About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 963513, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/963513
Review Article

Chlamydia trachomatis Vaccine Research through the Years

Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium

Received 17 January 2011; Revised 13 April 2011; Accepted 2 May 2011

Academic Editor: J. Paavonen

Copyright © 2011 Katelijn Schautteet et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. WHO, Global Prevalence and Incidence of Selected Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Overviews and Estimates, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1996.
  2. C. Bébéar and B. de Barbeyrac, “Genital Chlamydia trachomatis infections,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 4–10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. R. C. Brunham and J. Rey-Ladino, “Immunology of Chlamydia infection: implications for a Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 149–161, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. J. F. Peipert, “Genital chlamydial infections,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 349, no. 25, pp. 2424–2430, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  5. G. F. Gonzales, G. Muñoz, R. Sánchez et al., “Update on the impact of Chlamydia trachomatis infection on male fertility,” Andrologia, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–23, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. W. E. Stamm, “Chlamydia trachomatis infections: progress and problems,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. S380–383, 1999. View at Scopus
  7. A. I. A. Ibrahim, A. Refeidi, and A. A. El Mekki, “Etiology and clinical features of acute epididymo-orchitis,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171–174, 1996. View at Scopus
  8. D. Taylor-Robinson and B. J. Thomas, “The role of Chlamydia trachomatis in genital-tract and associated diseases,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 205–233, 1980. View at Scopus
  9. A. E. Washington and P. Katz, “Cost of and payment source for pelvic inflammatory disease: trends and projections, 1983 through 2000,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 266, no. 18, pp. 2565–2569, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Westrom, R. Joesoef, G. Reynolds, A. Hagdu, and S. E. Thompson, “Pelvic inflammatory disease and fertility: a cohort study of 1,844 women with laparoscopically verified disease and 657 control women with normal laparoscopic results,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 185–192, 1992. View at Scopus
  11. R. J. Belland, M. A. Scidmore, D. D. Crane et al., “Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 24, pp. 13984–13989, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  12. D. E. Nelson, D. P. Virok, H. Wood et al., “Chlamydial IFN-γ immune evasion is linked to host infection tropism,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 30, pp. 10658–10663, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  13. L. L. Perry, H. Su, K. Feilzer et al., “Differential sensitivity of distinct Chlamydia trachomatis isolates to IFN-γ-mediated inhibition,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 3541–3548, 1999. View at Scopus
  14. M. Johansson, K. Schön, M. Ward, and N. Lycke, “Genital tract infection with Chlamydia trachomatis fails to induce protective immunity in gamma interferon receptor-deficient mice despite a strong local immunoglobulin a response,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 1032–1044, 1997. View at Scopus
  15. J. M. Lyons, J. I. Ito, A. S. Peña, and S. A. Morré, “Differences in growth characteristics and elementary body associated cytotoxicity between Chlamydia trachomatis oculogenital serovars D and H and Chlamydia muridarum,” Journal of Clinical Pathology, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 397–401, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  16. I. G. M. van Valkengoed, S. A. Morré, A. J. C. van den Brule, C. J. L. M. Meijer, L. M. Bouter, and A. J. P. Boeke, “Overestimation of complication rates in evaluations of Chlamydia trachomatis screening programmes—implications for cost-effectiveness analyses,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 416–425, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. S. G. Morrison, C. M. Farris, G. L. Sturdevant, W. M. Whitmire, and R. P. Morrison, “Murine Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is unaltered by depletion of CD4+ T cells and diminished adaptive immunity,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 203, no. 8, pp. 1120–1128, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  18. R. C. Brunham, D. J. Zhang, X. Yang, and G. M. McClarty, “The potential for vaccine development against chlamydial infection and disease,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 181, no. 6, pp. S538–S543, 2000. View at Scopus
  19. L. Hafner, K. Beagley, and P. Timms, “Chlamydia trachomatis infection: host immune responses and potential vaccines,” Mucosal Immunology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 116–130, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. S. A. Morré, J. M. Lyons, J. Ito, and R. P. Morrison, “Murine models of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: use of mouse pneumonitis strain versus human strains,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 7209–7211, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. P. Morrison, K. Feilzer, and D. B. Tumas, “Gene knockout mice establish a primary protective role for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted responses in Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 4661–4668, 1995. View at Scopus
