Gastroenterology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A Randomized Prospective Study of Bowel Preparation for Colonoscopy with Low-Dose Sodium Phosphate Tablets versus Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Solution Mon, 15 Sep 2014 09:30:15 +0000 Optimal bowel preparation is essential for the safety and outcome of colonoscopy. A solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) is often used as a bowel cleansing agent, but some patients are intolerant of PEG, and this may lead to discontinuation of colonoscopy. Sodium phosphates (NaP) tablets are designed to improve patient acceptance and compliance. The objective of this study was to compare bowel preparation efficiency and patient acceptance of a 30 NaP tablet preparation (L-NaP) and a 2 L PEG preparation. Patients were randomized into either the L-NaP or PEG group. The primary endpoint was the efficiency of colon cleansing as assessed by a validated four-point scale according to the Aronchick scale by endoscopists and was verified by blinded investigators. The secondary endpoints were patients’ tolerability and acceptance. Colon-cleansing efficiency was not significantly different between the two preparations. However, patients’ overall judgment was significantly in favor of L-NaP, reflecting better acceptance of L-NaP than PEG. Additionally, more patients favored L-NaP over PEG in a hypothetical future occasion requiring colonoscopy. Erina Kumagai, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Masae Makino, Takashi Murakami, Shiori Takashima, Hideaki Ritsuno, Hiroya Ueyama, Tomohiro Kodani, Hitoshi Sasaki, Kenshi Matsumoto, Naoto Sakamoto, Taro Osada, Akihito Nagahara, Tatsuo Ogihara, and Sumio Watanabe Copyright © 2014 Erina Kumagai et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Dry Model for Practicable Sphincterotomy and Precut Needle Knife Sphincterotomy Wed, 10 Sep 2014 05:56:42 +0000 Aim. We aimed to develop a simulation dry model for endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and needle knife precut sphincterotomy (NKP) and to evaluate its usefulness as a training simulator. Materials and Methods. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography trainer was used as a duodenum, bile duct, and papilla simulator. A simulated papilla was created with a piece of rolled uncured ham, and ES and NKP were performed. Hands-on training was carried out using this model, and success and failure of the procedures were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the participants to assess the performance and usefulness of the dry model for ES and NKP training. Results. Twenty-two endoscopists participated in the hands-on training using this dry model. ES was successful in 33 out of 34 attempts (97%) whereas NKP was successful in all 7 attempts (100%). Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, the median score for realism was 7 (range: 2–9) for ES and 8 for NKP on a scale of 1 to 10. Conclusions. The dry model using an uncured ham provides a condition closely similar to actual clinical practice and is useful as a training model for ES and NKP. Akio Katanuma, Takao Itoi, Junko Umeda, Ryosuke Tonozuka, Shuntaro Mukai, Kei Yane, Toshifumi Kin, Kazuaki Matsumoto, Tomoaki Matsumori, Katsushige Gon, Ryo Takaki, and Akiko Tomonari Copyright © 2014 Akio Katanuma et al. All rights reserved. Extent of Surgery and Implications of Transection Margin Status after Resection of IPMNs Thu, 04 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Appropriate surgical strategies for management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) of the pancreas are a matter of debate. Preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of malignant potential of IPMN and of patient’s comorbidities is of paramount importance to balance potential complications of surgery with tumors’ risk of being or becoming malignant; the decision about the extent of pancreatic resection and the eventual total pancreatectomy needs to be determined on individual basis. The analysis of frozen-section margin of pancreas during operation is mandatory. The goal should be the complete resection of IPMN reaching negative margin, although there is still no agreed definition of “negative margin.” Of note, the presence of deepithelization is often wrongly interpreted as absence of neoplasia. Management of resection margin status and stratification of surveillance of the remnant pancreas, based on characteristics of primary tumour, are of crucial importance in the management of IPMNs in order to decrease the risk of tumor recurrence after resection. Although risk of local and distant recurrence for invasive IPMNs is increased even in case of total pancreatectomy, also local recurrence after complete resection of noninvasive IPMNs is not negligible. Therefore, a long-term/life-time follow-up monitoring is of paramount importance to detect eventual recurrences. Marina Paini, Stefano Crippa, Filippo Scopelliti, Andrea Baldoni, Alberto Manzoni, Giulio Belfiori, Stefano Partelli, and Massimo Falconi Copyright © 2014 Marina Paini et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacologic Prophylaxis of Portal Venous System Thrombosis after Splenectomy: A Meta-Analysis Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:35:05 +0000 Portal venous system thrombosis (PVST) is a life-threatening complication of splenectomy. A meta-analysis was conducted to explore the role of pharmacologic prophylaxis of PVST after splenectomy. Overall, 359 papers were initially identified via the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Eight of them were eligible. The incidence of PVST after splenectomy was significantly lower in patients who received the preventive measures than in those who did not (odds ratio [OR]: 0.