Gastroenterology Research and Practice http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Recipient Hyperbilirubinemia May Reduce Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury but Fails to Improve Outcome in Clinical Liver Transplantation Sun, 22 May 2016 09:39:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6964856/ Background. Exogenous bilirubin may reduce experimental ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) due to its antioxidant properties. We studied if early graft exposure to high bilirubin levels in the recipient affects the early IRI and outcomes after liver transplantation (LTx). Methods. In 427 LTx patients, the AUROC curve based on bilirubin and AST at day 1 identified a cutoff of 2.04 mg/dL for the recipient pretransplant bilirubin. Recipients were grouped as having low (group L, ) or high (group H, ) bilirubin. Both groups had similar donor-related variables (age, preservation time, donor BMI > 28, and donor risk index (DRI)). Results. Alanine (ALT) and aspartate (AST) aminotransferase levels were higher in group L at day 1; ALT levels remained higher at day 2 in group L. LTx from high risk donors (DRI > 2) revealed a trend towards lower transaminases during the first two days after transplantation in group H. One month and 1-year patient survival were similar in groups L and H. High preoperative bilirubin did not affect the risk for early graft dysfunction (EGD), death, or graft loss during the first year after transplantation nor the incidence of acute rejection. LTx using donors with DRI > 2 resulted in similar rates of EGD in both groups. Conclusion. Increased bilirubin appears to reduce the early IRI after LTx yet this improvement was insufficient to improve the clinical outcome. Mihai Oltean, Christian Barrenäs, Paulo Ney Martins, Gustaf Herlenius, Bengt Gustafsson, Styrbjörn Friman, and William Bennet Copyright © 2016 Mihai Oltean et al. All rights reserved. Worldwide Incidence of Colorectal Cancer, Leukemia, and Lymphoma in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 16 May 2016 14:07:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/1632439/ Background/Aims. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). In addition, there may be an association between leukemia and lymphoma and IBD. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the IBD literature to estimate the incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in adult IBD patients. Methods. Studies were identified by a literature search of PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. Pooled incidence rates (per 100,000 person-years [py]) were calculated through use of a random effects model, unless substantial heterogeneity prevented pooling of estimates. Several stratified analyses and metaregression were performed to explore potential study heterogeneity and bias. Results. Thirty-six articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. For CRC, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 53.3/100,000 py (95% CI 46.3–60.3/100,000). The incidence of leukemia was 1.5/100,000 py (95% CI −0.06–3.0/100,000) in IBD, 0.3/100,000 py (95% CI −1.0–1.6/100,000) in CD, and 13.0/100,000 py (95% CI 5.8–20.3/100,000) in UC. For lymphoma, the pooled incidence rate in CD was 0.8/100,000 py (95% CI −0.4–2.1/100,000). Substantial heterogeneity prevented the pooling of other incidence estimates. Conclusion. The incidence of CRC, leukemia, and lymphoma in IBD is low. Chelle L. Wheat, Kindra Clark-Snustad, Beth Devine, David Grembowski, Timothy A. Thornton, and Cynthia W. Ko Copyright © 2016 Chelle L. Wheat et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Biliary Stent Placement Contributing Common Bile Duct Stone Disappearance with Preservation of Duodenal Papilla Function Tue, 10 May 2016 16:20:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6153893/ Aims. To investigate the effect of biliary stent placement without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) on common bile duct stones (CBDS) disappearance and the contribution of preserving the duodenal papilla function to reduce recurrence of CBDS. Methods. Sixty-six patients admitted for acute obstructive cholangitis due to CBDS who underwent biliary stent placement without EST for 2 years from March 2011 were evaluated retrospectively. The second endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) was performed for treatment of CBDS 3 to 4 months after the first ERCP. We estimated the rate of stone disappearance at the time of second ERCP. Results. CBDS disappearance was observed in 32 (48.5%) of 66 patients. The diameter of the bile ducts and the diameter of CBDS in patients with CBDS disappearance were significantly smaller than in those with CBDS requiring extraction ( and , resp.). Stone disappearance was evident when the diameter of bile ducts and that of CBDS were <10 and 7 mm, respectively (). Conclusions. Short-term stent placement without EST eliminates CBDS while preserving duodenal papilla function and may be suitable for treating CBDS in patients with nondilated bile ducts and small CBDS. Tatsuki Ueda, Masataka Kikuyama, Yuzo Kodama, and Takafumi Kurokami Copyright © 2016 Tatsuki Ueda et al. All rights reserved. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome Tue, 10 May 2016 10:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5278024/ Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC), and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del) and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs) in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel. Jose Miguel Moreno-Ortiz, María de la Luz Ayala-Madrigal, Jorge Román Corona-Rivera, Manuel Centeno-Flores, Víctor Maciel-Gutiérrez, Ramón Antonio Franco-Topete, Juan Armendáriz-Borunda, Erin Hotchkiss, Lucia Pérez-Carbonell, Jennifer Rhees, Clement Richard Boland, and Melva Gutiérrez-Angulo Copyright © 2016 Jose Miguel Moreno-Ortiz et al. All rights reserved. Gut Microbiota and Metagenomic Advancement in Digestive Disease Tue, 10 May 2016 08:19:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/4703406/ Jinsheng Yu, Sharon Marsh, Junbo Hu, Wenke Feng, and Chaodong Wu Copyright © 2016 Jinsheng Yu et al. All rights reserved. The Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Interplay between Diet, Gut Microbiota, and Genetic Background Mon, 09 May 2016 12:13:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2862173/ Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world, and it comprises a spectrum of hepatic abnormalities from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer. While the pathogenesis of NAFLD remains incompletely understood, a multihit model has been proposed that accommodates causal factors from a variety of sources, including intestinal and adipose proinflammatory stimuli acting on the liver simultaneously. Prior cellular and molecular studies of patient and animal models have characterized several common pathogenic mechanisms of NAFLD, including proinflammation cytokines, lipotoxicity, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. In recent years, gut microbiota has gained much attention, and dysbiosis is recognized as a crucial factor in NAFLD. Moreover, several genetic variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies, particularly rs738409 (Ile748Met) in PNPLA3 and rs58542926 (Glu167Lys) in TM6SF2, which are critical risk alleles of the disease. Although a high-fat diet and inactive lifestyles are typical risk factors for NAFLD, the interplay between diet, gut microbiota, and genetic background is believed to be more important in the development and progression of NAFLD. This review summarizes the common pathogenic mechanisms, the gut microbiota relevant mechanisms, and the major genetic variants leading to NAFLD and its progression. Jinsheng Yu, Sharon Marsh, Junbo Hu, Wenke Feng, and Chaodong Wu Copyright © 2016 Jinsheng Yu et al. All rights reserved. Multicenter Study of Antibiotic Resistance Profile of H. pylori and Distribution of CYP2C19 Gene Polymorphism in Rural Population of Chongqing, China Mon, 09 May 2016 09:54:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/8547686/ This study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and the distribution of CYP2C19 gene polymorphism in rural population of Chongqing, China. 214 and 111 strains of H. pylori were isolated from rural and urban patients, respectively. 99.53%, 20.09%, and 23.36% of the isolates in rural patients were found to be resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin, while the resistant rate in urban patients was 82.88%, 19.82%, and 24.32%. The multiple antibiotic resistance percentage significantly increased from 28.26% (below 45 years) to 41.80% (above 45 years) in rural patients. Up to 44.39%, 45.79%, and 9.81% of rural patients from whom H. pylori was isolated were found to be extensive metabolizers, intermediate metabolizers, and poor metabolizers. No correlation was observed between antibiotic resistance profile of H. pylori and genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 among rural population. There was a high prevalence of H. pylori strains resistant to metronidazole, clarithromycin, and levofloxacin in rural patients in Chongqing, China. The choice of therapy in this area should be based on local susceptibility patterns. Amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone are recommended as the first-line empiric regimen. Ran Han, Hong Lu, Ming-Wan Jiang, Ke-Wen Tan, Zhong Peng, Jia-Li Hu, Dian-Chun Fang, Chun-Hui Lan, and Xiao-Ling Wu Copyright © 2016 Ran Han et al. All rights reserved. Risk of Dumping Syndrome after Sleeve Gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: Early Results of a Multicentre Prospective Study Sun, 08 May 2016 12:04:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2570237/ Background. Bariatric surgery is an important field of surgery. An important complication of bariatric surgery is dumping syndrome (DS). Aims. To evaluate the incidence of DS in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods. 541 patients included from 5 nutrition and bariatric centers in France underwent either LSG or LRYGB. They were evaluated at 1 month (M1) and 6 months (M6) postoperatively by an interview and completion of a dumping syndrome questionnaire. Results. 268 patients underwent LSG (Group A) and 273 underwent LRYGB. From the LRYGB patients 229 had mechanical gastrojejunoanal anastomosis with 30 mm linear stapler (Group B) and 44 had manual (hand sewn) 15 mm gastrojejunal anastomosis (Group C). Overall incidence of DS was 8.5% at M1 and M6. In LSG group (Group A), only 4 patients (1.49%) reported episodes of DS at M1 and 3 (1.12%) at M6. In Group B, 41 patients (17.90%) reported episodes of DS at M1 and 43 (18.78%) at M6. Group C experienced one case (2.27%) of DS at M1 and none (0%) at M6. Conclusions. Patients undergoing LRYGB, especially with larger gastrojejunal anastomosis, are more prone to developing DS following surgery than patients undergoing LSG or LRYGB with calibrated manual anastomosis. M. Ramadan, M. Loureiro, K. Laughlan, R. Caiazzo, A. Iannelli, L. Brunaud, S. Czernichow, M. Nedelcu, and D. Nocca Copyright © 2016 M. Ramadan et al. All rights reserved. Simple, Safe, and Cost-Effective Technique for Resected Stomach Extraction in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Thu, 05 May 2016 16:27:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7090128/ Background. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become a popular operation during the recent years. This procedure requires resection of 80–90% of the stomach. Extraction of gastric specimen is known to be a challenging and costly stage of the operation. In this paper, we report results of a simple and cost-effective specimen extraction technique which was applied to 137 consecutive LSG patients. Methods. Between October 2013 and October 2015, 137 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgeries were performed at Dokuz Eylul University General Surgery Department, Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit. All specimens were extracted through a 15 mm trocar site without using any special device. Results. We noticed one superficial incisional surgical site infection and treated this patient with oral antibiotics. No cases of trocar site hernia were observed. Conclusion. Different techniques have been described for specimen extraction. This simple technique allows extraction of specimen safely in a short time and does not require any special device. Serhan Derici, Koray Atila, Seymen Bora, and Serkan Yener Copyright © 2016 Serhan Derici et al. All rights reserved. Annexin A2 Coordinates STAT3 to Regulate the Invasion and Migration of Colorectal Cancer Cells In Vitro Wed, 04 May 2016 12:57:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/3521453/ The present study aimed to reveal the expression of STAT3 and Anxa 2 in CRC specimens and to investigate the effects of STAT3 and Anxa 2 signaling on the proliferation, invasion, and migration in CRC Caco-2 cells. Results demonstrated that both Anxa 2 and STAT3 were highly expressed in CRC specimens in both mRNA and protein levels, with or without phosphorylation (Tyrosine 23 in Anxa 2 and Tyrosine 705 in STAT3). And the upregulated Anxa 2 promoted the phosphorylation of STAT3 (Tyrosine 705) in CRC Caco-2 cells. The upregulated Anxa 2 promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Caco-2 cells in vitro. Moreover, the STAT3 knockdown also repressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, the overexpressed Annexin A2 regulated the proliferation, invasion, and migration in CRC cells in an association with STAT3. Dianhui Xiu, Lin Liu, Fengli Qiao, Haishan Yang, Lu Cui, and Guifeng Liu Copyright © 2016 Dianhui Xiu et al. All rights reserved. Vaccinating Adult Patients with Cirrhosis: Trends over a Decade in the United States Sat, 30 Apr 2016 07:57:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5795712/ Introduction. The progression of chronic liver disease to cirrhosis involves both innate and adaptive immune system dysfunction resulting in increased risk of infectious complications. Vaccinations against pneumococcus, hepatitis A virus (HAV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are well tolerated and effective in disease prevention and reduction in morbidity and mortality. Prior studies assessing vaccination rates in patients with cirrhosis have specific limitations and to date no study has provided a comprehensive evaluation of vaccination rates in patients with cirrhosis in the United States. Aim. This study assessed vaccination rates for pneumococcus, HAV, and HBV in patients with cirrhosis. Results. Overall 59.7% of patients with cirrhosis received at least 1 vaccination during the study period. Vaccination rates within the same or following year of cirrhosis diagnosis were 19.9%, 7.7%, and 11.0% against pneumococcus, HAV, and HBV, respectively. Trend analysis revealed significant increases in vaccination rates for pneumococcus in all patients with cirrhosis and within subgroups based on age, gender, and presence of concomitant diabetes. Conclusion. The study demonstrated that vaccination rates in patients with cirrhosis remain suboptimal. Ultimately, the use of electronic medical record (EMR) reminders improved communication between healthcare professionals and public health programs to increase awareness are fundamental to reducing morbidity, mortality, and health-care related costs of vaccine preventable diseases in patients with cirrhosis. Abhijeet Waghray, Nisheet Waghray, Hicham Khallafi, and K. V. Narayanan Menon Copyright © 2016 Abhijeet Waghray et al. All rights reserved. Dyspepsia: When and How to Test for Helicobacter pylori Infection Thu, 28 Apr 2016 17:13:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/8463614/ Dyspepsia is defined as symptoms related to the upper gastrointestinal tract. Approximately 25% of western populations complain of dyspeptic symptoms each year. 70% of them do not have an organic cause and symptoms are related to the so-called functional dyspepsia, characterized by epigastric pain, early satiety, and/or fullness during or after a meal occurring at least weekly and for at least 6 months according to ROME III criteria. In order to avoid invasive procedures and adverse effects, to minimize costs, to speed up diagnosis, and to provide the most appropriate treatments, primary care physicians need to recognize functional dyspepsia. Because symptoms do not reliably discriminate between organic and functional forms of the disease, anamnesis, family history of peptic ulcer and/or of gastric cancer, medication history, especially for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, age, and physical examination could help the physician in discerning between functional dyspepsia and organic causes. For patients without alarm symptoms, noninvasive testing for H. pylori, with either carbon-13-labeled urea breath testing or stool antigen testing, is recommended as a first-line strategy. In this review, we provide recommendations to guide primary care physicians for appropriate use of diagnostic tests and for H. pylori management in dyspeptic patients. Maria Pina Dore, Giovanni Mario Pes, Gabrio Bassotti, and Paolo Usai-Satta Copyright © 2016 Maria Pina Dore et al. All rights reserved. Factor Analysis Influencing Postoperative Hospital Stay and Medical Costs for Patients with Definite, Suspected, or Unmatched Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 Thu, 28 Apr 2016 09:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7675953/ Purpose. To identify significant independent preoperative factors influencing postoperative hospital stay (PHS) and medical costs (MC) in 171 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases and had definite, suspected, or unmatched acute cholecystitis (AC) diagnosis according to the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Methods. The 171 patients were classified according to the combination of diagnostic criteria including local signs of inflammation (A), systemic signs of inflammation (B), and imaging findings (C): A+ B+ C (definite diagnosis, ), A+ B (suspected diagnosis, ), (A or B) + C (), A (), and B (). Results. The A+ B + C and (A or B) + C groups had equivalent PHS and MC, suggesting that imaging findings were essential for AC diagnosis. PHS and MC were significantly increased in the order of severity grades based on TG13. Performance status (PS), white blood cell count, and severity grade were identified as preoperative factors influencing PHS by multivariate analysis, and significant independent preoperative factors influencing MC were age, PS, preoperative biliary drainage, hospital stay before surgery, albumin, and severity grade. Conclusion. PS and severity grade significantly influenced prolonged PHS and increased MC. Aoi Hayasaki, Koji Takahashi, Takehiro Fujii, Koji Kumamoto, Koji Fujii, Eiichi Matsumoto, Shigeki Miyahara, Tsukasa Kusuta, Yoshinori Azumi, and Shuji Isaji Copyright © 2016 Aoi Hayasaki et al. All rights reserved. Xyloglucan for the Treatment of Acute Gastroenteritis in Children: Results of a Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial Tue, 26 Apr 2016 08:55:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6874207/ Background. Xyloglucan, a film-forming agent, improves intestinal mucosa resistance to pathologic damage. The efficacy, safety, and time of onset of the antidiarrheal effect of xyloglucan were assessed in children with acute gastroenteritis receiving oral rehydration solution (ORS). Methods. This randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter, clinical trial included children (3 months–12 years) with acute gastroenteritis of infectious origin. Children were randomized to xyloglucan and ORS, or ORS only, for 5 days. Diarrheal symptoms, including stool number/characteristics, and safety were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 days and by fulfillment of a parent diary card. Results. Thirty-six patients (58.33% girls) were included (/group). Patients receiving xyloglucan and ORS had better symptom evolution than ORS-only recipients, with a faster onset of action. At 6 hours, xyloglucan produced a significantly greater decrease in the number of type 7 stools (0.11 versus 0.44; ). At days 3 and 5, xyloglucan also produced a significantly greater reduction in types 6 and 7 stools compared with ORS alone. Xyloglucan plus ORS was safe and well tolerated. Conclusions. Xyloglucan is an efficacious and safe option for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children, with a rapid onset of action in reducing diarrheal symptoms. This study is registered with ISRCTN number 65893282. Cătălin Pleșea Condratovici, Vladimir Bacarea, and Núria Piqué Copyright © 2016 Cătălin Pleșea Condratovici et al. All rights reserved. Distinct Clinic-Pathological Features of Early Differentiated-Type Gastric Cancers after Helicobacter pylori Eradication Tue, 26 Apr 2016 08:07:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/8230815/ Background. Gastric cancer is discovered even after successful eradication of H. pylori. We investigated clinic pathological features of early gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication. Methods. 51 early gastric cancers (EGCs) from 44 patients diagnosed after successful H. pylori eradication were included as eradication group. The clinic-pathological features were compared with that of 131 EGCs from 120 patients who did not have a history of H. pylori eradication (control group). Results. Compared with control group, clinic-pathological features of eradication group were characterized as depressed (), reddish (), and smaller () lesions, which was also confirmed in the comparison of six metachronous lesions diagnosed after initial ESD and subsequent successful H. pylori eradication. Prevalence of both SM2 (submucosal invasion greater than 500 μm) and unexpected SM2 cases tended to be higher in eradication group (, 0.0867, resp.). Prevalence of inconclusive diagnosis of gastric cancer during pretreatment biopsy was also higher in the same group (26.0% versus 1.6%, ). Conclusions. Informative clinic pathological features of EGC after H. pylori eradication are depressed, reddish appearances, which should be treated as a caution because histological diagnosis of cancerous tissue is sometimes difficult by endoscopic biopsy. Noriyuki Horiguchi, Tomomitsu Tahara, Tomohiko Kawamura, Masaaki Okubo, Takamitsu Ishizuka, Yoshihito Nakagawa, Mitsuo Nagasaka, Tomoyuki Shibata, and Naoki Ohmiya Copyright © 2016 Noriyuki Horiguchi et al. All rights reserved. Cytoreductive Surgery plus Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for Management of Peritoneal Sarcomatosis: A Preliminary Single-Center Experience from Saudi Arabia Sun, 24 Apr 2016 15:37:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6567473/ Aim. To report our preliminary single-center experience with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for management of peritoneal sarcomatosis (PS). Methods. Eleven patients were retrospectively analyzed for perioperative details. Results. Cytoreduction completeness (CC-0/1) was achieved in all patients with median peritoneal cancer index (PCI) of 14 ± 8.9 (range: 3–29). Combination cisplatin + doxorubicin HIPEC chemotherapy was used in 6 patients. Five patients received intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). The median operative time, estimated blood loss, and hospital stay were 8 ± 1.4 hours (range: 6–10), 1000 ± 250 mL (range: 700–3850), and 11 ± 2.4 days (range: 7–15), respectively. Major postoperative Clavien-Dindo grade III/IV complications occurred in 1 