HPB Surgery http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Extended Perioperative Antibiotic Coverage in Conjunction with Intraoperative Bile Cultures Decreases Infectious Complications after Pancreaticoduodenectomy Mon, 11 Apr 2016 11:33:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/3031749/ Background. Bile contamination from the digestive tract is a well-known risk factor for postoperative complications. Despite the literature concerning prevalence of bacterobilia and fungobilia in patients with biliary pathologies, there are no specific recommendations for perioperative antimicrobial coverage for biliary/pancreatic procedures. We evaluated the effect of at least 72 hours of perioperative broad spectrum antibiotic coverage on outcomes of pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Materials and Methods. A retrospective review of all patients at Case Medical Center of Case Western Reserve University undergoing PD procedure, from 2006 to 2011, was performed (). Perioperative data including demographics, comorbidities, biliary instrumentation, antibiotic coverage, culture results, and postoperative outcomes were analyzed. Propensity score matching method was used to match the patients according to duration of antibiotic coverage into two groups: 72 hours (A72) and 24 hours (A24). Results. Longer broad spectrum antibiotic coverage in group A72 resulted in significantly less surgical site infections after PD, compared to routine 24 hours of perioperative antibiotics in group A24. This study did not reveal a statistically significant decrease in postoperative fungal infections in patients receiving preoperative antifungals. Conclusion. Prolonged perioperative antibiotic therapy in conjunction with intraoperative bile cultures decreases the short-term infectious complications of PD, with no significant increase in Clostridium difficile colitis incidence. Amir H. Fathi, Terence Jackson, Mehdi Barati, Babak Eghbalieh, Kelly A. Siegel, and Christopher T. Siegel Copyright © 2016 Amir H. Fathi et al. All rights reserved. Quality of Life in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Transarterial Chemoembolization Thu, 07 Apr 2016 14:07:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/6120143/ Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Majority of patients with HCC are diagnosed in the advanced stages of disease and hence they are only suitable for palliative therapy. TACE (transarterial chemoembolization) is the most commonly used treatment for unresectable HCC. It is however unclear if TACE improves the quality of life (QoL) in patients with HCC. The aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of TACE on QoL of HCC patients. Saleem Ahmed, Nurun Nisa de Souza, Wang Qiao, Meidai Kasai, Low Jee Keem, and Vishal G. Shelat Copyright © 2016 Saleem Ahmed et al. All rights reserved. Diagnostic Laparoscopy with Ultrasound Still Has a Role in the Staging of Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature Wed, 30 Mar 2016 07:15:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/8092109/ Background. The reported incidence of noncurative laparotomies for pancreatic cancer using standard imaging (SI) techniques for staging remains high. The objectives of this study are to determine the diagnostic accuracy of diagnostic laparoscopy with ultrasound (DLUS) in assessing resectability of pancreatic tumors. Study Design. We systematically searched the literature for prospective studies investigating the accuracy of DLUS in determining resectability of pancreatic tumors. Results. 104 studies were initially identified and 19 prospective studies (1,573 patients) were included. DLUS correctly predicted resectability in 79% compared to 55% for SI. DLUS prevented noncurative laparotomies in 33%. Of those, the most frequent DLUS findings precluding resection were liver metastases, vascular involvement, and peritoneal metastases. DLUS had a morbidity rate of 0.8% with no mortalities. DLUS remained superior to SI when analyzing studies published only in the last five years (100% versus 81%), enrolling patients after the year 2000 (74% versus 58%), or comparing DLUS to modern multidimensional CT (100% versus 78%). Conclusion. DLUS seems to still have a role in the preoperative staging of pancreatic cancer. With its ability to detect liver metastases, vascular involvement, and peritoneal metastases, the use of DLUS leads to less noncurative laparotomies. Jordan Levy, Mehdi Tahiri, Tsafrir Vanounou, Geva Maimon, and Simon Bergman Copyright © 2016 Jordan Levy et al. All rights reserved. The Role of Eugenol in the Prevention of Acute Pancreatitis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury: Experimental Study Sun, 17 Jan 2016 13:46:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2016/3203147/ Aim. Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory intra-abdominal disease, which takes a severe form in 15–20% of patients and can result in high mortality especially when complicated by acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to assess the possible reduction in the extent of acute kidney injury after administration of eugenol in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis. Materials and Methods. 106 male Wistar rats weighing 220–350 g were divided into 3 groups: (1) Sham, with sham surgery; (2) Control, with induction of acute pancreatitis, through ligation of the biliopancreatic duct; and (3) Eugenol, with induction of acute pancreatitis and eugenol administration at a dose of 15 mg/kg. Serum urea and creatinine, histopathological changes, TNF-α, IL-6, and MPO activity in the kidneys were evaluated at predetermined time intervals. Results. The group that was administered eugenol showed milder histopathological changes than the Control group, TNF-α activity was milder in the Eugenol group, and there was no difference in activity for MPO and IL-6. Serum urea and creatinine levels were lower in the Eugenol group than in the Control group. Conclusions. Eugenol administration was protective for the kidneys in an experimental model of acute pancreatitis in rats. Charalampos Markakis, Alexandra Tsaroucha, Apostolos E. Papalois, Maria Lambropoulou, Eleftherios Spartalis, Christina Tsigalou, Konstantinos Romanidis, and Constantinos Simopoulos Copyright © 2016 Charalampos Markakis et al. All rights reserved. Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Pediatric Population: A Population Based Clinical Outcomes Study Involving 257 Patients from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) Database (1973–2011) Wed, 18 Nov 2015 06:49:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/670728/ Introduction. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare pediatric cancer accounting for 0.5% of all pediatric malignancies. This study examines a large cohort of HCC patients in an effort to define the factors impacting clinical outcomes in pediatric HCC patients compared to adults. Methods. Demographic and clinical data on 63,771 HCC patients (257 pediatric patients ≤ 19 and 63,514 adult patients age ≥ 20) were abstracted from the SEER database (1973–2011). Results. HCC was more common among males (59.5% pediatric and 75.1% adults) and Caucasians (50.4% and 50.5%), . Children more often presented with fibrolamellar variant HCC (24.1% versus 0.3%, ) and advanced HCC, including distant disease (33.1% versus 20.8%, ), and tumors > 4 cm in size (79.6% versus 62.0%, ). Pediatric HCC patients undergoing surgery (13.107 versus 8.324 years, ) had longer survival than adult HCC patients. Overall mortality was lower (65.8% versus 82.0%, ) in the pediatric HCC group. Conclusion. HCC is a rare pediatric malignancy that presents most often as an advanced tumor, >4 cm in Caucasian males. Children with HCC achieve significantly longer mean overall survival compared to adults with HCC, primarily attributable to the more favorable fibrolamellar histologic variant, and more aggressive surgical intervention, which significantly improves survival. Christine S. M. Lau, Krishnaraj Mahendraraj, and Ronald S. Chamberlain Copyright © 2015 Christine S. M. Lau et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Diagnostic Angiogram and Endovascular Aortic Stent Placement for Appleby Resection Candidates: A Novel Surgical Technique in the Management of Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Mon, 28 Sep 2015 08:12:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/523273/ Background. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma of the body and tail usually presents late and is typically unresectable. The modified Appleby procedure allows resection of pancreatic body carcinoma with celiac axis (CA) invasion. Given that the feasibility of this technique is based on the presence of collateral circulation, it is crucial to confirm the presence of an anatomical and functional collateral system. Methods. We here describe a novel technique used in two patients who were candidates for Appleby resection. We present their clinical scenario, imaging, operative findings, and postoperative course. Results. Both patients had a preoperative angiogram for assessment of anatomical circulation and placement of an endovascular stent to cover the CA. We hypothesize that this new technique allows enhancement of collateral circulation and helps minimize intraoperative blood loss when transecting the CA at its takeoff. Moreover, extra length on the CA margin may be gained, as the artery can be transected at its origin without the need for vascular clamp placement. Conclusion. We propose this novel technique in the preoperative management of patients who are undergoing a modified Appleby procedure. While further experience with this technique is required, we believe that it confers significant advantages to the current standard of care. N. Trabulsi, J. S. Pelletier, C. Abraham, and T. Vanounou Copyright © 2015 N. Trabulsi et al. All rights reserved. Effect of the Human Amniotic Membrane on Liver Regeneration in Rats Thu, 17 Sep 2015 11:54:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/706186/ Introduction. Operations are performed for broader liver surgery indications for a better understanding of hepatic anatomy/physiology and developments in operation technology. Surgery can cure some patients with liver metastasis of some tumors. Nevertheless, postoperative liver failure is the most feared complication causing mortality in patients who have undergone excision of a large liver mass. The human amniotic membrane has regenerative effects. Thus, we investigated the effects of the human amniotic membrane on regeneration of the resected liver. Methods. Twenty female Wistar albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups and underwent a 70% hepatectomy. The human amniotic membrane was placed over the residual liver in the experimental group. Relative liver weight, histopathological features, and biochemical parameters were assessed on postoperative day 3. Results. Total protein and albumin levels were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. No difference in relative liver weight was observed between the groups. Hepatocyte mitotic count was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Hepatic steatosis was detected in the experimental group. Conclusion. Applying the amniotic membrane to residual liver adversely affected liver regeneration. However, mesenchymal stem cell research has the potential to accelerate liver regeneration investigations. Mesut Sipahi, Sevinç Şahin, Ergin Arslan, Hasan Börekci, Bayram Metin, and Nuh Zafer Cantürk Copyright © 2015 Mesut Sipahi et al. All rights reserved. The Surgical Management of Concomitant Gallbladder and Common Bile Duct Stones Tue, 01 Sep 2015 06:34:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/165068/ Background. The management of choledocholithiasis has evolved from open common bile duct exploration (OCBDE) to therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) to laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE). Each entails a degree of difficulty. Aim. To review 5-year results of bile duct exploration in an UGI unit. Methods. Common bile duct explorations (CBDEs) performed between January 2008 and January 2013 were identified from a prospectively collected clinical audit system and results reviewed retrospectively. Results. 