  22. S. G. Morrison, H. Su, H. D. Caldwell, and R. P. Morrison, “Immunity to murine Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract reinfection involves B cells and CD4(+) T cells but not CD8(+) T cells,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 6979–6987, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. G. Morrison and R. P. Morrison, “Resolution of secondary Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection in immune mice with depletion of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 2643–2649, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  24. H. Su and H. D. Caldwell, “CD4(+) T cells play a significant role in adoptive immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis infection of the mouse genital tract,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 3302–3308, 1995. View at Scopus
  25. S. G. Morrison and R. P. Morrison, “A predominant role for antibody in acquired immunity to chlamydial genital tract reinfection,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 11, pp. 7536–7542, 2005. View at Scopus
  26. T. W. Cotter, K. H. Ramsey, G. S. Miranpuri, C. E. Poulsen, and G. I. Byrne, “Dissemination of Chlamydia trachomatis chronic genital tract infection in gamma interferon gene knockout mice,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 2145–2152, 1997. View at Scopus
  27. L. L. Perry, K. Feilzer, and H. D. Caldwell, “Immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis is mediated by T helper 1 cells through IFN-γ-dependent and -independent pathways,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 158, no. 7, pp. 3344–3352, 1997. View at Scopus
  28. B. E. Batteiger, F. Xu, R. E. Johnson, and M. L. Rekart, “Protective immunity to Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection: evidence from human studies,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 201, supplement 2, pp. S178–S189, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Agrawal, V. Vats, P. K. Wallace, S. Salhan, and A. Mittal, “Cervical cytokine responses in women with primary or recurrent chlamydial infection,” Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 221–226, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  30. J. N. Arno, V. A. Ricker, B. E. Batteiger, B. P. Katz, V. A. Caine, and R. B. Jones, “Interferon-γ in endocervical secretions of women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 162, no. 6, pp. 1385–1389, 1990. View at Scopus
  31. W. M. Geisler, “Duration of untreated, uncomplicated Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection and factors associated with chlamydia resolution: a review of human studies,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 201, supplement 2, pp. S104–S113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  32. T. Agrawal, V. Vats, S. Salhan, and A. Mittal, “Mucosal and peripheral immune responses to chlamydial heat shock proteins in women infected with Chlamydia trachomatis,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 148, no. 3, pp. 461–468, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  33. S. Ghaem-Maghami, G. Ratti, M. Ghaem-Maghami et al., “Mucosal and systemic immune responses to plasmid protein pgp3 in patients with genital and ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 132, no. 3, pp. 436–442, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. S. Pate, S. R. Hedges, D. A. Sibley, M. W. Russell, E. W. Hook, and J. Mestecky, “Urethral cytokine and immune responses in Chlamydia trachomatis-infected males,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 7178–7181, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  35. J. Mestecky, Z. Moldoveanu, and M. W. Russell, “Immunologic uniqueness of the genital tract: challenge for vaccine development,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 208–214, 2005. View at Scopus
  36. E. L. Johansson, L. Wassén, J. Holmgren, M. Jertborn, and A. Rudin, “Nasal and vaginal vaccinations have differential effects on antibody responses in vaginal and cervical secretions in humans,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 7481–7486, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  37. P. A. Kozlowski, S. B. Williams, R. M. Lynch et al., “Differential induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses in women after nasal, rectal, or vaginal immunization: influence of the menstrual cycle,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 1, pp. 566–574, 2002. View at Scopus
  38. S. Van Drunen Littel-Van Den Hurk, V. Gerdts, B. I. Loehr et al., “Recent advances in the use of DNA vaccines for the treatment of diseases of farmed animals,” Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 13–28, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. C. Brunham, D. J. Zhang, X. Yang, and G. M. McClarty, “The potential for vaccine development against chlamydial infection and disease,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 181, no. 6, supplement 3, pp. S538–S543, 2000. View at Scopus
  40. A. J. Stagg, “Vaccines against Chlamydia: approaches and progress,” Molecular Medicine Today, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 166–173, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. P. E. Shewen, R. C. Povey, and M. R. Wilson, “A comparison of the efficacy of a live and four inactivated vaccine preparations for the protection of cats against experimental challenge with Chlamydia psittaci,” Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 244–251, 1980. View at Scopus
  42. D. Longbottom and M. Livingstone, “Vaccination against chlamydial infections of man and animals,” Veterinary Journal, vol. 171, no. 2, pp. 263–275, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. E. M. Peterson, J. Z. You, V. Motin, and L. M. De La Maza, “Intranasal immunization with Chlamydia trachomatis, serovar E, protects from a subsequent vaginal challenge with the homologous serovar,” Vaccine, vol. 17, no. 22, pp. 2901–2907, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Su, R. Messer, W. Whitmire, S. Hughes, and H. D. Caldwell, “Subclinical chlamydial infection of the female mouse genital tract generates a potent protective immune response: implications for development of live attenuated chlamydial vaccine strains,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 192–196, 2000. View at Scopus
