Table 3: Panel (a) reports the results of the paired -test statistics of the null hypothesis against the one-sided alternative , where with .   is the sample average of Δ across the 11 patients submitted to surgery. Panel (b) reports the results of the nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test of the null hypothesis against for , where are the median values.
(a) test.

Variable Std. Err. -test

D1−.1272.1940−0.6560.2633
D3−.5181.2672−1.9390.0406
D7−.9272.3057−3.0330.0063

(b) Rank test.

Variable Std. Dev.Rank test

D14611.2250−1.2030.1146
D35111.2308−1.6030.0545
D75811.2472−2.2230.0131