216 CBDEs were performed, 119 (55%) as an emergency and 52 (24%) following failed ERCP. Open CBDE (OCBDE) was performed primarily in 34/216 (16%) patients and attempted laparoscopically in 182 (84%). Fifty nine (32%) Laparoscopic CBDEs (LCBDEs) were converted to OCBDE. Of the remaining 123 LCBDEs, 51 (41%) primary choledochotomies and 72 (59%) primary transcystic CBDEs (TC-CBDEs) were performed. Forty nine (68%) TC-CBDEs were considered successful and 23 (32%) failed. Fifteen failed TC-CBDEs were converted to a successful laparoscopic choledochotomy. Ductal clearance was achieved in 187/216 (87%) patients and retained stones were identified in 20/123 (16%) LCBDEs. Complications occurred in 52/216 (24%) patients. There were 8/216 (4%) bile leaks requiring further intervention. Postoperative ERCP was carried out in 32/216 (15%) patients and 9/216 (4%) required relaparoscopy/laparotomy. No patient died. Conclusions. Successful management of choledocholithiasis requires a breadth of laparoscopic and endoscopic expertise. J. H. Darrien, K. Connor, A. Janeczko, J. J. Casey, and S. Paterson-Brown Copyright © 2015 J. H. Darrien et al. All rights reserved. Feasibility of Comparing the Results of Pancreatic Resections between Surgeons: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Pancreatic Resections Mon, 17 Aug 2015 14:05:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/896875/ Background. Indicators of operative outcomes could be used to identify underperforming surgeons for support and training. The feasibility of identifying HPB surgeons with poor operative performance (“outliers”) based on the results of pancreatic resections is not known. Methods. A systematic review of Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane library was performed to identify studies on pancreatic resection including at least 100 patients and published between 2004 and 2014. Proportions that lay outside the upper 95% and 99.8% confidence intervals based on results of the systematic reviews were considered as “outliers.” Results. In total, 30 studies reporting on 10712 patients were eligible for inclusion in this review. The average short-term mortality after pancreatic resections was 3.1% and proportion of patients with procedure-related complications was 47.0%. None of the classification systems assessed the long-term impact of the complications on patients. The surgeon-specific mortality should be 5 times the average mortality before he or she can be identified as an outlier with 0.1% false positive rate if he or she performs 50 surgeries a year. Conclusions. A valid risk prognostic model and a classification system of surgical complications are necessary before meaningful comparisons of the operative performance between pancreatic surgeons can be made. Kurinchi Gurusamy, Clare Toon, Bhavisha Virendrakumar, Steve Morris, and Brian Davidson Copyright © 2015 Kurinchi Gurusamy et al. All rights reserved. Assessment of Liver Remnant Using ICG Clearance Intraoperatively during Vascular Exclusion: Early Experience with the ALIIVE Technique Wed, 27 May 2015 06:15:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/757052/ Background. The most significant risk following major hepatectomy is postoperative liver insufficiency. Current preoperative assessment of the future liver remnant relies upon assumptions which may not be valid in the setting of advanced resection strategies. This paper reports the feasibility of the ALIIVE technique which assesses the liver remnant with ICG clearance intraoperatively during vascular exclusion. Methods. 10 patients undergoing planned major liver resection (hemihepatectomy or greater) were recruited. Routine preoperative assessment included CT and standardized volumetry. ICG clearance was measured noninvasively using a finger spectrophotometer at various time points including following parenchymal transection during inflow and outflow occlusion before vascular division, the ALIIVE step. Results. There were one case of mortality and three cases of posthepatectomy liver failure. The patient who died had the lowest ALIIVE ICG clearance (7.1%/min versus 14.4 ± 4.9). Routine preoperative CT and standardized volumetry did not predict outcome. Discussion/Conclusion. The novel ALIIVE technique is feasible and assesses actual future liver remnant function before the point of no return during major hepatectomy. This technique may be useful as a check step to offer a margin of safety to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and death. Further confirmatory studies are required to determine a safety cutoff level. Lawrence Lau, Christopher Christophi, Mehrdad Nikfarjam, Graham Starkey, Mark Goodwin, Laurence Weinberg, Loretta Ho, and Vijayaragavan Muralidharan Copyright © 2015 Lawrence Lau et al. All rights reserved. The Changing Spectrum of Surgically Treated Cystic Neoplasms of the Pancreas Mon, 30 Mar 2015 11:39:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/791704/ Introduction. While the incidence of pancreatic cystic lesions has steadily increased, we sought to evaluate the changes in their surgical management. Methods. Patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013 were identified. Clinicopathologic factors were analyzed and compared to a similar cohort from 1992 to 2002. Results. There were 134 patients with pancreatic cystic lesions who underwent surgical resection from 2003 to 2013, compared to 73 from 1992 to 2002. The most common preoperative imaging was a CT scan, although 66% underwent EUS and 63% underwent biopsy. Pathology included 18 serous, 47 mucinous, 11 pseudopapillary, and 58 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). In comparing cohorts, there were significantly fewer serous lesions and more IPMN. Postoperative complication rates were similar, and perioperative mortality rates were comparable. Conclusion. There has been a dramatic change in surgically treated pancreatic cystic tumors over the past two decades. Our data suggests that the incorporation of new imaging and diagnostic tests has led to greater detection of cystic tumors and a decreased rate of potentially unnecessary resections. Therefore, all patients with cystic pancreatic lesions should undergo a focused CT-pancreas, and an EUS biopsy should be considered, in order to best select those that would benefit from surgical resection. Jennifer K. Plichta, Jacqueline A. Brosius, Sam G. Pappas, Gerard J. Abood, and Gerard V. Aranha Copyright © 2015 Jennifer K. Plichta et al. All rights reserved. Surgery for Cystic Pancreatic Lesions in the Post-Sendai Era: A Single Institution Experience Thu, 19 Mar 2015 13:36:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/847837/ Introduction. The management of cystic pancreatic lesions has changed in recent years as a result of increasing knowledge of their biological behaviour, better diagnostic options, and international guidelines. Methods. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 86 patients operated for cystic pancreatic lesions during a seven-year period (2007–2014). Results. Final histopathology revealed 53 intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (19 branch duct IPMNs, 15 mixed type IPMNs, and 19 main duct IPMNs), 14 serous and 13 mucinous cystic neoplasms, 3 solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and 3 other lesions. 4 cases displayed high grade intraepithelial neoplasia and 2 cases displayed invasive cancer. A pylorus-preserving partial duodenopancreatectomy was carried out in 27 patients, a total pancreatectomy was carried out in 9 patients, a left resection was carried out in 42 patients, and segmental resections and enucleations were carried out in 4 patients each. Overall postoperative morbidity and mortality were 40% and 2.3%, respectively. The preoperative diagnosis of a specific cystic tumor was accurate in 79% of patients and 9 patients (10%) could have avoided surgery with the correct preoperative diagnosis. Conclusion. Cystic pancreatic lesions are still a diagnostic challenge, requiring a dedicated multidisciplinary approach. The rate of malignancy is relatively small, whereas postoperative morbidity is substantial, underscoring the importance of adequate patient selection considering both the risk of surgery and the long term risk of malignancy. Jörg Kleeff, Christoph Michalski, Bo Kong, Mert Erkan, Susanne Roth, Jens Siveke, Helmut Friess, and Irene Esposito Copyright © 2015 Jörg Kleeff et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Changed Strategies for Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma in This Millenium Wed, 18 Feb 2015 11:38:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2015/736049/ Background. Cholangiocarcinoma is a cancer with a poor prognosis. In this millennium there are new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for these patients. Aim. The aim of this study was to find if these changes influenced survival of individuals with proximal cholangiocarcinoma. Material. 627 individuals with a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (not including distal common duct cancer) during the period from 2000 to 2011 were registered in Sweden’s Western Region. The material was divided into three consecutive time periods. Results. The overall survival curves for individuals with cholangiocarcinoma improved over the three time periods . Median survival increased from 2.6 months in the first period (2000–2003) to 3.6 months in the final four years (2008–2011). Patients with perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC) had longer median survival than those with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (IHC): 6.8 versus 3.2 months . An improvement in the survival curves over time was seen for those with IHC but not for patients with PHC . Nine percent of the patients with IHC had potential curative surgical therapy. The three-year survival rate after liver resection for patients with IHC was 35% and 60% after liver transplantation. Among patients with PHC, 15.3% had potential curative bile duct resection with a concomitant liver resection and 6.1% bile duct resection alone. The three-year survival rate for these two groups was 32% and 20%, respectively. Conclusion. Overall survival for individuals with PHC was better than for those with IHC. Over time survival in IHC patients improved but not in those with PHC. Per Lindnér, Magnus Rizell, and Lo Hafström Copyright © 2015 Per Lindnér et al. All rights reserved. Laparoscopic versus Open Liver Resection: Differences in Intraoperative and Early Postoperative Outcome among Cirrhotic Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma—A Retrospective Observational Study Thu, 04 Dec 2014 12:07:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/871251/ Introduction. Laparoscopic liver resection is considered risky in cirrhotic patients, even if minor surgical trauma of laparoscopy could be useful to prevent deterioration of a compromised liver function. This study aimed to identify the differences in terms of perioperative complications and early outcome in cirrhotic patients undergoing minor hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma with open or laparoscopic technique. Methods. In this retrospective study, 156 cirrhotic patients undergoing liver resection for hepatocellular carcinoma were divided into two groups according to type of surgical approach: laparoscopy (LS group: 23 patients) or laparotomy (LT group: 133 patients). Perioperative data, mortality, and length of hospital stay were recorded. Results. Groups were matched for type of resection, median number of nodules, and median diameter of largest lesions. Groups were also homogeneous for preoperative liver and renal function tests. Intraoperative haemoglobin decrease and transfusions of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma were significantly lower in LS group. MELD score lasted stable after laparoscopic resection, while it increased in laparotomic group. Postoperative liver and renal failure and mortality were all lower in LS group. Conclusions. Lower morbidity and mortality, maintenance of liver function, and shorter hospital stay suggest the safety and benefit of laparoscopic approach. Antonio Siniscalchi, Giorgio Ercolani, Giulia Tarozzi, Lorenzo Gamberini, Lucia Cipolat, Antonio D. Pinna, and Stefano Faenza Copyright © 2014 Antonio Siniscalchi et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors Associated with Reoperation for Bleeding following Liver Transplantation Thu, 20 Nov 2014 09:25:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/816246/ Introduction. This study’s objective was to identify risk factors associated with reoperation for bleeding following liver transplantation (LTx). Methods. A retrospective study was performed at a single institution between 2001 and 2012. Operative reports were used to identify patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding within 2 weeks following LTx (operations for