Gastroenterology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Psychometrics of the Greek Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire for Measuring HRQL Thu, 30 Jul 2015 12:08:27 +0000 The aim of the present study is to examine psychometric properties such as internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Greek CLDQ. A sample of 366 eligible patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) self-administered the Greek version of the SF-36 Health Survey, the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ), and questions on sociodemographic status and treatment. Child Pugh Score was also collected. Hypothesized scale structure, reliability (Cronbach’s alpha), and construct validity (convergent, discriminant, and known groups) were assessed. Multitrait scaling confirmed scale structure of the CLDQ with good item convergence (100%) and discrimination (84.1%) rates. Cronbach’s alpha rated >0.70 for all scales. Spearman’s correlations between the CLDQ and SF-36 scales assessing similar health-related quality of life dimensions were strong ranging above 0.70 (). Construct validity was confirmed with satisfactory results for known-group comparisons. Most CLDQ scales discriminated significantly between patients according to disease severity, whereas all CLDQ scales discriminated between treatment receivers and nonreceivers. The overall psychometric results for the Greek version of the CLDQ confirmed it as a reliable and valid questionnaire. Evelina Pappa, Fotini Hatzi, Angelos A. Papadopoulos, and Dimitris Niakas Copyright © 2015 Evelina Pappa et al. All rights reserved. Serum Syndecan-1 Levels and Its Relationship to Disease Activity in Patients with Crohn’s Disease Wed, 29 Jul 2015 06:40:27 +0000 Background. Syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a member of the family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans, plays an important role in the resolution of inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between SDC-1 and disease activity in Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods. Serum samples of 54 patients with CD and 30 healthy controls were obtained. First, SDC-1 levels of the CD patients were compared to the control group. Subsequently, SDC-1 levels were analyzed in patients with CD in active and remission periods. Finally, SDC-1 efficacy in predicting disease activity was evaluated by performing correlation analysis between SDC-1 and C-reactive protein (CRP) and Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI). Results. SDC-1 level was higher in the CD group (61.9 ± 42.6 ng/mL) compared with the control group (34.1 ± 8.0 ng/mL) . SDC-1 levels were higher in active CD patients (97.1 ± 40.3 ng/mL) compared with those in remission (33.7 ± 13.5 ng/mL) . A significant positive correlation was found between SDC-1 and CRP (, ) and between SDC-1 and CDAI (, ). Conclusion. Serum levels of SDC-1 are higher in CD compared to the normal population and can be an effective marker of disease severity. Cem Çekiç, Adnan Kırcı, Sezgin Vatansever, Fatih Aslan, Huriye Erbak Yılmaz, Emrah Alper, Mahmut Arabul, Elif Sarıtaş Yüksel, and Belkıs Ünsal Copyright © 2015 Cem Çekiç et al. All rights reserved. Choledochal Cyst in Adults: Etiopathogenesis, Presentation, Management, and Outcome—Case Series and Review Wed, 15 Jul 2015 07:58:07 +0000 Background. Choledochal cyst, a rare congenital cystic dilatation of biliary tree, is uncommon in adults. Their presentations differ from children and surgical management has evolved. Methods. A retrospective review of the records of all the patients above 15 years, who underwent therapeutic intervention in our hospital, was carried out. Results. Ten cases of choledochal cyst were found; 8 female, with mean age 31 years. These included 8 cases of Todani type I and one case each of type II and type III. The predominant symptoms were abdominal pain and jaundice. Abdominal mass and past history of cholangitis and pancreatitis were seen in 2 patients. Investigations included ultrasound in 8 patients, CT in 7, ERCP in 3, and MRCP in 5. Surgical intervention included complete excision of the cyst with hepaticojejunostomy and cholecystectomy (type I), excision of the diverticulum (type II), and ERCP sphincterotomy (type III). Malignancy was not seen in any patients. The long-term postoperative complications included cholangitis in two patients. Conclusion. Choledochal cyst is rare in adults. The typical triad of abdominal pain, jaundice, and mass is uncommon in adults. The surgical strategy aims for single stage complete excision of the cyst with hepaticojejunostomy. Norman Oneil Machado, Pradeep J. Chopra, Adil Al-Zadjali, and Shahzad Younas Copyright © 2015 Norman Oneil Machado et al. All rights reserved. Understanding Complete Pathologic Response in Oesophageal Cancer: Implications for Management and Survival Mon, 13 Jul 2015 11:12:59 +0000 Despite significant improvement over recent decades, oesophageal cancer survival rates remain poor. Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by oesophageal resection is mainstay of therapy for resectable oesophageal tumours. Operative morbidity and mortality associated with oesophagectomy remain high and complications arise in up to 60% of patients. Management strategies have moved towards definitive chemoradiotherapy for a number of tumour sites (head and neck, cervical, and rectal) particularly for squamous pathology. We undertook to perform a review of the current status of morbidity and mortality associated with oesophagectomy, grading systems determining pathologic response, and data from clinical trials managing patients with definitive chemoradiotherapy to inform a discussion on the topic. K. E. O’Sullivan, E. T. Hurley, and J. P. Hurley Copyright © 2015 K. E. O’Sullivan et al. All rights reserved. Gastric Electrical Stimulation with the Enterra System: A Systematic Review Sun, 12 Jul 2015 12:35:44 +0000 Background. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES) is a surgically implanted treatment option for refractory gastroparesis. Aim. To systematically appraise the current evidence for the use of gastric electrical stimulation and suggest a method of standardisation of assessment and follow-up in these patients. Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, DISCOVER, and Cochrane Library was conducted using the keywords including gastric electrical stimulation, gastroparesis, nausea, and vomiting and neuromodulation, stomach, central nervous system, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, and gastrointestinal. Results. 1139 potentially relevant articles were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included. The quality of studies was variable. There was a variation in outcome measures and follow-up methodology. Included studies suggested significant reductions in symptom severity reporting over the study period, but improvements in gastric emptying time were variable and rarely correlated with symptom improvement. Conclusion. The evidence in support of gastric electrical stimulation is limited and heterogeneous in quality. While current evidence has shown a degree of efficacy in these patients, high-quality, large clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this therapy and to identify the patients for whom this therapy is inappropriate. A consensus view on essential preoperative assessment and postoperative measurement is needed. Nikhil Lal, Sam Livemore, Declan Dunne, and Iftikhar Khan Copyright © 2015 Nikhil Lal et al. All rights reserved. Role of the Surgical Method in Development of Postoperative Cholangiocarcinoma in Todani Type IV Bile Duct Cysts Thu, 09 Jul 2015 14:29:20 +0000 Background. Our purpose was to investigate the association between the surgical approach for Todani type IV cysts and subsequent malignancy rate. Methods. The records of patients who received cyst excision from 1994 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively for the following data: demographics, presenting symptoms, postoperative outcomes, malignant transformation, and follow-up reexaminations, including imaging, laboratory, and tumor marker tests. Results. Seven of the 196 patients initially treated at our hospital developed postoperative biliary malignancy, and the surgical approaches were extrahepatic bile duct cyst resection combined with hilar cholangioplasty and Roux-en-Y cystojejunostomy (), and intra- and extrahepatic bile duct cyst resection and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy (). The overall malignancy rate was 3.6% (7/196). Forty-eight patients initially treated at other hospitals developed malignancy postoperatively: 15 (31.2%) remained untreated and 33 (68.8%) had undergone incomplete resection procedures. Because Todani type IV cysts were seen in 268 patients, the postoperative malignancy rate of this group of patients was 12.3% (33/268). Conclusions. Radical resection of both intra- and extrahepatic cysts combined with hepatic resection and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is associated with a reduced risk of subsequent cancer development. Procedures in which radical cyst excision is not performed are associated with a greater risk of subsequent malignancy. Hong-tian Xia, Tao Yang, Bin Liang, Jian-ping Zeng, and Jia-hong Dong Copyright © 2015 Hong-tian Xia et al. All rights reserved. Technical Aspects of Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy for Benign and Malignant Disease: Review of the Literature Thu, 09 Jul 2015 08:21:45 +0000 Distal pancreatectomy is the standard curative treatment for symptomatic benign, premalignant, and malignant disease of the pancreatic body and tail. The most obvious benefits of a laparoscopic approach to distal pancreatectomy include earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy should be attempted in case of benign disease. Spleen preservation can be achieved preferably by preserving the splenic vessels (Kimura technique), but also by resecting the splenic vessels and maintaining vascularity through the short gastric vessels and left gastroepiploic artery (Warshaw technique). Several studies have suggested a higher rate of spleen preservation with laparoscopy. The radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy has become mainstay for treating pancreatic cancer and can be performed laparoscopically as well. Evidence on the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for cancer is scarce. Despite the obvious advantages of laparoscopic surgery, postoperative morbidity remains relatively high, mainly because of the high incidence of pancreatic fistula. For decades, surgeons have tried to prevent these fistulas but to date no strategy has been confirmed to be effective in 2 consecutive randomized studies. Pragmatic multicenter studies focusing on technical aspects of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy are lacking and should be encouraged. T. de Rooij, R. Sitarz, O. R. Busch, M. G. Besselink, and M. Abu Hilal Copyright © 2015 T. de Rooij et al. All rights reserved. Role of the Aspartate Transaminase and Platelet Ratio Index in Assessing Hepatic Fibrosis and Liver Inflammation in Adolescent Patients with HBeAg-Positive Chronic Hepatitis B Sun, 05 Jul 2015 08:50:34 +0000 This study described an index of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) to assess hepatic fibrosis with limited expense and widespread availability compared to the liver biopsy in adolescent patients with CHB. Yu Zhijian, Li Hui, Yao Weiming, Lin Zhanzhou, Chen Zhong, Zheng Jinxin, Wang Hongyan, Deng Xiangbin, Yang Weizhi, Li Duoyun, Liu Xiaojun, and Deng Qiwen Copyright © 2015 Yu Zhijian et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Efficacy of Various Diagnostic Tests for Small Bowel Tumors and Clinical Features of Tumors Missed by Capsule Endoscopy Thu, 02 Jul 2015 11:19:34 +0000 Background. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of various diagnostic tools such as computerized tomography (CT), small bowel follow-through (SBFT), and capsule endoscopy (CE) in diagnosing small bowel tumors (SBTs). Additionally, we aimed to evaluate the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Methods. We retrospectively studied 79 patients with histologically proven SBT. Clinical data were analyzed with particular attention to the efficacy of CT, SBFT, and CE in detecting SBT preoperatively. We also analyzed the clinical features of SBTs missed by CE. Results. The most common symptoms of SBT were bleeding (43%) and abdominal pain (13.9%). Diagnostic yields were as follows: CT detected 55.8% of proven SBTs; SBFT, 46.1%; and CE, 83.3%. The sensitivity for detecting SBTs was 40.4% for CT, 43.9% for SBFT, and 79.6% for CE. Two patients with nondiagnostic but suspicious findings on CE and seven patients with negative findings on CE were eventually found to have SBT. These nine patients were eventually diagnosed with gastrointestinal stromal tumor (4), small polyps (3), inflammatory fibroid polyp (1), and adenocarcinoma (1). These tumors were located in the proximal jejunum (5), middle jejunum (1), distal jejunum (1), and proximal ileum (1). Conclusion. CE is more efficacious than CT or SBFT for detecting SBTs. However, significant tumors may go undetected with CE, particularly when located in the proximal jejunum. Jung Wan Han, Sung Noh Hong, Hyun Joo Jang, Seong Ran Jeon, Jae Myung Cha, Soo Jung Park, Jung Sik Byeon, Bong Min Ko, Eun Ran Kim, Hwang Choi, and Dong Kyung Chang Copyright © 2015 Jung Wan Han et al. All rights reserved. MELD Score Is Not Related to Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Wed, 01 Jul 2015 12:35:29 +0000 This study investigates the correlation between SBP and repeated paracentesis, and its relation to MELD score, in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites in an outpatient setting. Through the data base, 148 cirrhotic patients were prospectively included in the study with refractory ascites undergoing relief paracentesis from March 2012 to March 2013. Demographics data, etiology of liver disease, MELD score, and inscription on the waiting list for liver transplantation were analyzed. The ascites removed was analyzed through cellular count and culture for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. The cirrhotic patients underwent a total of 854 paracentesis procedures in the ambulatory setting during the study period. Eighty-one patients (54%) were on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Patients on the liver transplant list had higher associated costs due to a higher total number of outpatient paracentesis procedures (394.7 ± 512.3 versus 291.7 ± 384.7) and a higher volume drained per procedure (6.5 ± 8.5 versus 4.8 ± 6.4). There were 28 episodes of SBP (3.3%) diagnosed in 24 patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of asymptomatic SBP in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites undergoing repeated paracentesis is low. MELD score is not related to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Luciana Haddad, Tatiana Morgado Conte, Liliana Ducatti, Lucas Nacif, Luiz Augusto Carneiro D’Albuquerque, and Wellington Andraus Copyright © 2015 Luciana Haddad et al. All rights reserved. Narrow-Band Imaging Magnifying Endoscopy versus Lugol Chromoendoscopy with Pink-Color Sign Assessment in the Diagnosis of Superficial Esophageal Squamous Neoplasms: A Randomised Noninferiority Trial Wed, 01 Jul 2015 10:48:53 +0000 Previous studies have shown the high diagnostic accuracy of narrow-band imaging magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) and Lugol chromoendoscopy with pink-color sign assessment (LCE-PS) for superficial esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SESCC). However, there has been no controlled trial comparing these two diagnostic techniques. We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial to compare the diagnostic accuracy of NBI-ME and LCE-PS. We recruited patients with, or with a history of, squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region or in the esophagus. They were randomly assigned to either NBI-ME or LCE-PS. When lesions > 5 mm in diameter were found as brownish areas on NBI or as Lugol-voiding lesions (LVL), they were evaluated to determine whether they are SESCC on the basis of the findings of NBI-ME or PS in the LVL. NBI-ME and LCE-PS were completed in 147 patients each. There was no significant difference in all diagnostic values between the two techniques. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME showed a significantly shorter examination time but a larger number of misdiagnosed lesions especially in patients with many irregularly shaped multiform LVLs. Compared with LCE-PS, NBI-ME might be similarly accurate and less invasive, but less reliable in patients with many LVLs, in the diagnosis of SESCC. Kenichi Goda, Akira Dobashi, Noboru Yoshimura, Masayuki Kato, Hiroyuki Aihara, Kazuki Sumiyama, Hirobumi Toyoizumi, Tomohiro Kato, Masahiro Ikegami, and Hisao Tajiri Copyright © 2015 Kenichi Goda et al. All rights reserved. CT Imaging Findings after Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Liver Tumors Mon, 29 Jun 2015 11:31:18 +0000 Purpose. To study radiological response to stereotactic radiotherapy for focal liver tumors. Materials and Methods. In this IRB-approved, HIPAA-compliant study CTs of 68 consecutive patients who underwent stereotactic radiotherapy for liver tumors between 01/2006 and 01/2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Two independent reviewers evaluated lesion volume and enhancement pattern of the lesion and of juxtaposed liver parenchyma. Results. 36 subjects with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), 25 with liver metastases, and seven with cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) were included in study. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 7.1 months for HCC, 6.4 ± 5.1 months for metastases, and 10.1 ± 4.8 months for the CCC. Complete response was seen in 4/36 (11.1%) HCCs and 1/25 (4%) metastases. Partial response (>30% decrease in long diameter) was seen in 25/36 (69%) HCCs, 14/25 (58%) metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Partial response followed by local recurrence (>20% increase in long diameter from nadir) occurred in 2/36 (6%) HCCs and 4/25 (17%) metastases. Liver parenchyma adjacent to the lesion demonstrated a prominent halo of delayed enhancement in 27/36 (78%) of HCCs, 19/21 (91%) of metastases, and 7/7 (100%) of CCCs. Conclusion. Sustainable radiological partial response to stereotactic radiotherapy is most frequent outcome seen in liver lesions. Prominent halo of delayed enhancement of the adjacent liver is frequent finding. Olga R. Brook, Eavan Thornton, Mishal Mendiratta-Lala, Anand Mahadevan, Vassilious Raptopoulos, Alexander Brook, Robert Najarian, Robert Sheiman, and Bettina Siewert Copyright © 2015 Olga R. Brook et al. All rights reserved. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: A New Marker of Renal Function in C-Related End Stage Liver Disease Sun, 28 Jun 2015 11:22:59 +0000 Background/Aims. Renal impairment is a common complication of cirrhosis. Serum creatinine is less sensitive in these patients. Measurement of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the gold standard but time consuming. The aim is to validate plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urinary NGAL (uNGAL) as markers of renal function in patients with HCV related cirrhosis. Patient and Methods. One hundred HCV related end stage liver cirrhosis patients were randomized into two groups: Group I (), patients with GFR < 60 mL/m measured by isotope scanning of the kidney (Renogram), and Group II (), patients with GFR ≥ 60 mL/m. The pNGAL and uNGAL were measured within 2 days of the Renogram. Results. Both groups were matched with age, sex, and Child Pugh score. There was statistically significant difference between both groups regarding serum creatinine (1.98 ± 1.04 versus 1.38 ± 0.88 mg/dL; ) and pNGAL level (5.79 ± 2.06 versus 7.25 ± 3.30 ng/dL; ). Both groups were comparable () for the uNGAL (6.00 ± 0.78 versus 6.03 ± 0.96 ng/mL). Unlike uNGAL, the pNGAL positively correlated with total GFR by Renogram (; ). With a cutoff ≥4 ng/mL, pNGAL had 94.3% sensitivity and 1.5% specificity and PPV = 34, NPV = 33.3, LR+ = −175.1, and LR− = −60.6. Conclusion. The pNGAL is a promising marker of the renal function in patients with cirrhosis. Omkolsoum Mohamed Alhaddad, Ayman Alsebaey, Mohamed Omar Amer, Hala Hany El-Said, and Tary Abdel Hamid Salman Copyright © 2015 Omkolsoum Mohamed Alhaddad et al. All rights reserved. A New Twist to a Chronic HCV Infection: Occult Hepatitis C Wed, 24 Jun 2015 11:14:57 +0000 Background. The prevalence of occult hepatitis C infection (OCI) in the population of HCV-RNA negative but anti-HCV positive individuals is presently unknown. OCI may be responsible for clinically overt recurrent disease following an apparent sustained viral response (SVR) weeks to years later. Purpose. To review the available current literature regarding OCI, prevalence, pathogenic mechanisms, clinical characteristics, and future directions. Data Sources. Searching MEDLINE, article references, and national and international meeting abstracts for the diagnosis of OCI (1990–2014). Data Synthesis. The long-term followup of individuals with an OCI suggests that the infection can be transient with the loss of detectable HCV-RNA in PPBMCs after 12–18 months or alternatively exist intermittently and potentially long term. The ultimate outcome of HCV infection is decided by interplay between host immune responses, antiviral therapies, and the various well-identified viral evasion mechanisms as well as the presence of HCV infection within extrahepatic tissues. Conclusion. The currently widely held assumption of a HCV-cure in individuals having had “SVR” after 8–12 weeks of a course of DAA therapy as recently defined may not be entirely valid. Careful longitudinal followup utilizing highly sensitive assays and unique approaches to viral isolation are needed. Bashar M. Attar and David Van Thiel Copyright © 2015 Bashar M. Attar and David Van Thiel. All rights reserved. Amrubicin Monotherapy for Patients with Platinum-Refractory Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma Tue, 23 Jun 2015 09:46:02 +0000 Objective. Patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) have a poor prognosis. Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is commonly used as first-line treatment; however, the role of salvage chemotherapy remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy and safety of amrubicin monotherapy in patients with platinum-refractory gastroenteropancreatic NEC. Methods. Among 22 patients with advanced gastroenteropancreatic NEC, 10 received amrubicin monotherapy between September 2007 and May 2014 after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. The efficacy and toxicity of the treatment were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Eight males and two females (median age, 67 years (range, 52–78)) received platinum-based chemotherapy, including cisplatin plus irinotecan (, 70%), cisplatin plus etoposide (, 20%), and carboplatin plus etoposide (, 10%) before amrubicin therapy. Median progression-free survival and overall survival after amrubicin therapy were 2.6 and 5.0 months, respectively. Two patients had partial response (20% response rate), and their PFS were 6.2 months and 6.3 months, respectively. Furthermore, NEC with response for amrubicin had characteristics with a high Ki-67 index and receipt of prior chemotherapy with cisplatin and irinotecan. Grade 3-4 neutropenia and anemia were observed in four and five patients, respectively. Conclusion. Amrubicin monotherapy appears to be potentially active and well-tolerated for platinum-refractory gastroenteropancreatic NEC. Takayuki Ando, Ayumu Hosokawa, Hiroki Yoshita, Akira Ueda, Shinya Kajiura, Hiroshi Mihara, Sohachi Nanjo, Haruka Fujinami, Jun Nishikawa, Kohei Ogawa, Takahiko Nakajima, Johji Imura, and Toshiro Sugiyama Copyright © 2015 Takayuki Ando et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Modified Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery on GLP-1, GIP in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Thu, 18 Jun 2015 12:15:39 +0000 The type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most serious diseases that threaten public health. Modified gastric bypass surgery has been applied to the treatment of T2DM patients in the 1990s, but the therapeutic mechanism to this function is still unclear. The aim of this study was to further clarify the effect and the mechanism of modified gastric bypass surgery on glucose metabolism in patients with T2DM. In the study, the incretin indexes and blood glucose indexes were analyzed before surgery and 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery. The results suggested that modified Roux-en-Y gastric bypass can promote GLP-1 secretion in patients with T2DM, while reducing the secretion of GIP. Thus it could effectively control blood glucose of patients with T2DM. Shao-Wei Xiong, Jing Cao, Xian-Ming Liu, Xing-Ming Deng, Zeng Liu, and Fang-Ting Zhang Copyright © 2015 Shao-Wei Xiong et al. All rights reserved. Interferon Treatment of Hepatitis C Reinfection after Liver Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 18 Jun 2015 11:25:44 +0000 Background. Graft reinfection with hepatitis C (HCV) after liver transplantation is a significant problem in transplant hepatology. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness and risk of adverse events of interferon-based therapy with no treatment after liver transplantation. Methods. We searched electronic databases up to July 31, 2013, to obtain relevant research reports that satisfied the inclusion criteria. Meta-analyses were done on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and nonrandomized trials. Results. A meta-analysis was performed on 2 RCTs and 2 cohort studies comprising a total of 326 patients (171 of whom accepted interferon-based antiviral therapy). The treatment group was found to have higher virological response (VR) rates than controls at 12, 24, 48, and 72 weeks. Patients in the antiviral group had higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates and lower mean alanine aminotransferase levels relative to controls at 48 weeks, but more total serious adverse events (AEs) than controls. Conclusions. Interferon-based treatment has some efficacy in the treatment of HCV graft reinfection following liver transplantation. Yaqin Chen, Gang Wu, Hongmin Zhang, Hua Xu, Hong Li, Ling Chen, Yixuan Yang, Peng Hu, Dazhi Zhang, Hong Ren, and Huaidong Hu Copyright © 2015 Yaqin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Contrasting Perspectives of Anesthesiologists and Gastroenterologists on the Optimal Time Interval between Bowel Preparation and Endoscopic Sedation Wed, 17 Jun 2015 11:27:52 +0000 Background. The optimal time interval between the last ingestion of bowel prep and sedation for colonoscopy remains controversial, despite guidelines that sedation can be administered 2 hours after consumption of clear liquids. Objective. To determine current practice patterns among anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists regarding the optimal time interval for sedation after last ingestion of bowel prep and to understand the rationale underlying their beliefs. Design. Questionnaire survey of anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists in the USA. The questions were focused on the preferred time interval of endoscopy after a polyethylene glycol based preparation in routine cases and select conditions. Results. Responses were received from 109 anesthesiologists and 112 gastroenterologists. 