Table 1: Associations between demographic characteristics and Papanicolaou (PAP) testing among Vietnamese women.

Demographic factorsEver had a Pap testOdds Ratios
YesNoSingle factorsMultiple factors by forward selection
No.%No.%Point estimate95% CIbPoint estimate95% CIb

Age:760 52.85678 47.15 *** a ***
 >60 years old243 61.3615338.641.00Reference1.00 Reference
 51–60 years old218 56.9216543.080.830.63~1.110.63**0.45~0.89
 41–50 years old166 53.9014246.100.74**0.54~1.000.51***0.35~0.74
 18–40 years old 133 37.8921862.110.38***0.29~0.520.26***0.17~0.38
Education level738 53.4064446.60 *** ***
 Below high school 211 47.5025152.501.00Reference 1.00 Reference
 High school 472 57.4235042.581.60***1.28~2.02 1.62***1.23~2.14
 Higher education 55 56.12 4343.881.520.98~2.36 2.44***1.35~4.44
Employment status766 53.27 67246.73 *** **
 Employed 493 56.1538543.851.00Reference1.00Reference
 Unemployed 49 33.79 9666.210.40***0.28~0.580.51**0.34~0.78
 Retired 48 66.67 2433.331.560.94~2.601.340.71~2.53
 Homemaker176 51.3116748.690.820.64~1.060.760.56~1.05
English speaking ability 76653.0567846.95 ** ***
 Not at all 26948.4728651.511.00 Reference1.00 Reference
 Not well 45156.7334443.271.39**1.12~1.731.85***1.39~2.47
 Well 46 48.94 4851.061.020.66~1.581.770.97~3.24
Current marital states76553.1367546.88 *** ***
 Married/living as married606 55.8547944.151.00Reference1.00Reference
 Never married 71 37.5711862.430.48***0.35~0.650.53**0.36~0.78
 Divorced/separated 25 39.68 3860.320.52*0.31~0.870.45**0.25~0.82
 Widowed 63 61.76 3938.241.280.84~1.941.300.81~2.10
Born in USA 762 53.0367546.97 *** **
 No705 52.1464747.861.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes 57 67.06 2832.941.87**1.17~2.972.22**1.34~3.66
Years lived in USA76953.0368146.97 ***
 1~10 years22644.5828155.421.00Reference
 11~20 years47656.1337243.871.59***1.28~1.99
 21~35 years6770.532829.472.97***1.85~4.78
English reading ability76252.8867947.12 *
 Not at all 40349.9440450.061.00Reference
 Not well32257.3024042.701.35**1.08~1.67
 Well 3751.393548.611.060.65~1.72

Note: a ***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively;
It was the overall significance when following the factor category names; otherwise, it was the significance of the factor level.
bCI = confidence interval.