nonbleeding etiologies were excluded). Results. Reoperation for bleeding was observed in 101/928 (10.8%) of LTx patients. The following characteristics were associated with reoperation on multivariable analysis: recipient MELD score (OR 1.06/MELD unit, 95% CI 1.03, 1.09), number of platelets transfused (OR 0.73/platelet unit, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91), and aminocaproic acid utilization (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27, 0.80). LTx patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding had a longer ICU stay (5 days ± 7 versus 2 days ± 3, ) and hospitalization (18 days ± 9 versus 10 days ± 18, ). The risk of death increased in patients who underwent reoperation for bleeding (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26, 2.85). Conclusion. Reoperation for bleeding following LTx was associated with increased resource utilization and recipient mortality. A lower threshold for intraoperative platelet transfusion and antifibrinolytics, especially in patients with high lab-MELD score, may decrease the incidence of reoperation for bleeding following LTx. Maxwell A. Thompson, David T. Redden, Lindsey Glueckert, A. Blair Smith, Jack H. Crawford, Keith A. Jones, Devin E. Eckhoff, Stephen H. Gray, Jared A. White, Joseph Bloomer, and Derek A. DuBay Copyright © 2014 Maxwell A. Thompson et al. All rights reserved. Primary Leiomyoma of the Liver: A Review of a Rare Tumour Wed, 19 Nov 2014 08:50:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/959202/ Context. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is a rare tumour with uncertain pathogenesis with similar presentation with other tumours of the liver. Little is known about its clinical course. Objectives. To review the literature for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Methods. Extensive literature search was carried out for case reports of primary leiomyoma of the liver. Results. A total of 36 cases of primary leiomyoma of the liver were reviewed. The mean age of presentation is 43 years with slight female sex affectation; females accounted for 55.6% of the cases reported in the literature. The average size of the tumour is 8.7 cm. 34.4% of the cases reviewed were incidental finding with the mean follow-up time of 33 months with most cases reporting no evidence of disease. Conclusions. Primary leiomyoma of the liver is very rare tumour with complex pathogenesis which remains largely unknown. Imaging of the tumour does not allow for a tissue specific diagnosis; hence histological review of the tissue specimen and immunohistochemical stains are imperative for diagnosis. Surgical resection is both diagnostic and curative. The diagnosis of primary leiomyoma of the liver should be considered as a differential in the management of liver tumours. Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale Copyright © 2014 Ayodeji Oluwarotimi Omiyale. All rights reserved. Use of Pharmacologic Agents for Modulation of Ischaemia-Reperfusion Injury after Hepatectomy: A Questionnaire Study of the LiverMetSurvey International Registry of Hepatic Surgery Units Wed, 12 Nov 2014 07:09:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/437159/ Objectives. This study is a questionnaire survey on the use of pharmacological agents to modify liver ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in patients undergoing hepatectomy for colorectal liver metastases with the target population being those units participating in the LiverMetSurvey international registry. Methods. Members of LiverMetSurvey were sent an online questionnaire using SurveyMonkey comprising ten questions on the use of pharmacological agents to modulate hepatic IR injury in the perioperative period after hepatectomy. The questionnaire was sent to 446 clinicians registered with the LiverMetSurvey. There were 83 (19%) respondents. Results. Fifty-two (77% of 68 respondents to this question) never used pharmacological agents to modify liver IR injury during hepatectomy. Thirteen (19%) used pharmacological agents selectively. Three (4%) used these routinely. N-Acetylcysteine was the most widely used pharmacological agent with equal distribution of use around intraoperative and postoperative periods. Conclusions. This is believed to be the first survey on the use of pharmacological agents to modify liver IR injury. The target population is clinicians involved in liver resection. The results show that pharmacological modulation is used by only a minority of respondents to this questionnaire and that when this treatment is selected, N-acetylcysteine is the most frequently used. Santhalingam Jegatheeswaran, Saurabh Jamdar, Thomas Satyadas, Aali J. Sheen, Rene Adam, and Ajith K. Siriwardena Copyright © 2014 Santhalingam Jegatheeswaran et al. All rights reserved. Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center Mon, 10 Nov 2014 11:25:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/575136/ Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. Ibrahim Abdelkader Salama, Hany Abdelmeged Shoreem, Sherif Mohamed Saleh, Osama Hegazy, Mohamed Housseni, Mohamed Abbasy, Gamal Badra, and Tarek Ibrahim Copyright © 2014 Ibrahim Abdelkader Salama et al. All rights reserved. The Interaction between Diabetes, Body Mass Index, Hepatic Steatosis, and Risk of Liver Resection: Insulin Dependent Diabetes Is the Greatest Risk for Major Complications Thu, 14 Aug 2014 08:48:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/586159/ Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between diabetes, obesity, and hepatic steatosis in patients undergoing liver resection and to determine if these factors are independent predictors of major complications. Materials and Methods. Analysis of a prospectively maintained database of patients undergoing liver resection between 2005 and 2012 was undertaken. Background liver was assessed for steatosis and classified as <33% and ≥33%. Major complications were defined as Grade III–V complications using the Dindo-Clavien classification. Results. 504 patients underwent liver resection, of whom 56 had diabetes and 61 had steatosis ≥33%. Median BMI was 26 kg/m2 (16–54 kg/m2). 