96% of anesthesiologists recommended waiting longer than 2 hours until sedation, in contrast to only 26% of gastroenterologists. The main reason for waiting >2 hours was that PEG was not considered a clear liquid. Most anesthesiologists, but not gastroenterologists, waited longer in patients with history of diabetes or reflux. Conclusions. Anesthesiologists and gastroenterologists do not agree on the optimal interval for sedation after last drink of bowel prep. Most anesthesiologists prefer to wait longer than the recommended 2 hours for clear liquids. The data suggest a need for clearer guidelines on this issue. Deepak Agrawal, Javier Marull, Chenlu Tian, and Don C. Rockey Copyright © 2015 Deepak Agrawal et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass for Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 17 Jun 2015 08:15:13 +0000 Background. Controversies on the utility of laparoscopic mini gastric bypass (LMGB) in weight loss and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) control still exist. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. Review Manager was used to perform the meta-analysis and the weighted mean difference (WMD) and/or odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to evaluate the overall size effect. Results. The literature search identified 16 studies for systematic review and 15 articles for meta-analysis. Compared with LAGB, LSG, and LRYGB, LMGB showed significant weight loss [WMD, −6.58 (95% CI, −9.37, −3.79), (LAGB); 2.86 (95% CI, 1.40, 5.83), (LSG); 10.33 (95% CI, 4.30, 16.36), (LRYGB)] and comparable/higher T2DM remission results [86.2% versus 55.6%, (LAGB); 89.1% versus 76.3%, (LAGB); 93.4% versus 77.6%, (LAGB)]; LMGB also had shorter learning curve and less operation time than LRYGB [WMD, −35.2 (95% CI, −46.94, −23.46)]. Conclusions. LMGB appeared to be effective in weight loss and T2DM remission and noninferior to other bariatric surgeries. However, clinical utility of LMGB needs to be further validated by future prospective randomized controlled trials. Yingjun Quan, Ao Huang, Min Ye, Ming Xu, Biao Zhuang, Peng Zhang, Bo Yu, and Zhijun Min Copyright © 2015 Yingjun Quan et al. All rights reserved. Optimal Endpoint of Therapy in IBD: An Update on Factors Determining a Successful Drug Withdrawal Sun, 14 Jun 2015 09:20:37 +0000 Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD) are chronic inflammatory disorders, which require long term treatment to achieve remission and to prevent relapses and cancer. While current therapies are effective in most cases, they can have rare but serious side effects and are often associated with high costs. On the other hand, early discontinuation of an effective treatment may lead to a quick relapse and to complications at the restart of therapy. Therefore it is essential to determine the optimal duration of maintenance therapy, but clear guidelines are missing. The most important questions when deciding whether to continue or withdraw therapy in quiescent UC and CD patients are the efficacy of the continuous treatment to maintain remission in the long term, the frequency and severity of side effects, and the chance of relapse after discontinuation of therapy. This review summarizes the current knowledge on these topics with respect to 5-aminosalicylates, thiopurines, methotrexate, and biological therapies and collects information regarding when and in which specific patient groups, in the absence of risk factors, can withdrawal of therapy be considered without a high risk of relapse. Additionally, the particular aspect of colorectal cancer prevention by current therapies will also be discussed. Anita Annaházi and Tamás Molnár Copyright © 2015 Anita Annaházi and Tamás Molnár. All rights reserved. Diagnosis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Potential Biomarkers Thu, 11 Jun 2015 09:53:59 +0000 Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder diagnosed on symptom-based criteria without inclusion of any objective parameter measurable by known diagnostic methods. Heterogeneity of the disorder and overlapping with more serious organic diseases increase uncertainty for the physician’s work and increase the cost of confirming the diagnosis. This paper is an attempt to summarize the efforts to find adequate biomarkers for irritable bowel syndrome, which should shorten the time to diagnosis and reduce the cost. Most of the reviewed papers were observational studies from secondary care institutions. Since publication of the Rome III criteria in 2006, most recent studies use these for the recruitment of IBS patients. This is a positive step forward as future studies should use the same criteria, facilitating comparison of their results. Among the studied biomarkers, most evidence is provided for fecal calprotectin. Cutoff values for fecal calprotectin have still to be investigated prior to inclusion in the irritable bowel syndrome diagnostic algorithm. Ivana Plavšić, Goran Hauser, Mladenka Tkalčić, Sanda Pletikosić, and Nermin Salkić Copyright © 2015 Ivana Plavšić et al. All rights reserved. Management of Musculoskeletal Manifestations in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Wed, 10 Jun 2015 06:34:34 +0000 Musculoskeletal manifestations are the most common extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases. Some appendicular manifestations are independent of gut inflammation and are treated with standard anti-inflammatory strategies. On the other hand, axial involvement is linked to gut inflammatory activity; hence, there is a considerable amount of treatment overlap. Biological therapies have revolutionized management of inflammatory bowel diseases as well as of associated articular manifestations. Newer mechanisms driving gut associated arthropathy have surfaced in the past decade and have enhanced our interests in novel treatment targets. Introduction of biosimilar molecules is expected in the US market in the near future and will provide an opportunity for considerable cost savings on healthcare. A multidisciplinary approach involving a gastroenterologist, rheumatologist, and physical therapist is ideal for these patients. Tejas Sheth, C. S. Pitchumoni, and Kiron M. Das Copyright © 2015 Tejas Sheth et al. All rights reserved. Retrospective Analysis on the Gallstone Disease after Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer Tue, 09 Jun 2015 11:16:14 +0000 Background. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of gallstone after gastrectomy, risk factors for gallstone formation, and the surgical outcome of cholecystectomy after gastrectomy. Methods. A total of 2480 gastric cancer patients who underwent curative resection at two institutions between January 1997 and December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients’ age, gender, diabetes mellitus, type of gastrectomy, extent of node dissection, and type of reconstruction were evaluated. Results. Gallstone formation occurred in 128 of 2480 (5.2%) patients who had undergone gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The incidence of gallstones was significantly higher after total compared with subtotal gastrectomy. Roux-en-Y reconstruction and lymph node dissection in the hepatoduodenal ligament were associated with a significantly higher incidence. In multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus and reconstruction method were identified as significant risk factors for gallstone development. The proportion of silent stone was higher in the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) group than in the open cholecystectomy (OC) group. Operation time and hospital stay were shorter in the LC group than in the OC group. Conclusions. Diabetes mellitus and Roux-en-Y reconstruction are risk factors for gallstones after gastrectomy. Only a few postoperative complications after subsequent cholecystectomy occurred, even when using a laparoscopic approach. Kyong-Hwa Jun, Ji-Hyun Kim, Jin-Jo Kim, Hyung-Min Chin, and Seung-Man Park Copyright © 2015 Kyong-Hwa Jun et al. All rights reserved. Improved Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rate of Tailored Triple Therapy by Adding Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus in Northeast Region of Thailand: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Mon, 08 Jun 2015 06:49:03 +0000 Background and Aim. To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to Helicobacter pylori eradication in different periods of therapeutic protocol. Methods. Infected patients were randomized to one-week tailored triple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid/metronidazole 400 mg tid if clarithromycin resistant, and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid) with placebo (group 1, ); one week of pretreatment with probiotics (group 2, ); and one week of pretreatment with probiotic followed by one week of the same probiotics after treatment (group 3, ). Result. PP analysis involved 292 patients, 98 in group 1, 97 in group 2, and 97 in group 3. Successful eradication was observed in 229 patients; by PP analysis, the eradication rates were significantly higher (, 95% CI; 0.71–0.97) in group 2 and group 3 than group 1. ITT analysis eradication rates were significantly higher in group 2 and group 3 than group 1 ( 95% CI; 0.72–0.87), and there is no significant difference between the three groups () in terms of adverse events. Conclusion. Adding probiotics before or before and after tailored treatment can improve Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. This trial is registered with Thai Clinical Trials Registry number: TCTR20141209001. Taweesak Tongtawee, Chavaboon Dechsukhum, Wilairat Leeanansaksiri, Soraya Kaewpitoon, Natthawut Kaewpitoon, Ryan A. Loyd, Likit Matrakool, and Sukij Panpimanmas Copyright © 2015 Taweesak Tongtawee et al. All rights reserved. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review Sun, 07 Jun 2015 10:07:35 +0000 Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. Christian J. Wiedermann and Michael Joannidis Copyright © 2015 Christian J. Wiedermann and Michael Joannidis. All rights reserved. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Improves the Quality of Life in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Thu, 04 Jun 2015 08:17:44 +0000 Introduction. To determine the effect of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on quality of life (QoL) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods. Fourteen IBD patients, including 11 Ulcerative colitis (UC) and 3 Crohn’s disease (CD), were treated with FMT via colonoscopy or nasojejunal tube infusion. QoL was measured by IBD Questionnaire (IBDQ). Disease activity and IBDQ were evaluated at enrollment and four weeks after treatment. Patients’ attitude concerning the treatment was also investigated. Results. One patient was excluded due to intolerance. All the other patients finished the study well. Mean Mayo score in UC patients decreased significantly (5.80 ± 1.87 versus 1.50 ± 1.35, ). Mean IBDQ scores of both UC and CD patients increased (135.50 ± 27.18 versus 177.30 ± 20.88, , and 107.33 ± 9.45 versus 149.00 ± 20.07, ) four weeks after fecal microbiota transplantation. There was no correlation between the IBDQ score and Mayo score before and after FMT. Patients refused to take FMT as treatment repeatedly in a short time. Conlusions. Fecal