtful targeted intervention is needed. Natasha Bollegala and Geoffrey C. Nguyen Copyright © 2015 Natasha Bollegala and Geoffrey C. Nguyen. All rights reserved. German Bowel Cancer Center: An Attempt to Improve Treatment Quality Sun, 03 May 2015 16:17:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/456476/ Background. Colorectal cancer remains the second most common cause of death from malignancies, but treatment results show high diversity. Certified bowel cancer centres (BCC) are the basis of a German project for improvement of treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze if certification would enhance short-term outcome in rectal cancer surgery. Material and Methods. This quality assurance study included 8197 patients with rectal cancer treated between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2010. We compared cohorts treated in certified and noncertified hospitals regarding preoperative variables and perioperative outcomes. Outcomes were verified by matched-pair analysis. Results. Patients of noncertified hospitals had higher ASA-scores, higher prevalence of risk factors, more distant metastases, lower tumour localization, lower frequency of pelvic MRI, and higher frequencies of missing values and undetermined TNM classifications (significant differences only). Outcome analysis revealed more general complications in certified hospitals (20.3% versus 17.4%, ). Both cohorts did not differ significantly in percentage of R0-resections, intraoperative complications, anastomotic leakage, in-hospital death, and abdominal wall dehiscence. Conclusions. The concept of BCC is a step towards improving the structural and procedural quality. This is a good basis for improving outcome quality but cannot replace it. For a primary surgical disease like rectal cancer a specific, surgery-targeted program is still needed. Olof Jannasch, Andrej Udelnow, Stefanie Wolff, Hans Lippert, and Pawel Mroczkowski Copyright © 2015 Olof Jannasch et al. All rights reserved. A Longitudinal Computed Tomography Imaging in the Diagnosis of Gallbladder Cancer Sun, 03 May 2015 14:06:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/254156/ Background/Aim. To assess whether the diagnostic power of longitudinal multiplanar reformat (MPR) images is superior to that of conventional horizontal images for gallbladder cancer (GBC). Methods. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 54 consecutive patients with preoperatively diagnosed gallbladder neoplasms located in gallbladder bed were analyzed. These patients underwent cholecystectomy with resection of the adjacent liver parenchyma. The patients were divided into the GBC group () and the benign group (). MPR images obtained by preoperative multidetector row CT (MDCT) were assessed. Results. Mucosal line was more significantly disrupted in GBC group than that in benign group (93% [28/30 patients] versus 13% [3/24], ). Maximum (9.3 [4.2–24.8] versus 7.0 mm [2.4–22.6], ) and minimum (1.2 [1.0–2.4] versus 1.3 mm [1.0–2.6], ) wall thicknesses on a single MPR plane did not differ significantly; however, the wall thickness ratio (max/min) differed significantly (6.8 [1.92–14.0] versus 5.83 [2.3–8.69], ). Partial liver enhancement adjacent to tumor on longitudinal images was more common in GBC (40.0% [12/30 patients] versus 12.5% [3/24], ). Mucosal line disruption was the most reliable independent predictor of diagnosis (odds ratio, 8.5; 95% CI, 5.99–28.1, ). Conclusion. Longitudinal MPR images are more useful than horizontal images for the diagnosis of GBC. Atsuko Iwama, Shintaro Yamazaki, Yusuke Mitsuka, Nao Yoshida, Masamichi Moriguchi, Tokio Higaki, and Tadatoshi Takayama Copyright © 2015 Atsuko Iwama et al. All rights reserved. Novel Molecular Targets in Malignant Diseases of Digestive System 2014 Wed, 29 Apr 2015 12:03:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2015/634740/ Chunping Jiang, Youmin Wu, Xiao Xu, and Zhongxia Wang Copyright © 2015 Chunping Jiang et al. All rights reserved.