94 patients developed a major complication (18.7%). BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 () and diabetes () were associated with steatosis ≥33%. Only insulin dependent diabetes was a risk factor for major complications (). Age, male gender, hypoalbuminaemia, synchronous bowel procedures, extent of resection, and blood transfusion were also independent risk factors. Conclusions. Liver surgery in the presence of steatosis, elevated BMI, and non-insulin dependent diabetes is not associated with major complications. Although diabetes requiring insulin therapy was a significant risk factor, the major risk factors relate to technical aspects of surgery, particularly synchronous bowel procedures. M. G. Wiggans, J. T. Lordan, G. Shahtahmassebi, S. Aroori, M. J. Bowles, and D. A. Stell Copyright © 2014 M. G. Wiggans et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Strategy for Isolated Caudate Lobectomy: Experience with 16 Cases Tue, 01 Jul 2014 09:35:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/983684/ Introduction. Surgical resection is the most effective treatment for neoplasm in the caudate lobe. Isolated caudate lobectomy is still a challenge for hepatobiliary surgeons. No widely accepted surgical strategy for the procedure has been developed yet. Objective. To get a better understanding of isolated caudate lobectomy and to optimize the procedure. Materials and Methods. 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were reviewed to summarize the surgical experience. Results. All the 16 cases of isolated caudate lobectomy were carried out successfully, among which left side approach was adopted in two cases (12.5%), right side approach in three cases (18.75%), and both sides approach in 11 cases (68.75%). No severe complications occurred. Conclusion. The majority of neoplasms confined to the caudate lobe can be resected safely by left and right side approach with proper anatomic surgical procedure, usually in the sequence of mobilization, outflow control, inflow control, and division of the hepatic parenchyma. Fully mobilizing the caudate lobe from the inferior vena cava (IVC) is of great importance. Division of the retrohepatic ligament and the venous ligament facilitated the procedure. Gendong Tian, Qiong Chen, Yuan Guo, Mujian Teng, and Jie Li Copyright © 2014 Gendong Tian et al. All rights reserved. The Association between Survival and the Pathologic Features of Periampullary Tumors Varies over Time Tue, 01 Jul 2014 09:32:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/890530/ Introduction. Several histopathologic features of periampullary tumors have been shown to be correlated with prognosis. We evaluated their association with mortality at multiple time points. Methods. A retrospective chart review identified 207 patients with periampullary adenocarcinomas who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2009. Clinicopathologic features were assessed, and the data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate methods. Results. In univariate analysis, perineural invasion had a strong association with 1-year mortality (OR 3.03, CI 1.42–6.47), and one lymph node (LN) increase in the LN ratio (LNR) equated with a 5-fold increase in mortality. In contrast, LN status (OR 6.42, CI 3.32–12.41) and perineural invasion (OR 5.44, CI 2.81–10.52) had the strongest associations with mortality at 3 years. Using Cox proportional hazards, perineural invasion (HR 2.61, CI 1.77–3.85) and LN status (HR 2.69, CI 1.84–3.95) had robust associations with overall mortality. Recursive partitioning analysis identified LNR as the most important risk factor for mortality at 1 and 3 years. Conclusions. Overall mortality was closely related to the LNR within the first year, while longer follow-up periods demonstrated a stronger association with perineural invasion and overall LN status. Therefore, the current staging for periampullary tumors may need to be updated to include the LNR. Jennifer K. Plichta, Anjali S. Godambe, Zachary Fridirici, Sherri Yong, James M. Sinacore, Gerard J. Abood, and Gerard V. Aranha Copyright © 2014 Jennifer K. Plichta et al. All rights reserved. Debakey Forceps Crushing Technique for Hepatic Parenchymal Transection in Liver Surgery: A Review of 100 Cases and Ergonomic Advantages Mon, 09 Jun 2014 11:47:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/861829/ Introduction and Objective. Bleeding is an important complication in liver transections. To determine the safety and efficacy of Debakey forceps for liver parenchymal transection and its ergonomic advantages over clamp crushing method we analysed our data. Methods. We used Debakey crushing technique in 100 liver resections and analysed data for transection time, transfusion rate, morbidity, mortality, hospital stay, influence of different types of liver conditions, and ergonomi features of Debakey forceps. Results. Mean age, transection time and hospital stay of 100 patients were 52.38 ± 17.44 years, 63.36 ± 33.4 minutes, and 10.27 ± 5.7 days. Transection time, and hospital stay in patients with cirrhotic liver (130.4 ± 44.4 mins, 14.6 ± 5.5 days) and cholestatic liver (75.8 ± 19.7 mins, 16.5 ± 5.1 days) were significantly greater than in patients with normal liver (48.1 ± 20.1 mins, 6.7 ± 1.8 days) (). Transection time improved significantly with experience (first fifty versus second fifty cases—70.2 ± 31.1 mins versus 56.5 ± 34.5 mins, ). Qualitative evaluation revealed that Debakey forceps had ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp. Conclusions. Debakey forceps crushing technique is safe and effective for liver parenchymal transection in all kinds of liver. Transection time improves with surgeon’s experience. It has ergonomic advantages over Kelly clamp and is a better choice for liver transection. Sundeep Jain, Bharat Sharma, Mitesh Kaushik, and Lokendra Jain Copyright © 2014 Sundeep Jain et al. All rights reserved. The Prognostic Significance of Lymphatics in Colorectal Liver Metastases Tue, 20 May 2014 08:59:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/954604/ Background. Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is the most common form of cancer diagnosed in Australia across both genders. Approximately, 40%–60% of patients with CRC develop metastasis, the liver being the most common site. Almost 70% of CRC mortality can be attributed to the development of liver metastasis. This study examines the pattern and density of lymphatics in colorectal liver metastases (CLM) as predictors of survival following hepatic resection for CLM. Methods. Patient tissue samples were obtained from the Victorian Cancer Biobank. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the spatial differences in blood and lymphatic vessel densities between different regions within the tumor (CLM) and surrounding host tissue. Lymphatic vessel density (LVD) was assessed as a potential prognostic marker. Results. Patients with low lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre, tumor periphery, and adjacent normal liver demonstrated a significant disease-free survival advantage compared to patients with high lymphatic vessel density (, , and , resp.). Lymphatic vessel density in the tumor centre and periphery and adjacent normal liver was an accurate predictive marker of disease-free survival (). Conclusion. Lymphatic vessel density in CLM appears to be an accurate predictor of recurrence and disease-free survival. Vijayaragavan Muralidharan, Linh Nguyen, Jonathan Banting, and Christopher Christophi Copyright © 2014 Vijayaragavan Muralidharan et al. All rights reserved. Prognostic Factors for Long-Term Survival in Patients with Ampullary Carcinoma: The Results of a 15-Year Observation Period after Pancreaticoduodenectomy Sun, 02 Mar 2014 11:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/970234/ Introduction. Although ampullary carcinoma has the best prognosis among all periampullary carcinomas, its long-term survival remains low. Prognostic factors are only available for a period of 10 years after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify factors that influence the long-term patient survival over a 15-year observation period. Methods. From 1992 to 2007, 143 patients with ampullary carcinoma underwent pancreatic resection. 86 patients underwent pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (60%) and 57 patients underwent standard Kausch-Whipple pancreaticoduodenectomy (40%). Results. The overall 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 79%, 40%, 24%, and 10%, respectively. Within a mean observation period of 30 (0–205) months, 100 (69%) patients died. Survival analysis showed that positive lymph node involvement , lymphatic vessel invasion , intraoperative administration of packed red blood cells , an elevated CA 19-9 , jaundice , and an impaired patient condition are strong negative predictors for a reduced patient survival. Conclusions. Patients with ampullary carcinoma have distinctly better long-term survival than patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Long-term survival depends strongly on lymphatic nodal and vessel involvement. Moreover, a preoperative elevated CA 19-9 proved to be a significant prognostic factor. Adjuvant therapy may be essential in patients with this risk constellation. Fritz Klein, Dietmar Jacob, Marcus Bahra, Uwe Pelzer, Gero Puhl, Alexander Krannich, Andreas Andreou, Safak Gül, and Olaf Guckelberger Copyright © 2014 Fritz Klein et al. All rights reserved. Metabolomic Analysis of Liver Tissue from the VX2 Rabbit Model of Secondary Liver Tumors Sun, 02 Mar 2014 11:17:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/310372/ Purpose. The incidence of liver neoplasms is rising in USA. The purpose of this study was to determine metabolic profiles of liver tissue during early cancer development. Methods. We used the rabbit VX2 model of liver tumors (LT) and a control group consisting of sham animals implanted with Gelfoam into their livers (LG). After two weeks from implantation, liver tissue from lobes with and without tumor was obtained from experimental animals (LT+/LT−) as well as liver tissue from controls (LG+/LG−). Peaks obtained by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry were subjected to identification. 56 metabolites were identified and their profiles compared between groups using principal component analysis (PCA) and a mixed-effect two-way ANOVA model. Results. Animals recovered from surgery uneventfully. Analyses identified a metabolite profile that significantly differs in experimental conditions after controlling the False Discovery Rate (FDR). 16 metabolites concentrations differed significantly when comparing samples from (LT+/LT−) to samples from (LG+/LG−) livers. A significant difference was also shown in 20 metabolites when comparing samples from (LT+) liver lobes to samples from (LT−) liver lobes. Conclusion. Normal liver tissue harboring malignancy had a distinct metabolic signature. The role of metabolic profiles on liver biopsies for the detection of early liver cancer remains to be determined. R. Ibarra, J-E. Dazard, Y. Sandlers, F. Rehman, R. Abbas, R. Kombu, G-F. Zhang, H. Brunengraber, and J. Sanabria Copyright © 2014 R. Ibarra et al. All rights reserved. Preoperative Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MRI and Simultaneous Treatment of Early Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prolonged Recurrence-Free Survival of Progressed Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients after Hepatic Resection Wed, 19 Feb 2014 09:58:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/641685/ Background/Purpose. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether preoperative gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) and simultaneous treatment of suspected early hepatocellular carcinoma (eHCC) at the time of resection for progressed HCC affected patient prognosis following hepatic resection. Methods. A total of 147 consecutive patients who underwent their first curative hepatic resection for progressed HCC were enrolled. Of these, 77 patients underwent EOB-MRI (EOB-MRI (+)) before hepatic resection and the remaining 70 patients did not (EOB-MRI (−)). Suspected eHCCs detected by preoperative imaging were resected or ablated at the time of resection for progressed HCC. Results. The number of patients who underwent treatment for eHCCs was significantly higher in the EOB-MRI (+) than in the EOB-MRI (−) (17 versus 6; ). Recurrence-free survival (1-, 3-, and 5-year; 81.4, 62.6, 48.7% versus 82.1, 41.5, 25.5%, resp., ), but not overall survival (1-, 3-, and 5-year; 98.7, 90.7, 80.8% versus 97.0, 86.3, 72.4%, resp., ), was significantly better in the EOB-MRI (+). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that preoperative EOB-MRI was one of the independent factors significantly correlated with better recurrence-free survival. Conclusions. Preoperative EOB-MRI and simultaneous treatment of eHCC prolonged recurrence-free survival after hepatic resection. Masanori Matsuda, Tomoaki Ichikawa, Hidetake Amemiya, Akira Maki, Mitsuaki Watanabe, Hiromichi Kawaida, Hiroshi Kono, Katsuhiro Sano, Utaroh Motosugi, and Hideki Fujii Copyright © 2014 Masanori Matsuda et al. All rights reserved. A Single Centre Experience of First “One Hundred Laparoscopic Liver Resections” Tue, 11 Feb 2014 09:24:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/930953/ Background. Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) has emerged as an alternative procedure to open liver resection in selected patients. The purpose of this study was to describe our initial experience of 100 patients undergoing LLR. Methods. We analysed a prospectively maintained hepatobiliary database of 100 patients who underwent LLR between August 2007 and August 2012. Clinicopathological data were reviewed to evaluate surgical outcomes following LLR. Results. The median age was 64 and median BMI 27. Patients had a liver resection for either malignant lesions () or benign lesions (). Commonly performed procedures were segmentectomy/metastectomy (), left lateral sectionectomy (LLS) (), or major hepatectomy (). Complete LLR was performed in 84 patients, 9 were converted to open and 7 hand-assisted. The most common indications were CRLM (), followed by hepatic adenoma () or hepatocellular carcinoma (). The median operating time was 240 minutes and median blood loss was 250 mL. Major postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients. The median length of stay (LOS) was 5 days. One patient died within 30 days of liver resection. Conclusions. LLR is a safe and oncologically feasible procedure with comparable short-term perioperative outcomes to the open approach. However, further studies are necessary to determine long-term oncological outcomes. S. Rehman, S. K. P. John, J. J. French, D. M. Manas, and S. A. White Copyright © 2014 S. Rehman et al. All rights reserved. Combined Liver and Multivisceral Resections Tue, 11 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/976546/ Background. Combined liver and multivisceral resections are infrequent procedures, which demand extensive experience and considerable surgical skills. Methods. An electronic search of literature related to this topic published before June 2013 was performed. Results. There is limited scientific evidence of the feasibility and clinical outcomes of these complex procedures. The majority of these cases are simultaneous resections of colorectal tumors with liver metastases. Combined liver and multivisceral resections can be performed with acceptable postoperative morbidity and mortality rates only in carefully selected patients. Conclusion. Lack of experience in these aggressive surgeries justifies a careful selection of patients, considering their comorbidities. Martin de Santibañes, Agustin Dietrich, and Eduardo de Santibañes Copyright © 2014 Martin de Santibañes et al. All rights reserved. Pancreatic Resections in Renal Failure Patients: Is It Worth the Risk? Sun, 09 Feb 2014 13:41:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/938251/ Background. Chronic kidney disease affects 20 million US patients, with nearly 600,000 on dialysis. Long-term survival is limited and the risk of complex pancreatic surgery in this group is questionable. Previous studies are limited to case reports and small case series and a large database may help determine the true risk of pancreatic surgery in this population. Methods. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried (2005–2011) for patients who underwent pancreatic resection. Renal failure was defined as the clinical condition associated with rapid, steadily increasing azotemia (rise in BUN) and increasing creatinine above 3 mg/dL. Operative trends and short-term outcomes were reviewed for those with and without renal failure (RF). Results. In 18,533 patients, 28 had RF. There was no difference in wound infections, neurologic or cardiovascular complications. Compared to non-RF patients, those with RF had more unplanned intubation (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.85–12.89), bleeding requiring transfusion (OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.37–14.21), septic shock (OR 8.86, 95% CI 3.75–20.91), higher 30-day mortality (21.4% versus 2.3%, ) and longer hospital stay (23 versus 12 days, ). Conclusions. RF patients have much higher morbidity and mortality after pancreatic resections and surgeons should consider this before proceeding. K. S. Norman, S. R. Domingo, and L. L. Wong Copyright © 2014 K. S. Norman et al. All rights reserved. Liver Resections of Isolated Liver Metastasis in Breast Cancer: Results and Possible Prognostic Factors Sun, 19 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/hpb/2014/893829/ Background. Breast cancer liver metastasis is a hematogenous spread of the primary tumour. It can, however, be the expression of an isolated recurrence. Surgical resection is often possible but controversial. Methods. We report on 29 female patients treated operatively due to isolated breast cancer liver metastasis over a period of six years. Prior to surgery all metastases appeared resectable. Liver metastasis had been diagnosed 55 (median, range 1–177) months after primary surgery. Results. Complete resection of the metastases was performed in 21 cases. The intraoperative staging did not confirm the preoperative radiological findings in 14 cases, which did not generally lead to inoperability. One-year survival rate was 86% in resected patients and 37.5% in nonresected patients. Significant prognostic factors were R0 resection, low T- and N-stages as well as a low-grade histopathology of the primary tumour, lower number of liver metastases, and a longer time interval between primary surgery and the occurrence of liver metastasis. Conclusions. Complete resection of metastases was possible in three-quarters of the patients. Some of the studied factors showed a prognostic value and therefore might influence indication for resection in the future. Malte Weinrich, Christel Weiß, Jochen Schuld, and Bettina M. Rau Copyright © 2014 Malte Weinrich et al. All rights reserved.