patient and none developed HIPEC chemotherapy-related toxicities. The median overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after CRS + HIPEC were 28.3 ± 3.2 and 18.0 ± 4.0 months, respectively. The median follow-up time was 12 months (range: 6–33). Univariate analysis of several prognostic factors (age, gender, PS presentation/pathology, CC, PCI, HIPEC chemotherapy, and IORT) did not demonstrate statistically significant differences of OS and DFS. Conclusion. CRS + HIPEC appear to be feasible, safe, and offer survival oncological benefits. However, definitive conclusions cannot be deduced. Ahmed Abu-Zaid, Ayman Azzam, Mohammed Abuzaid, Tusneem Elhassan, Naryman Albadawi, Lynn Alkhatib, Osama AlOmar, Abdullah Alsuhaibani, Tarek Amin, and Ismail A. Al-Badawi Copyright © 2016 Ahmed Abu-Zaid et al. All rights reserved. Snapshot on a Pilot Metagenomic Study for the Appraisal of Gut Microbial Diversity in Mice, Cat, and Man Sun, 24 Apr 2016 06:35:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6587825/ Gut microbiota plays a key role in the maintenance of homeostasis and host physiology, comprising development, metabolism, and immunity. Profiling the composition and the gastrointestinal microbiome with a reliable methodology is of substantial interest to yield new insights into the pathogenesis of many diseases as well as defining new prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. Here, we briefly present our methodology applied to fecal samples from mice and then further extended to the samples from a cat and a single human subject at 4 different time points as examples to illustrate the methodological strengths. Both interindividual and time-related variations are demonstrated and discussed. Coline Plé, Louise-Eva Vandenborght, Nathalie Adele-Dit-Renseville, Jérôme Breton, Catherine Daniel, Stéphanie Ferreira, and Foligné Benoît Copyright © 2016 Coline Plé et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge and Informed Decision-Making about Population-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation in Groups with Low and Adequate Health Literacy Wed, 20 Apr 2016 12:10:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7292369/ Objective. To analyze and compare decision-relevant knowledge, decisional conflict, and informed decision-making about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening participation between potential screening participants with low and adequate health literacy (HL), defined as the skills to access, understand, and apply information to make informed decisions about health. Methods. Survey including 71 individuals with low HL and 70 with adequate HL, all eligible for the Dutch organized CRC screening program. Knowledge, attitude, intention to participate, and decisional conflict were assessed after reading the standard information materials. HL was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy in Dutch. Informed decision-making was analyzed by the multidimensional measure of informed choice. Results. 64% of the study population had adequate knowledge of CRC and CRC screening (low HL 43/71 (61%), adequate HL 47/70 (67%), ). 57% were informed decision-makers (low HL 34/71 (55%), adequate HL 39/70 (58%), ). Intention to participate was 89% (low HL 63/71 (89%), adequate HL 63/70 (90%)). Respondents with low HL experienced significantly more decisional conflict (25.8 versus 16.1; ). Conclusion. Informed decision-making about CRC screening participation was suboptimal among both individuals with low HL and individuals with adequate HL. Further research is required to develop and implement effective strategies to convey decision-relevant knowledge about CRC screening to all screening invitees. M. L. Essink-Bot, E. Dekker, D. R. M. Timmermans, E. Uiters, and M. P. Fransen Copyright © 2016 M. L. Essink-Bot et al. All rights reserved. Clinicopathologic Significance of Extranodal Tumor Extension in Colorectal Adenocarcinoma with Regional Lymph Node Metastasis Tue, 19 Apr 2016 07:16:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5620765/ Background. This study investigated the clinicopathologic significance of extranodal tumor extension in colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis. Method. Included were 419 patients who underwent curative resection for primary colorectal adenocarcinoma. Results. Extranodal tumor extension was observed more frequently in tumors with ulceroinfiltrative gross type (), higher histologic grade (), high grade tumor budding (), vascular invasion (), perineural invasion (), tumor deposit (), high ratio of metastatic/total lymph nodes (), and high pN stage (). Overall survival was significantly different between an extranodal tumor extension (−) group and an extranodal tumor extension (+) group for both N1 () and N2 homogeneous staging (). Both overall () and disease-free survival () were significantly different between the two groups in an N1a homogeneous group and overall survival was significantly different () in an N2b homogeneous group. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that extranodal tumor extension was a useful prognostic factor for colorectal adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis, especially in homogeneous pN staging groups. Hyunsung Kim, Abdul Rehman, Yumin Chung, Kijong Yi, Young Chan Wi, Yeseul Kim, Kiseok Jang, Se Min Jang, and Seung Sam Paik Copyright © 2016 Hyunsung Kim et al. All rights reserved. The Hepaticojejunostomy Technique with Intra-Anastomotic Stent in Biliary Diseases and Its Evolution throughout the Years: A Technical Analysis Wed, 13 Apr 2016 10:03:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/3692096/ Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (RYHJ) is currently considered as the definitive treatment for iatrogenic bile duct injuries and the principal representative of biliary diversion procedures. This technique has met many milestones of extensive evolution, particularly the last years of concomitant technological evolution (laparoscopic/robotic approach). Anastomotic strictures and leaks, which may have deleterious effects on the survival and quality of life of a patient with biliary obstruction of any cause, made the need of the development of a safe and efficient RYHJ compulsory. The aim of this technical analysis and the juxtaposed discussions is to elucidate with the most important milestones and technical tips and tricks all aspects of a feasible and reliable RYHJ technique that is performed in our center for the last 25 years in around 400 patients. Demetrios Moris, Alexandros Papalampros, Michail Vailas, Athanasios Petrou, Michael Kontos, and Evangelos Felekouras Copyright © 2016 Demetrios Moris et al. All rights reserved. The Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Entecavir and Lamivudine in Patients with HBV-Associated Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 11 Apr 2016 14:03:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/5802674/ Background. Currently, both of entecavir and lamivudine are effective for patients with HBV-associated acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, there is no consensus on the efficacy of entecavir versus lamivudine for patients with HBV-associated ACLF. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and safety of entecavir with that of lamivudine for HBV-associated ACLF patients. Methods. Publications on entecavir versus lamivudine in HBV-associated ACLF patients were comprehensively identified. Odds ratio and mean difference were used to measure the effect. Results. Ten studies, totaling 1254 patients, were eligible. No significant differences between the two drugs presented in the 1-, 2-, 3-, or 6-month survival rates. However, after 12 months of treatment, patients prescribed entecavir had a statistically higher survival rate () and lower total bilirubin () and alanine aminotransferase () levels compared to patients prescribed lamivudine. More patients achieved HBV negative levels when taking entecavir as measured at 1-, 3-, and 12-month time points and had a lower rate of HBV recurrence. Conclusion. While entecavir and lamivudine are both relatively safe and well tolerated, entecavir was more efficacious in terms of survival rate and clinical improvement in long-term treatment. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to validate these results. Jiao Yang, Hang Sun, and Qi Liu Copyright © 2016 Jiao Yang et al. All rights reserved. Fish Oil Reduces Hepatic Injury by Maintaining Normal Intestinal Permeability and Microbiota in Chronic Ethanol-Fed Rats Sun, 10 Apr 2016 15:56:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/4694726/ The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effects of fish oil on hepatic injury in ethanol-fed rats based on the intestinal permeability and microbiota. Rats were assigned to 6 groups and fed either a control diet or an ethanol diet such as C (control), CF25 (control with 25% fish oil), CF57 (control with 57% fish oil), E (ethanol), EF25 (ethanol with 25% fish oil), and EF57 (ethanol with 57% fish oil) groups. Rats were sacrificed at the end of 8 weeks. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and aminotransferase (ALT) activities, hepatic cytokines, and plasma endotoxin levels were significantly higher in the E group. In addition, hepatic histopathological analysis scores in the E group were significantly elevated. Rats in the E group also showed increased intestinal permeability and decreased numbers of fecal Bifidobacterium. However, plasma AST and ALT activities and hepatic cytokine levels were significantly lower in the EF25 and EF57 groups. Histological changes and intestinal permeability were also improved in the EF25 and EF57 groups. The fecal Escherichia coli numbers were significantly lower, but fecal Bifidobacterium numbers were significantly higher in the EF25 and EF57 groups. Jiun-Rong Chen, Ya-Ling Chen, Hsiang-Chi Peng, Yu-An Lu, Hsiao-Li Chuang, Hsiao-Yun Chang, Hsiao-Yun Wang, Yu-Ju Su, and Suh-Ching Yang Copyright © 2016 Jiun-Rong Chen et al. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy versus Laparoscopic Banded Sleeve Gastrectomy: First Prospective Pilot Randomized Study Sun, 10 Apr 2016 14:05:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6419603/ Introduction. The placement of ring or band around the gastric tube might prevent the dilation after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy (LSG). We describe the first randomized study comparing LSG and Laparoscopic Banded Sleeve Gastrectomy (LBSG). Material and Method. Fifty obese patients were enrolled in the study between January 2014 and January 2015. We analysed differences in operative time, complication rate, mortality, and BMI between the two groups over a period of 12 months. Results. Twenty-five patients received LSG (group A) and 25 LBSG (group B). The mean preoperative BMI was  kg/m2 and  kg/m2, respectively, in the two groups. There was no statistical relevant difference in operative time. No intraoperative complications occurred. Mean BMI registered after 3, 6, and 12 months in groups A and B, respectively, were  kg/m2 and  kg/m2 (),  kg/m2 and  kg/m2 (), and  kg/m2 and  kg/m2 (); no statistical relevant difference was registered between the two groups. Conclusion. LBSG is a safe and feasible procedure. The time required for the device positioning did not influence significantly the surgical time. The results of bodyweight loss did not document any statistically significant differences among the two groups, even though LBSG group showed a mean BMI slightly lower than that of the control group. Valeria Tognoni, Domenico Benavoli, Emanuela Bianciardi, Federico Perrone, Simona Ippoliti, Achille Gaspari, and Paolo Gentileschi Copyright © 2016 Valeria Tognoni et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Infliximab on Laminin, NFκB, and Anti-TNF Expression through Its Effect on Ischemic Liver Tissue Thu, 07 Apr 2016 11:37:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/1738430/ The aim of this study was to investigate the possible protective effects of infliximab on expression of laminin, anti-TNF, and NFκB in the rat hepatic cells after ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). A total of 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: Control (C), sham I/R (ISC), and I/R+ infliximab (ISC inf); each group comprised 10 animals. C group animals underwent laparotomy without I/R injury. In ISC groups after undergoing laparotomy, 1 hour of superior mesenteric artery ligation was done, which was followed by 1 hour of reperfusion. In the ISC inf group, 3 days before I/R, infliximab (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously. All animals were killed at the end of reperfusion and hepatic tissue samples were obtained for histopathological and histochemical investigations in all groups. Laminin, anti-TNF, and NFκB immunoreactivity were performed for all groups. ISC caused severe histopathological injury including mucosal erosions, inflammatory cell infiltration, necrosis, hemorrhage, and villous congestion. Infliximab treatment significantly attenuated the severity of intestinal I/R injury and it is shown by laminin, anti-TNF, and NFκB immunoreactivity. Because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, infliximab pretreatment may have protective effects on hepatic cells in the experimental intestinal I/R model of rats. Remzi Adnan Akdogan, Yildiray Kalkan, Levent Tümkaya, Halil Rakici, and Elif Akdogan Copyright © 2016 Remzi Adnan Akdogan et al. All rights reserved. Different Types of Periampullary Duodenal Diverticula Are Associated with Occurrence and Recurrence of Bile Duct Stones: A Case-Control Study from a Chinese Center Wed, 06 Apr 2016 08:57:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/9381759/ Aims. We here investigated the association of different types of periampullary diverticula (PAD) with pancreaticobiliary disease and with technical success of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Methods. A total of 850 consecutive patients who underwent their first ERCP were entered into a database. Of these patients, 161 patients (18.9%) had PAD and the age- and sex-matched control group comprised 483 patients. Results. PAD was correlated with common bile duct (CBD) stones (59.6% versus 35.0% in controls; ) and negatively correlated with periampullary malignancy (6.8% versus 21.5% in controls; ). The acute pancreatitis was more frequent (62.5%) in patients with PAD type 1 followed by PAD type 2 (28.9%, ) and type 3 (28.0%, ). No significant differences were observed in successful cannulation rate and post-ERCP complications among the 3 types of PAD. Type 1 PAD patients had less recurrence of CBD stones than did the patients who had type 2 or type 3 PAD (53.8% versus 85.7%; ). Conclusions. PAD, especially type 1 PAD, is associated with an increased acute pancreatitis as well as occurrence and recurrence of CBD stones. PAD during an ERCP should not be considered as an obstacle to a successful cannulation. Zhen Sun, Wenhui Bo, Ping Jiang, and Quan Sun Copyright © 2016 Zhen Sun et al. All rights reserved. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Using Upper Gastrointestinal Tract for the Treatment of Refractory or Severe Complicated Clostridium difficile Infection in Elderly Patients in Poor Medical Condition: The First Study in an Asian Country Tue, 05 Apr 2016 08:01:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2687605/ Background and Aims. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a highly effective treatment option for refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). FMT may be challenging in patients with a low performance status, because of their poor medical condition. The aims of this study were to describe our experience treating patients in poor medical condition with refractory or severe complicated CDI using FMT via the upper GI tract route. Methods. This study was a retrospective review of seven elderly patients with refractory or severe complicated CDI and a poor medical condition who were treated with FMT through the upper GI tract route from May 2012 through August 2013. The outcomes studied included the cure rate of CDI and adverse events. Results. Of these seven patients who received FMT via the upper GI tract route, all patients were cured. During the 11-month follow-up period, CDI recurrence was observed in two patients; rescue FMT was performed in these patients, which led to a full cure. Vomiting was observed in two patients. Conclusions. FMT via the upper gastrointestinal tract route may be effective for the treatment of refractory or severe complicated CDI in patients with a low performance status. Physicians should be aware of adverse events, especially vomiting. Tae-Geun Gweon, Jinsu Kim, Chul-Hyun Lim, Jae Myung Park, Dong-Gun Lee, In Seok Lee, Young-Seok Cho, Sang Woo Kim, and Myung-Gyu Choi Copyright © 2016 Tae-Geun Gweon et al. All rights reserved. Genetic Abnormalities in Biliary Brush Samples for Distinguishing Cholangiocarcinoma from Benign Strictures in Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Sun, 03 Apr 2016 14:34:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/4381513/ Background. Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease and is strongly associated with cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). The lack of efficient diagnostic methods for CCA is a major problem. Testing for genetic abnormalities may increase the diagnostic value of cytology. Methods. We assessed genetic abnormalities for CDKN2A, TP53, ERBB2, 20q, MYC, and chromosomes 7 and 17 and measures of genetic clonal diversity in brush samples from 29 PSC patients with benign biliary strictures and 12 patients with sporadic CCA or PSC-associated CCA. Diagnostic performance of cytology alone and in combination with genetic markers was evaluated by sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve analysis. Results. The presence of MYC gain and CDKN2A loss as well as a higher clonal diversity was significantly associated with malignancy. MYC gain increased the sensitivity of cytology from 50% to 83%. However, the specificity decreased from 97% to 76%. The diagnostic accuracy of the best performing measures of clonal diversity was similar to the combination of cytology and MYC. Adding CDKN2A loss to the panel had no additional benefit. Conclusion. Evaluation of MYC abnormalities and measures of clonal diversity in brush cytology specimens may be of clinical value in distinguishing CCA from benign biliary strictures in PSC. Margriet R. Timmer, Chiu T. Lau, Sybren L. Meijer, Paul Fockens, Erik A. J. Rauws, Cyriel Y. Ponsioen, Silvia Calpe, and Kausilia K. Krishnadath Copyright © 2016 Margriet R. Timmer et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Interval between Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery on Oncological Outcome for Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 30 Mar 2016 12:55:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/6756859/ Aim. To evaluate the influence of interval between neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) and surgery on oncological outcome. Methods. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase databases for publications reporting oncological outcomes of patients following rectal cancer surgery performed at different NCRT-surgery intervals. Relative risk (RR) of pathological complete response (pCR) among different intervals was pooled. Results. Fifteen retrospective cohort studies representing 4431 patients met the inclusion criteria. There was a significantly increased rate of pCR in patients treated with surgery followed 7 or 8 weeks later (RR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.18–1.78; and and RR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.15–1.92; and , resp.). There is no consistent evidence of improved local control or overall survival with longer or shorter intervals. Conclusion. Performing surgery 7-8 weeks after the end of NCRT results in the highest chance of achieving pCR. For candidates of abdominoperineal resection before NCRT, these data support implementation of prolonging the interval after NCRT to optimize the chances of pCR and perhaps add to the possibility of ultimate organ preservation. Xiao-Jie Wang, Zheng-Rong Zheng, Pan Chi, Hui-Ming Lin, Xing-Rong Lu, and Ying Huang Copyright © 2016 Xiao-Jie Wang et al. All rights reserved. Serum Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Level Is a Potential Biomarker Indicating Cirrhosis during Chronic Hepatitis B Infection Wed, 30 Mar 2016 06:21:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/2495073/ Background. Serum immunoglobulins (Igs) are frequently elevated in patients with chronic liver disease, but currently there is a lack of sufficient data on serum Igs in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) infection. This study aimed to evaluate serum IgA, IgG, and IgM levels in patients with HBV-related cirrhosis and to analyze, if altered, immunoglobulin levels that were associated with cirrhosis progress. Methods. A cohort of 174 CHB patients including 104 with cirrhosis (32 decompensated and 72 compensated) and 70 without cirrhosis and 55 healthy controls were enrolled. Serum immunoglobulin levels and biochemical and virological parameters were determined in the enrollment blood samples. Results. Serum IgA levels were significantly increased in cirrhosis group compared with noncirrhosis group and healthy controls (all ). Furthermore, serum IgA concentrations in decompensated cirrhosis patients were significantly higher than that of compensated patients (). Multivariate analysis suggested that serum IgA, platelets, and albumin were independent predictors for cirrhosis (all ). Conclusions. Elevated IgA levels may function as an independent factor indicating cirrhosis, and there appears to be a strong association between increasing serum IgA level and disease progressing in patients with chronic HBV infection. Sha Lin, QinQin Sun, WeiLin Mao, and Yu Chen Copyright © 2016 Sha Lin et al. All rights reserved. Erosive Esophagitis in the Obese: The Effect of Ethnicity and Gender on Its Association Mon, 28 Mar 2016 09:09:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/grp/2016/7897390/ Background. Data examining the association between obesity and erosive esophagitis (ErE) have been inconsistent, with very little known about interracial variation. Goals. To examine the association between obesity and ErE among patients of different ethnic/racial backgrounds. Methods. The study sample included 2251 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The effects of body mass index (BMI) on ErE were assessed by gender and in different ethnic groups. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results. The prevalence of ErE was 29.4% (661/2251). Overweight and obese subjects were significantly more likely to have ErE than individuals with a normal BMI, with the highest risk seen in the morbidly obese (OR 6.26; 95% CI 3.82–10.28; ). Normal weight Black patients were less likely to have ErE as compared to Caucasians (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.27–0.79; ), while the odds ratio comparing normal weight Hispanics to normal weight Whites was not statistically significant. No effect modification was seen between BMI and race/ethnicity or BMI and gender. Significant trends were seen in each gender and ethnicity. Conclusions. The effect of BMI on ErE does not appear to vary by race/ethnicity or gender. Albin Abraham, Seth Lipka, Rabab Hajar, Bhuma Krishnamachari, Ravi Virdi, Bobby Jacob, Prakash Viswanathan, and Paul Mustacchia Copyright © 2016 Albin Abraham et al. All rights reserved.