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–0.47, ). Subgroup analyses demonstrated that the significant difference remained in studies including patients with portal hypertension (), but not in those including patients with hematological diseases (); the significant difference remained in studies using any type of prophylactic drugs (anticoagulants [], thrombolytics [], and prostaglandin E1 []); the significant difference remained in nonrandomized studies (), but not in randomized studies (). The risk of bleeding was similar between the two groups (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.10–4.04, ). In conclusion, pharmacologic prophylaxis might decrease the incidence of PVST after splenectomy in patients with portal hypertension and did not increase the risk of bleeding. However, the effect of pharmacologic prophylaxis of PVST in patients with hematological diseases remained questioned. Xingshun Qi, Ming Bai, Xiaozhong Guo, and Daiming Fan Copyright © 2014 Xingshun Qi et al. All rights reserved. Urinary Trypsin Inhibitor Ameliorates Seawater Immersion-Induced Intestinal Mucosa Injury via Antioxidation, Modulation of NF-B Activity, and Its Related Cytokines in Rats with Open Abdominal Injury Thu, 21 Aug 2014 07:55:09 +0000 Objective. To investigate the role of oxidative stress, NF-B activity, and its related cytokines in the pathogenesis of seawater immersion after open abdominal injury (SI-OAI) and whether UTI treatment can attenuate SI-OAI induced IMI. Methods. Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: C group, S group, and U group. The rats in C group only suffered from anesthesia and surgical operation, whereas the rats in S group and U group received caudal vein injection of normal saline without/with 50,000 U/kg body weight of UTI. The activities of TNF-, IL-6, SOD, MDA, ROS, NF-B, and IB- were monitored by ELISA, biochemical methods, EMSA, and Western blot, respectively. Results. The plasma inflammatory mediators and the contents of MDA, ROS, and NF-B in intestine as well as the pathological scores in ileal mucosa were significantly increased in rats after SI-OAI, accompanied by a reduction in SOD activities and IB- levels. UTI treatment significantly attenuated intestinal histopathological changes with evidence of a decrease in all of the parameters, except for upregulation of the levels of SOD and IB- protein. Conclusion. UTI can attenuate SI-OAI induced IMI via inhibition of NF-B activity, subsequently inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines and by combating oxidative stress. Xing Jian Zhang, Ya Li Wang, Song Zhou, Xiaojun Xue, Qiang Liu, Wen Hua Zhang, and Jun Zheng Copyright © 2014 Xing Jian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic Reversal of Hartmann’s Procedure: State of the Art 20 Years after the First Reported Case Thu, 21 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Aim of the present work is to review the literature to point out the role of laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure. Material and Methods. Number of patients, age, sex, etiology, Hinchey classification, interval between procedure and reversal, position of the first trocars, mean operative time (min), number and causes of conversion, length of stay, mortality, complications, and quality of life were considered. Results. 238 males (52.4%) and 216 females (47.6%) between 38 and 67 years were analyzed. The etiology was diverticulitis in 292 patients (72.1%), carcinoma in 43 patients (10.6%), and other in 70 patients (17.3%). Only 7 articles (22.6%) reported Hinchey classification. The interval between initial procedure and reversal was between 50 and 330 days. The initial trocar was open positioned in 182 patients (43.2%) through umbilical incision, in 177 patients (41.9%) in right upper quadrant, and in 63 patients (14.9%) in colostomy site. The operative time was between 69 and 285 minutes. A total of 83 patients (12.1%) were converted and the causes were reported in 67.4%. The length of stay was between 3 and 12 days. 5 patients (0.7%) died. The complications concern 112 cases (16.4%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic Hartmann’s reversal is safer and achieves faster positive results. Adriana Toro, Annalisa Ardiri, Maurizio Mannino, Antonio Politi, Andrea Di Stefano, Zia Aftab, Abdelrahman Abdelaal, Maria Concetta Arcerito, Andrea Cavallaro, Marco Cavallaro, Gaetano Bertino, and Isidoro Di Carlo Copyright © 2014 Adriana Toro et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Peritoneal Air Exposure on Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Wed, 20 Aug 2014 07:32:43 +0000 Background. Damage of the intestinal mucosa barrier may result in intestinal bacterial and endotoxin translocation, leading to local and systemic inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate whether peritoneal air exposure induces damage of intestinal mucosal barrier. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 210 to 230 g) were randomized into five groups (6/group): a control group, a sham group, and three exposure groups with peritoneal air exposure for 1, 2, and 3 h, respectively. At 24 h after surgery, blood and terminal ileum were sampled. The serum D-lactate levels were determined using an ELISA kit. The intestinal permeability was determined by measuring the intestinal clearance of FITC-dextran (FD4). The histopathological changes in terminal ileum were also assessed. Results. Compared with the controls, peritoneal air exposure caused an increase in both serum D-lactate level and intestinal FD4 clearance, which were proportional to the length of peritoneal air exposure and correlated to Chiu’s scores, indices for intestinal mucosal injury. Edema and inflammatory cells were also observed in mucosa and submucosa of ileum in three exposure groups. Conclusions. Peritoneal air exposure could induce damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier, which is proportional to the time length of peritoneal air exposure. Jun Bao, Shanjun Tan, Wenkui Yu, Zhiliang Lin, Yi Dong, Qiyi Chen, Jialiang Shi, Kaipeng Duan, Xiaowu Bai, Lin Xu, Jieshou Li, and Ning Li Copyright © 2014 Jun Bao et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Power of Common Diagnostic Tools in the Management of Acute Pancreatitis Wed, 20 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious medical condition usually associated with severe upper abdominal pain. The purpose of our study is to assess the therapeutic consequences of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) and the predictive value of CRP for severe pancreatitis. We included patients with a threefold increase of plasma lipase who had received a CE-CT or had a CRP of =150 mg/dl. A total of 74 out of 283 patients got a contrast-enhanced CT scan; in 11 cases the CT was followed by endoscopic or surgical interventions as therapeutic consequences compared with 19 out of 50 control cases. 