  45. N. Olivares-Zavaleta, W. Whitmire, D. Gardner, and H. D. Caldwell, “Immunization with the attenuated plasmidless Chlamydia trachomatis L2(25667R) strain provides partial protection in a murine model of female genitourinary tract infection,” Vaccine, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 1454–1462, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. H. Yu, K. P. Karunakaran, I. Kelly et al., “Immunization with live and dead Chlamydia muridarum induces different levels of protective immunity in a murine genital tract model: correlation with MHC class II peptide presentation and multifunctional Th1 cells,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 186, no. 6, pp. 3615–3621, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  47. C. Olive, I. Toth, and D. Jackson, “Technological advances in antigen delivery and synthetic peptide vaccine developmental strategies,” Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 429–438, 2001. View at Scopus
  48. J. Hess, U. Schaible, B. Raupach, and S. H. E. Kaufmann, “Exploiting the immune system: toward new vaccines against intracellular bacteria,” Advances in Immunology, vol. 75, pp. 1–88, 2000. View at Scopus
  49. H. D. Caldwell, J. Kromhout, and J. Schachter, “Purification and partial characterization of the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 1161–1176, 1981. View at Scopus
  50. S. Pal, I. Theodor, E. M. Peterson, and L. M. De la Maza, “Immunization with an acellular vaccine consisting of the outer membrane complex of Chlamydia trachomatis induces protection against a genital challenge,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 3361–3369, 1997. View at Scopus
  51. S. Pal, I. Theodor, E. M. Peterson, and L. M. De la Maza, “Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis mouse pneumonitis major outer membrane protein can elicit a protective immune response against a genital challenge,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 6240–6247, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. C. Cheng, I. Bettahi, M. I. Cruz-Fisher et al., “Induction of protective immunity by vaccination against Chlamydia trachomatis using the major outer membrane protein adjuvanted with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide coupled to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 44, pp. 6239–6246, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  53. K. A. Cunningham, A. J. Carey, L. Hafner, P. Timms, and K. W. Beagley, “Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein-specific antibodies inhibit in vitro infection but enhance pathology in vivo,” American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 118–126, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  54. J. U. Igietseme and A. Murdin, “Induction of protective immunity against Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection by a vaccine based on major outer membrane protein-lipophilic immune response-stimulating complexes,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 6798–6806, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. D. Longbottom, “Chlamydial vaccine development,” Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 52, no. 7, pp. 537–540, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. Escalante-Ochoa, R. Ducatelle, and F. Haesebrouck, “The intracellular life of Chlamydia psittaci: how do the bacteria interact with the host cell?” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 65–78, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. A. F. Swanson and C. C. Kuo, “Evidence that the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis is glycosylated,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 2120–2125, 1991. View at Scopus
  58. L. J. Berry, D. K. Hickey, K. A. Skelding et al., “Transcutaneous immunization with combined cholera toxin and CpG adjuvant protects against Chlamydia muridarum genital tract infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 1019–1028, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Pal, C. J. Luke, A. G. Barbour, E. M. Peterson, and L. M. De La Maza, “Immunization with the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein, using the outer surface protein A of Borrelia burgdorferi as an adjuvant, can induce protection against a chlamydial genital challenge,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 13-14, pp. 1455–1465, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. G. Sun, S. Pal, J. Weiland, E. M. Peterson, and L. M. de la Maza, “Protection against an intranasal challenge by vaccines formulated with native and recombinant preparations of the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 36, pp. 5020–5025, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  61. D. K. Hickey, F. E. Aldwell, and K. W. Beagley, “Transcutaneous immunization with a novel lipid-based adjuvant protects against Chlamydia genital and respiratory infections,” Vaccine, vol. 27, no. 44, pp. 6217–6225, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  62. P. Ralli-Jain, D. Tifrea, C. Cheng, S. Pal, and L. M. de la Maza, “Enhancement of the protective efficacy of a Chlamydia trachomatis recombinant vaccine by combining systemic and mucosal routes for immunization,” Vaccine, vol. 28, no. 48, pp. 7659–7666, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  63. M. Tuffrey, F. Alexander, W. Conlan, C. Woods, and M. Ward, “Heterotypic protection of mice against chlamydial salpingitis and colonization of the lower genital tract with a human serovar F isolate of Chlamydia trachomatis by prior immunization with recombinant serovar L1 major outer-membrane protein,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 138, no. 8, pp. 1707–1715, 1992. View at Scopus