microbiota transplantation improves quality of life significantly in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Yao Wei, Weiming Zhu, Jianfeng Gong, Dong Guo, Lili Gu, Ning Li, and Jieshou Li Copyright © 2015 Yao Wei et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Accuracy of 256-Detector Row Computed Tomography in Detection and Characterization of Incidental Pancreatic Cystic Lesions Tue, 02 Jun 2015 06:39:52 +0000 Purpose. To assess the diagnostic value of 256-detector row MDCT in the characterization of incidentally detected pancreatic cystic lesions (PCLs). Materials and Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 6389 studies performed on a 256-row detector scanner, wherein ≥1 PCLs were incidentally detected. Images from a total of 192 patients (99 females; age range 31–90 years) were analysed referring to morphologic predictive signs of malignancy, including multifocality, inner septa, wall thickening, and mural enhancing nodules. Results. We evaluated 292 PCLs in 192 patients (solitary in 145 and ≥2 in 47; incidence 2.05%). Size ranged from 3 to 145 mm (mean 15 mm); body was the most common location (87/292; 29.8%). Intralesional septa were detected in 52/292 lesions (17.8%), wall thickening >2 mm in 13 (4.5%), enhancing wall and mural nodules in 15 (5.1%) and 12 (4.1%), respectively. Communication with ductal system was evident in 45 cases. The most common diagnoses, established by histology or imaging analysis, were IPMNs (about 86%), while serous cystic neoplasia (3.7%) and metastases (0.5%) were the less common. Conclusion. MDCT provides detailed features for characterization of PCLs, which are incidentally discovered with increased frequency due to the widespread use of cross-sectional imaging. D. Ippolito, P. Allegranza, P. A. Bonaffini, C. Talei Franzesi, F. Leone, and S. Sironi Copyright © 2015 D. Ippolito et al. All rights reserved. Short-Term Efficacy of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition in Pediatric Crohn’s Disease: Practice in China Thu, 28 May 2015 11:32:37 +0000 Aims. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) and corticosteroids in inducing remission in pediatric Crohn’s disease (CD) and the effects of the treatment on growth improvements. Methods. Data was retrospectively collected for children and adolescents newly diagnosed with CD in a referral center. Patients who were followed up for more than 2 months with mild to moderate disease were included. Basic demographics, history, physical examination, the pediatric Crohn disease activity index (PCDAI), laboratory findings, endoscopic findings, and adverse effects were recorded. Remission was defined as PCDAI < 10 points. Results. Ten subjects received EEN and 18 patients received corticosteroids. The median follow-up in EEN group and steroid group was 9.2 weeks and 9.6 weeks, respectively. The remission rate in EEN group was significantly higher than that in steroid group (90.0% versus 50.0%, resp., ). Growth improvement, which was evaluated by changes in height for age z-score, was more apparent in EEN group than that in steroids group . No adverse effects were observed in EEN group. Conclusions. In children with mild to moderate CD, EEN is more effective than corticosteroids in improving disease severity and growth deficiency, as well as providing less side effects. Youyou Luo, Jindan Yu, Hong Zhao, Jingan Lou, Feibo Chen, Kerong Peng, and Jie Chen Copyright © 2015 Youyou Luo et al. All rights reserved. Advances in the Endoscopic Management of Obesity Wed, 27 May 2015 09:33:41 +0000 Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic with significant impact on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality rates. Over the past two decades, bariatric surgery has established itself as the most effective and durable treatment for patients with obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, despite the use of minimally invasive techniques, bariatric surgery is associated with complications in approximately 15% of patients, has a substantial cost, and is used by only 1% of patients who are eligible. Therefore, there is a need for effective minimally invasive therapies, which will be utilized by the large proportion of obese patients who are in desperate need of treatment but are not receiving any. Endoscopic approaches to the management of obesity have been developed, with the aim of delivering more effective, durable, and safer methods of weight reduction. In this paper, we review currently available and future endoscopic therapies that will likely join the armamentarium used in the management of obesity. Jason Behary and Vivek Kumbhari Copyright © 2015 Jason Behary and Vivek Kumbhari. All rights reserved. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia Tue, 26 May 2015 11:35:53 +0000 The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC) raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668), already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls), Latvia (81 cases and controls), Lithuania (123 cases and controls), and Poland (795 cases and controls). Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample). Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers. Pablo Serrano-Fernandez, Dagmara Dymerska, Grzegorz Kurzawski, Róża Derkacz, Tatiana Sobieszczańska, Zbigniew Banaszkiewicz, Hanno Roomere, Eneli Oitmaa, Andres Metspalu, Ramūnas Janavičius, Pavel Elsakov, Mindaugas Razumas, Kestutis Petrulis, Arvīds Irmejs, Edvīns Miklaševičs, Rodney J. Scott, and Jan Lubiński Copyright © 2015 Pablo Serrano-Fernandez et al. All rights reserved.