69 out of 283 patients (24,3%) had CRP >150 mg/dl within 48 hours after admission. 32 of them had SAP. The CRP cutoff of 150 mg/L had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 65%. The positive predictive value for SAP in patients beyond the cutoff is 46.4%. The negative predictive value for SAP in patients below the cutoff was 89.5%. Our results support the opinion that an early CE-CT is usually not indicated. CRP helps to assess the course of AP; levels below 150 mg/dl between the first 48 h indicate a mild course in most of the cases. Markus Nistal, Malai Zoltani, Ansgar W. Lohse, Nicola Di Daniele, Manfredi Tesauro, and Andrea Pace Copyright © 2014 Markus Nistal et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of 5-Hydroxytryptophan in Combination with Different Fatty Acids on Gastrointestinal Functions: A Pilot Experiment Tue, 19 Aug 2014 08:16:17 +0000 Background. Fat affects gastric emptying (GE). 5-Hydroxythryptophan (5-HTP) is involved in central and peripheral satiety mechanisms. Influence of 5-HTP in addition to saturated or monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) on GE and hormone release was investigated. Subjects/Methods. 24 healthy individuals (12f : 12m, 22–29 years, BMI 19–25.7 kg/m²) were tested on 4 days with either 5-HTP + short-chain saturated FA (butter), placebo + butter, 5-HTP + monounsaturated FA (olive oil), or placebo + olive oil in double-blinded randomized order. Two hours after FA/5-HTP or placebo intake, a 13C octanoid acid test was conducted. Cortisol, serotonin, cholecystokinin (CCK), and ghrelin were measured, as were mood and GE. Results. GE was delayed with butter and was normal with olive () but not affected by 5-HTP. 5-HTP supplementation did not affect serotonin levels. Food intake increased plasma CCK (; ) irrespective of the FA. Ghrelin levels significantly decreased with oil/5-HTP (; ). The diurnal cortisol profile was unaffected by FA or 5-HTP, as were ratings of mood, hunger, and stool urgency. Conclusion. Diverse FAs have different effects on GE and secretion of orexigenic and anorexigenic hormones. Supplementation of 5-HTP had no effect on plasma serotonin and central functions. Further studies are needed to explain the complex interplay. Helene Sauer, Isabelle Mack, Silke Kohler, Stefanie Siegle, Nicole Rieber, Stephan Zipfel, Bärbel Otto, Yvonne Ritze, Stephan C. Bischoff, and Paul Enck Copyright © 2014 Helene Sauer et al. All rights reserved. The Utilization of Imaging Features in the Management of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms Tue, 19 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) represent a group of cystic pancreatic neoplasms with large range of clinical behaviours, ranging from low-grade dysplasia or borderline lesions to invasive carcinomas. They can be grouped into lesions originating from the main pancreatic duct, main duct IPMNs (MD-IPMNs), and lesions which arise from secondary branches of parenchyma, denominated branch-duct IPMNs (BD-IPMNs). Management of these cystic lesions is essentially based on clinical and radiological features. The latter have been very well described in the last fifteen years, with many studies published in literature showing the main radiological features of IPMNs. Currently, the goal of imaging modalities is to identify “high-risk stigmata” or “worrisome feature” in the evaluation of pancreatic cysts. Marked dilatation of the main duct (>1 cm), large size (3–5 cm), and intramural nodules have been associated with increased risk of degeneration. BD-IPMNs could be observed as microcystic or macrocystic in appearance, with or without communication with main duct. Their imaging features are frequently overlapped with cystic neoplasms. The risk of progression for secondary IPMNs is lower, and subsequently an imaging based follow-up is very often proposed for these lesions. Stefano Palmucci, Claudia Trombatore, Pietro Valerio Foti, Letizia Antonella Mauro, Pietro Milone, Roberto Milazzotto, Rosalia Latino, Giacomo Bonanno, Giuseppe Petrillo, and Antonio Di Cataldo Copyright © 2014 Stefano Palmucci et al. All rights reserved. Predictors of Response to 24-Week Telaprevir-Based Triple Therapy for Treatment-Naïve Genotype 1b Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:33:10 +0000 We evaluated the genetic variation in rs8099917, substitutions in core amino acid (aa) 70, and the number of aa substitutions in the interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) on the prediction of sustained virological response (SVR) in treatment-naïve hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1b (G1b) patients. This multicenter study involved 150 Asian treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV G1b who received 12 weeks of telaprevir in combination with 24 weeks of peginterferon-α-2b and ribavirin. The baseline and treatment-related factors potentially associated with SVR were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Virological response was analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis. Cessation of the therapy due to adverse effects occurred in only 2 patients, who discontinued the trial at 10 weeks and at 2 weeks due to cerebral infarction and renal impairment, respectively. Among the 150 patients in whom the final virological response was determined, only genotype TT in rs8099917 was identified as a pretreatment predictor (P = 7.38 × 10−4). Achievement of a rapid virological response (RVR), defined as undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 of treatment, was identified as an after-starting-treatment predictor (P = 2.47 × 10−5). However, neither a substitution in core aa 70 nor the number of substitutions in the ISDR affected treatment outcome. Hiroshi Abe, Akihito Tsubota, Noritomo Shimada, Masanori Atsukawa, Keizo Kato, Koichi Takaguchi, Toru Asano, Yoshimichi Chuganji, Choitsu Sakamoto, Hidenori Toyoda, Takashi Kumada, Tatsuya Ide, Michio Sata, and Yoshio Aizawa Copyright © 2014 Hiroshi Abe et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Evaluation of Specific Oral Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Ascertained versus Potential Coeliac Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study Wed, 13 Aug 2014 12:27:59 +0000 Patients involved on coeliac disease (CD) have atypical symptoms and often remain undiagnosed. Specific oral manifestations are effective risk indicators of CD and for this reason an early diagnosis with a consequent better prognosis can be performed by the dentist. There are not researches analysing the frequency of these oral manifestations in potential coeliac patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the oral hard and soft tissue lesions in potential and ascertained coeliac children in comparison with healthy controls. 50 ascertained children, 21 potential coeliac patients, and 54 controls were recruited and the oral examination was performed. The overall oral lesions were more frequently present in CD patients than in controls. The prevalence of oral soft tissue lesions was 62% in ascertained coeliac, 76.2% in potential coeliac patients, and 12.96% in controls (). Clinical dental delayed eruption was observed in 38% of the ascertained coeliac and 42.5% of the potential coeliac versus 11.11% of the controls (). The prevalence of specific enamel defects (SED) was 48% in ascertained coeliac and 19% in potential coeliac versus 0% in controls (; ). The SED seem to be genetically related to the histological damage and villous atrophy. Ennio Bramanti, Marco Cicciù, Giada Matacena, Stefano Costa, and Giuseppe Magazzù Copyright © 2014 Ennio Bramanti et al. All rights reserved. Histological Distinction between the Granular and Nongranular Types of Laterally Spreading Tumors of the Colorectum Mon, 11 Aug 2014 12:08:17 +0000 Colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs), which are classified into granular (LST-G) and nongranular (LST-NG) types, are a good indication for endoscopic treatment. In practice, the nongranular type is more difficult to remove endoscopically than the granular type. It might be assumed that some histological differences exist between these subtypes. The objective of this study was to analyze histological features of laterally spreading tumors and compare between the granular and the nongranular types. A total of 32 cases of LSTs resected endoscopically being intramucosal tumors with no previous treatment were analyzed. The disposition of the muscularis mucosae, the vascular density, and the degree of fibrosis of the submucosal layer were determined. The outline of the muscularis mucosae in LST-NG was almost flat, but that of LST-G was wavy. The submucosal vascular density was significantly greater in the LST-NGs (/mm2) than in the LST-Gs (/mm2; ). There was no clear difference in the degree of submucosal fibrosis between the subtypes. A flat disposition of the muscularis mucosae and a more densely vascularized submucosal layer were characteristics of LST-NGs compared to the LST-Gs. These findings may play a role when performing the endoscopic resection of LSTs. Shingo P. Goto, Naoto Sakamoto, Hiroyuki Mitomi, Takashi Murakami, Hideaki Ritsuno, Hiroya Ueyama, Kenshi Matsumoto, Tomoyoshi Shibuya, Taro Osada, Akihito Nagahara, Tatsuo Ogihara, Takashi Yao, and Sumio Watanabe Copyright © 2014 Shingo P. Goto et al. All rights reserved. Small Bowel Endoscopy Diagnostic Yield and Reasons of Obscure GI Bleeding in Chinese Patients Mon, 11 Aug 2014 09:29:18 +0000 Aim. To investigate the diagnostic yield and etiologies of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) using capsule endoscopy (CE) or double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE). Method. We studied the data of 532 consecutive patients with OGIB that were referred to Xinqiao Hospital in Chongqing from December 2005 to January 2012. A lesion that was believed to be the source of the bleeding (ulceration, mass lesion, vascular lesion, visible blood, inflammation, or others) was considered to be a positive finding. We analyzed the diagnostic yield of CE and SBE and the etiologies of OGIB. Result. CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields, at 71.9% (196/231) and 71.8% (251/304), respectively. The most common etiology was erosions/ulceration (27.1%) followed by mass lesion (19.4%) and angiodysplastic/vascular lesions (13.9%). By stratified analysis, we found that erosions/ulceration (27.1%) was the most common etiology for the 21–40-year age group. Mass lesion was the most common etiology in the 41–60-year age group. However, in the >60 years age group, angiodysplastic/vascular lesions were significantly increased compared with the other groups, even though erosions/ulceration was most common. Conclusion. In this study, we found that CE and SBE have similar diagnostic yields and erosions/ulceration was the most common reason for OGIB, followed by mass lesion and angiodysplasias. Ya-Fei He, Ning-Bo Hao, Wu-Chen Yang, Li Yang, Zhong-Li Liao, Chao-Qiang Fan, Jin Yu, Jian-Ying Bai, Shi-Ming Yang, and Hong Guo Copyright © 2014 Ya-Fei He et al. All rights reserved. Hind Right Approach Pancreaticoduodenectomy: From Skill to Indications Sun, 10 Aug 2014 11:55:33 +0000 Background. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the potentially curative treatment for malignant and several benign conditions of the pancreatic head and periampullary region. While performing pancreaticoduodenectomy, early neck division may be impossible or inadequate in case of hepatic artery anatomic variants, suspected involvement of the superior mesenteric vessels, intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, and pancreatic head bleeding pseudoaneurysm. Our work aims to highlight a particular hind right approach pancreaticoduodenectomy in selected indications and assess the preliminary results. Methods. We describe our early hind right approach to the retropancreatic vasculature during pancreaticoduodenectomy by mesopancreas dissection before any pancreatic or digestive transection. Results. We used this approach in 52 patients. Thirty-two had hepatic artery anatomic variant and 2 had bleeding pancreatic head pseudoaneurysm. The hepatic artery variant was preserved in all cases out of 2 in which arterial reconstruction was performed. In nine patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms the pancreaticoduodenectomy was extended to the body in 6 and totalized in 3 patients. Seven patients with adenocarcinoma involving the portomesenteric axis required venous resection and reconstruction. Conclusions. Early hind right approach is advocated in selected cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy to improve locoregional vascular control and determine, safely and early, whether there is mesopancreas involvement. Stefan Georgescu, Corina Ursulescu, Valentin Titus Grigorean, and Cristian Lupascu Copyright © 2014 Stefan Georgescu et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Usefulness of Real-Time Elastography for Liver Fibrosis in Chronic Viral Hepatitis B and C Sun, 10 Aug 2014 08:58:29 +0000 The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of real-time elastography (RTE) for liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis B (CHB) and C (CHC). Fifty-one and thirty-two of the patients were diagnosed with CHB and CHC, respectively. Enrolled patients underwent liver biopsy and RTE. The FIB-4 index and aspartate transaminase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) were also measured. The liver fibrosis index (LFI) by RTE increased significantly with the Knodell fibrosis stage: for F0, for F1, for F3, and for F4 (). LFI as well as APRI, FIB-4, platelet, albumin, and prothrombin time showed the difference in patients with advanced fibrosis (F3) and those with mild fibrosis (F1). In addition, RTE had better discrimination power between F3 and F4 than between FIB-4 and APRI. In CHC patients, the area under receiver operating characteristic curves of RTE for advanced fibrosis was higher than that in CHB patients (0.795 versus 0.641). RTE is useful for the assessment of advanced fibrosis in patients with CHB and CHC and has better discrimination power than other serologic markers. Young Woon Kim, Jung Hyun Kwon, Jeong Won Jang, Min Ju Kim, Byong Sun Oh, Kyu Won Chung, Eun Su Park, and Soon Woo Nam Copyright © 2014 Young Woon Kim et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Performance of Des-γ-carboxy Prothrombin for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis Wed, 06 Aug 2014 07:37:14 +0000 Background. There have been many reports on des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a promising serum marker in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the results are inconsistent and even conflicting. Methods. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the performance of DCP in the diagnosis of HCC. Following a systematic review of relevant studies, Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to extract data and to calculate the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). Data are presented as forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Results. Twelve studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR, and NLR of DCP for the detection of HCC in the studies included were 71% (95%CI: 68%–73%), 84% (95%CI: 83%–86%), 6.48 (95%CI: 4.22–9.93), and 0.33 (95%CI: 0.25–0.43), respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.8930 and the Q index was 0.8238. Significant heterogeneity was found. Conclusion. This meta-analysis indicated that DCP had moderate diagnostic accuracy in HCC. Further studies with rigorous design, large sample size, and mmultiregional cooperation are needed in the future. Rong Zhu, Jing Yang, Ling Xu, Weiqi Dai, Fan Wang, Miao Shen, Yan Zhang, Huawei Zhang, Kan Chen, Ping Cheng, Chengfen Wang, Yuanyuan Zheng, Jingjing Li, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Dong Wu, and Chuanyong Guo Copyright © 2014 Rong Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Helicobacter pylori and Heat Shock Protein 70 on the Proliferation of Human Gastric Epithelial Cells Tue, 05 Aug 2014 09:42:51 +0000 Infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) changed the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased the expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). However, the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and the roles of HSP70 during the progress need further investigation. Objective. To investigate the effects of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) on the proliferation of human gastric epithelial cells. Methods. H. pylori and a human gastric epithelial cell line (AGS) were cocultured. The proliferation of AGS cells was quantitated by an MTT assay, and the expression of HSP70 in AGS cells was detected by Western blotting. HSP70 expression in AGS cells was silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) to investigate the role of HSP70. The siRNA-treated AGS cells were cocultured with H. pylori and cell proliferation was measured by an MTT assay. Results. The proliferation of AGS cells was accelerated by coculturing with H. pylori for 4 and 8 h, but was suppressed at 24 and 48 h. HSP70 expression was decreased in AGS cells infected by H. pylori for 48 h. The proliferation in HSP70-silenced AGS cells was inhibited after coculturing with H. pylori for 24 and 48 h compared with the control group. Conclusions. Coculture of H. pylori altered the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells and decreased HSP70 expression. HSP70 knockdown supplemented the inhibitory effect of H. pylori on proliferation of epithelial cells. These results indicate that the effects of H. pylori on the proliferation of gastric epithelial cells at least partially depend on the decreased expression of HSP70 induced by the bacterium. Liping Tao, Hai Zou, and Zhimin Huang Copyright © 2014 Liping Tao et al. All rights reserved. Difference in Early Activation of NF-κB and MCP-1 in Acinar-Cell-Rich versus Fibrotic Human Pancreas Exposed to Surgical Trauma and Hypoxia Thu, 24 Jul 2014 11:44:19 +0000 Objectives. Previously we have shown that a pancreas with over 40% acinar cells is exposed to postoperative pancreatitis and other complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Our aim was to analyze the expression of NF-κB and MCP-1 in the cut edge of human pancreas after PD in both acinar-cell-rich and fibrotic pancreata. Methods. Several pancreatic samples from six patients, three with acinar-cell-rich and three with fibrotic pancreata, were exposed to surgical trauma in PD, and thereafter to hypoxemia for 15 minutes, 2–2.5 hours, 4 hours, or 6 hours, to mimic postoperative conditions of the pancreatic remnant in a patient. Immunohistochemical analysis of inflammation markers (NF-κB, MCP-1) was performed. Results. In the acinar-cell-rich pancreata, intra-acinar NF-κB and MCP-1 expression increased from mild at 15 minutes to high during the first 4 hours, whereas in ductal cells MCP-1 staining was highly intense at both time points. Acinar cell NF-κB and MCP-1 expression and ductal cell MCP-1 expression were also observed in the fibrotic pancreata, but the activation remained low throughout the 6 hours. Conclusions. In acinar-cell-rich pancreas, an extensive inflammatory cascade begins almost immediately after surgical trauma. Fibrosis may limit the progression of inflammatory process in pancreas. Matias Laaninen, Merja Bläuer, Juhani Sand, Isto Nordback, and Johanna Laukkarinen Copyright © 2014 Matias Laaninen et al. All rights reserved. Targeting Angiogenesis and Tumor Microenvironment in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Role of Aflibercept Mon, 21 Jul 2014 08:05:25 +0000 In the last decades, we have progressively observed an improvement in therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment with a progressive prolongation of survival. mCRC prognosis still remains poor with low percentage of 5-year survival. Targeted agents have improved results obtained with standard chemotherapy. Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in colorectal cancer growth, proliferation, and metastasization and it has been investigated as a potential target for mCRC treatment. Accordingly, novel antiangiogenic targeted agents bevacizumab, regorafenib, and aflibercept have been approved for mCRC treatment as the result of several phase III randomized trials. The development of a tumor permissive microenvironment via the aberrant expression by tumor cells of paracrine factors alters the tumor-stroma interactions inducing an expansion of proangiogenic signals. Recently, the VELOUR study showed that addition of aflibercept to FOLFIRI regimen as a second-line therapy for mCRC improved significantly OS, PFS, and RR. This molecule represents a valid second-line therapeutic option and its peculiar ability to interfere with placental growth factor (PlGF)/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) axis makes it effective in targeting angiogenesis, inflammatory cells and in overcoming resistances to anti-angiogenic first-line treatment. Here, we discuss about Aflibercept peculiar ability to interfere with tumor microenvironment and angiogenic pathway. Guido Giordano, Antonio Febbraro, Michele Venditti, Serena Campidoglio, Nunzio Olivieri, Katia Raieta, Pietro Parcesepe, Giusy Carmen Imbriani, Andrea Remo, and Massimo Pancione Copyright © 2014 Guido Giordano et al. All rights reserved. Neoadjuvant Therapy in Pancreatic Cancer: An Emerging Strategy Tue, 01 Jul 2014 06:30:57 +0000 Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths among men and women, being responsible for 6% of all cancer-related deaths. Surgical resection offers the only chance of cure, but only 15 to 20 percent of cases are potentially resectable at presentation. In recent years, increasing evidences support the use of neoadjuvant strategies in pancreatic cancer in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer as well as in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PDAC in order to allow early treatment of micrometastatic disease, tumour regression, and reduced risk of peritoneal tumour implantation during surgery. Furthermore, neoadjuvant treatment allows evaluation of tumour response and increases patient’s compliance. However, most evidences in this setting come from retrospective analysis or small case series and in many studies chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapies used were suboptimal. Currently, prospective randomized trials using the most active chemotherapy regimens available are trying to define the real benefit of neoadjuvant strategies compared to conventional adjuvant strategies. In this review, the authors examined available data on neoadjuvant treatment in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer as well as in patients with borderline resectable or locally advanced PDAC and the future directions in this peculiar setting. Alessandro Bittoni, Matteo Santoni, Andrea Lanese, Chiara Pellei, Kalliopi Andrikou, and Cascinu Stefano Copyright © 2014 Alessandro Bittoni et al. All rights reserved. The Application of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Infant Rat Model of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Tue, 01 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 The aim of this study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) to investigate the activated region associated with visceral pain in the brains of infant rats in a model of IBS. Sixteen newborn rats were randomized into an IBS model group and a control group. Those in the IBS group were separated from their mothers and were mechanically immobilized and had rectal sensitization with mustard essential oil for 1 week. The control group had no treatment. After 2 weeks, balloon catheters were inflated with 5 or 10 mL of air in the rectums of both groups. BOLD-fMRI was performed and the data analyzed by imaging software. In the IBS model group, rectal stimulation with 5 mL air distension activated the anterior cingulate cortex, insula cortex (IC), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and thalamus, while 10 mL air significantly activated the ACC, IC, PFC, and thalamus in the model, but not controls. IBS model group was hypersensitive to visceral stimulation by rectal balloon inflation. The major brain areas participating in visceral sensation included the IC, PFC, and thalamus. Xueping Zhu, Xiaoli Zhu, Weichang Chen, and Jianhua Chen Copyright © 2014 Xueping Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Endoscopic Measurement of Polyp Size Using a Novel Calibrated Hood Mon, 30 Jun 2014 08:55:18 +0000 Background. Although the size of colon polyps is an important risk factor for colorectal cancer, a standardized measurement technique has yet to be determined. In clinical practice, most endoscopists estimate polyp size by uncertain visual estimation; however, colonoscopic polypectomy is indicated for adenomatous polyps more than 5 mm in diameter. We have therefore developed a novel calibrated hood that enables accurate measurement of polyp size during colonoscopy. Method. We compared prepolypectomy estimates using the calibrated hood against measurements of preformalin-fixed samples immediately after polypectomy. Results. Sixty-five polyps removed from 44 patients were included in the present study. The mean size of polyps was significantly larger at prepolypectomy (6.06 ± 1.23 mm) than after polypectomy (5.48 ± 1.31 mm, ). Conclusion. Accurately measuring the size of polyps during colonoscopy is important, since polyps are shrunk by polypectomy. Attaching the calibrated hood appears useful in the measurement of polyp size to determine indications for polypectomy in patients with colon polyps. Keiichiro Kume, Tatsuyuki Watanabe, Ichiro Yoshikawa, and Masaru Harada Copyright © 2014 Keiichiro Kume et al. All rights reserved. High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Treatment for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Thu, 26 Jun 2014 06:39:32 +0000 Pancreatic cancer is under high mortality but has few effective treatment modalities. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is becoming an emerging approach of noninvasively ablating solid tumor in clinics. A variety of solid tumors have been tried on thousands of patients in the last fifteen years with great success. The principle, mechanism, and clinical outcome of HIFU were introduced first. All 3022 clinical cases of HIFU treatment for the advanced pancreatic cancer alone or in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy in 241 published papers were reviewed and summarized for its efficacy, pain relief, clinical benefit rate, survival, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS) score, changes in tumor size, occurrence of echogenicity, serum level, diagnostic assessment of outcome, and associated complications. Immune response induced by HIFU ablation may become an effective way of cancer treatment. Comments for a better outcome and current challenges of HIFU technology are also covered. Yufeng Zhou Copyright © 2014 Yufeng Zhou. All rights reserved. A Gastrointestinal Electrical Stimulation System Based on Transcutaneous Power Transmission Technology Wed, 25 Jun 2014 08:49:18 +0000 Electrical stimulation has been suggested as a possible treatment for various functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). This paper presents a transcutaneous power supplied implantable electrical stimulation system. This technology solves the problem of supplying extended power to an implanted electrical stimulator. After implantation, the stimulation parameters can be reprogrammed by the external controller and then transmitted to the implanted stimulator. This would enable parametric studies to investigate the efficacy of various stimulation parameters in promoting gastrointestinal contractions. A pressure detector in the internal stimulator can provide real-time feedback about variations in the gastrointestinal tract. An optimal stimulation protocol leading to cecal contractions has been proposed: stimulation bursts of 3 ms pulse width, 10 V amplitude, 40 Hz frequency, and 20 s duration. The animal experiment demonstrated the functionality of the system and validated the effects of different stimulation parameters on cecal contractions. Bingquan Zhu, Yongbing Wang, Guozheng Yan, Pingping Jiang, and Zhiqiang Liu Copyright © 2014 Bingquan Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Colorectal Polyps in Taiwan Mon, 23 Jun 2014 08:04:07 +0000 Purpose. To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps in a Taiwanese general population. Methods. From January 2009 to December 2011, consecutive asymptomatic subjects undergoing a routine health check-up were evaluated by colonoscopy. The colorectal polyps were assessed, and medical history and demographic data were obtained from each patient. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to search the independent risk factors for asymptomatic hyperplastic and adenomatous colorectal polyps. Results. Of the 1899 asymptomatic subjects, the prevalences of hyperplastic polyps and adenomatous polyps were 11.1% and 16.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed that high body mass index (: OR, 1.32, 95% CI, 1.05–1.71) and current smoking (OR, 1.87, 95% CI, 1.42–2.71) were independent predictors for hyperplastic colorectal polyps. Age over 60 years old (OR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.86–6.51), high body mass index (: OR, 1.75, 95% CI, 1.21–2.71), heavy alcohol consumption (OR, 2.01, 95% CI, 1.02–3.99), and current smoking (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.04–1.58) were independent predictors for adenomatous colorectal polyps. Conclusion. High BMI and smoking are common risk factors for both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. Old age and alcohol consumption are additional risk factors for the development of adenomatous polyps. Fu-Wei Wang, Ping-I Hsu, Hung-Yi Chuang, Ming-Shium Tu, Guang-Yuan Mar, Tai-Ming King, Jui-Ho Wang, Chao-Wen Hsu, Chiu-Hua Chang, and Hui-Chun Chen Copyright © 2014 Fu-Wei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Duodenal Chromogranin A Cell Density as a Biomarker for the Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Mon, 16 Jun 2014 13:01:34 +0000 Background and Aim. Chromogranin A (CgA) is a common marker for endocrine cells. The density of duodenal CgA cells is reduced in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the density of duodenal CgA as a biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. Two hundred and three patients with IBS were recruited (180 females and 23 males; mean age, 36 years; range, 18–66 years). The control group comprised 86 healthy subjects without gastrointestinal complaints (77 females and 9 males; mean age, 38 years; range, 18–67 years). Biopsy samples were taken from the duodenum during gastroscopy. Sections from these biopsy samples were immunostained for CgA using the avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method. CgA cell density was quantified by computerized image analysis. Results. The CgA cell density was lower in IBS-total and in all of the IBS subgroups than in the controls. The sensitivity and specificity for a cutoff of <200 cells/mm2 were 86% and 95%, respectively. Conclusion. The duodenal CgA cell density seems to be a good biomarker for the diagnosis of IBS. It is an inexpensive, simple, and easy-to-use method that does not require sophisticated equipment or considerable experience. Magdy El-Salhy, Odd Helge Gilja, Doris Gundersen, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, and Trygve Hausken Copyright © 2014 Magdy El-Salhy et al. All rights reserved. A Modified Technique Reduced Operative Time of Laparoendoscopic Rendezvous Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography Combined with Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Concomitant Gallstone and Common Bile Ductal Stone Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:44:02 +0000 Laparoendoscopic rendezvous (LERV) endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC+ERCP/LERV) are considered an optimal approach for concomitant gallstones and common bile duct stones. The rendezvous technique is essential for the success of procedure. We applied two different LERV techniques, traditional technique and modified technique, in 60 consecutive cases from January 2011 to November 2012. 32 cases who underwent modified technique (group 1) from February 2012 to November 2012 were retrospectively compared to 28 cases (group 2) who underwent traditional technique from January 2011 to January 2012. There was no significant difference between two groups with respect to preoperative demographic features. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the procedure was successfully performed in 31 cases (96.9%) in group 1 and 24 cases (86.2%) in group 2. The mean operative time and time of endoscopic part were 82.6 ± 19.6 min and 26.5 ± 5.99 min in group 1 which were significantly shorter than those in group 2 (118.0 ± 23.1 min and 58.7 ± 13.3 min, resp.). There was no postoperative pancreatitis and mortality in both groups. The mean hospital stay, blood loss, incidence of complications, and residual stone were of no difference in both groups. This study proved that this modified technique can effectively reduce the operative time and time of endoscopic part of LC+ERCP/LERV compared with traditional technique. Wei Liu, Qunwei Wang, Jing Xiao, Liying Zhao, Jiangsheng Huang, Zhaohui Tan, and Pengfei Li Copyright © 2014 Wei Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan Thu, 12 Jun 2014 10:53:24 +0000 Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan. Daisuke Asaoka, Akihito Nagahara, Mariko Hojo, Hitoshi Sasaki, Yuji Shimada, Takashi Yoshizawa, Taro Osada, and Sumio Watanabe Copyright © 2014 Daisuke Asaoka et al. All rights reserved. Gut Microbiota in HIV Infection: Implication for Disease Progression and Management Thu, 12 Jun 2014 07:02:52 +0000 Survival rates among HIV patients have significantly improved since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV management. However, persistent disease progression and clinical complications in virally suppressed individuals point to additional contributing factors other than HIV replication; microbial translocation is one such factor. The role of underlying commensal microbes and microbial products that traverse the intestinal lumen into systemic circulation in the absence of overt bacteraemia is under current investigation. This review focuses on current knowledge of the complex microbial communities and microbial markers involved in the disruption of mucosal immune T-cells in the promotion of inflammatory processes in HIV infections. Unanswered questions and aims for future studies are addressed. We provide perspective for discussing potential future therapeutic strategies focused on modulating the gut microbiota to abate HIV disease progression. Felix Chinweije Nwosu, Ekaterina Avershina, Robert Wilson, and Knut Rudi Copyright © 2014 Felix Chinweije Nwosu et al. All rights reserved.