  64. A. K. Murthy, J. P. Chambers, P. A. Meier, G. Zhong, and B. P. Arulanandam, “Intranasal vaccination with a secreted chlamydial protein enhances resolution of genital Chlamydia muridarum infection, protects against oviduct pathology, and is highly dependent upon endogenous gamma interferon production,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 666–676, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  65. F. Follmann, A. W. Olsen, K. T. Jensen, P. R. Hansen, P. Andersen, and M. Theisen, “Antigenic profiling of a Chlamydia trachomatis gene-expression library,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 197, no. 6, pp. 897–905, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  66. A. W. Olsen, F. Follmann, K. Jensen et al., “Identification of CT521 as a frequent target of Th1 cells in patients with urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 194, no. 9, pp. 1258–1266, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  67. D. K. Hickey, F. E. Aldwell, and K. W. Beagley, “Oral immunization with a novel lipid-based adjuvant protects against genital Chlamydia infection,” Vaccine, vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 1668–1672, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  68. S. C. Knight, S. Iqball, C. Woods, A. Stagg, M. E. Ward, and M. Tuffrey, “A peptide of Chlamydia trachomatis shown to be a primary T-cell epitope in vitro induces cell-mediated immunity in vivo,” Immunology, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 8–15, 1995. View at Scopus
  69. H. Su, M. Parnell, and H. D. Caldwell, “Protective efficacy of a parenterally administered MOMP-derived synthetic oligopeptide vaccine in a murine model of Chlamydia trachomatis genital tract infection: serum neutralizing IgG antibodies do not protect against chlamydial genital tract infection,” Vaccine, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1023–1032, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. A. M. Watts and R. C. Kennedy, “DNA vaccination strategies against infectious diseases,” International Journal for Parasitology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1149–1163, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. B. Ulmer, T. M. Fu, R. R. Deck et al., “Protective CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells against influenza virus induced by vaccination with nucleoprotein DNA,” Journal of Virology, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 5648–5653, 1998. View at Scopus
  72. V. Dufour, “DNA vaccines: new applications for veterinary medicine,” Veterinary Sciences Tomorrow, vol. 1, pp. 1–19, 2001.
  73. H. C. J. Ertl and Z. Q. Xiang, “Genetic immunization,” Viral Immunology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 1996. View at Scopus
  74. T. Martin, S. E. Parker, R. Hedstrom et al., “Plasmid DNA malaria vaccine: the potential for genomic integration after intramuscular injection,” Human Gene Therapy, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 759–768, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  75. L. A. Babiuk, R. Pontarollo, S. Babiuk, B. Loehr, and S. Van Drunen Littel-van den Hurk, “Induction of immune responses by DNA vaccines in large animals,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 7-8, pp. 649–658, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Pal, K. M. Barnhart, Q. Wei, A. M. Abai, E. M. Peterson, and L. M. De La Maza, “Vaccination of mice with DNA plasmids coding for the Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein elicits an immune response but fails to protect against a genital challenge,” Vaccine, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 459–465, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. J. Zhang, X. Yang, C. Shen, H. Lu, A. Murdin, and R. C. Brunham, “Priming with Chlamydia trachomatis major outer membrane protein (MOMP) DNA followed by MOMP ISCOM boosting enhances protection and is associated with increased immunoglobulin A and Th1 cellular immune responses,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 3074–3078, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. K. Schautteet, Epidemiological Research on Chlamydiaceae in Pigs and Evaluation of a Chlamydia trachomatis DNA vaccine, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 2010.
  79. K. Schautteet, E. Stuyven, D. S. A. Beeckman et al., “Protection of pigs against Chlamydia trachomatis challenge by administration of a MOMP-based DNA vaccine in the vaginal mucosa,” Vaccine, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 1399–1407, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  80. D. Vanrompay, T. Q. T. Hoang, L. De Vos et al., “Specific-pathogen-free pigs as an animal model for studying Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 73, no. 12, pp. 8317–8321, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  81. M. Donati, V. Sambri, M. Comanducci et al., “DNA immunization with pgp3 gene of Chlamydia trachomatis inhibits the spread of chlamydial infection from the lower to the upper genital tract in C3H/HeN mice,” Vaccine, vol. 21, no. 11-12, pp. 1089–1093, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Comanducci, R. Cevenini, A. Moroni et al., “Expression of a plasmid gene of Chlamydia trachomatis encoding a novel 28 kDa antigen,” Journal of General Microbiology, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 1083–1092, 1993. View at Scopus
  83. G. O. Ifere, Q. He, J. U. Igietseme et al., “Immunogenicity and protection against genital Chlamydia infection and its complications by a multisubunit candidate vaccine,” Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 188–200, 2007. View at Scopus
  84. Z. Li, S. Wang, Y. Wu, G. Zhong, and D. Chen, “Immunization with chlamydial plasmid protein pORF5 DNA vaccine induces protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection in mice,” Science in China C, vol. 51, no. 11, pp. 973–980, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  85. R. T. Gray, K. W. Beagley, P. Timms, and D. P. Wilson, “Modeling the impact of potential vaccines on epidemics of sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis infection,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 199, no. 11, pp. 1680–1688, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus