Table 2: Associations between Papanicolaou (PAP) testing and access barriers.

Access factors Ever had a Pap testUnadjusted odds ratiosAdjusted odds ratios
YesNo Point estimate 95% CIPoint estimate95% CI
No.%No.%

Current health insurance 76753.26673 46.74 *** a , b ***
 No22435.22412 64.781.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes54367.54261 32.463.83***3.07~4.773.41***2.64~4.39
Have a healthcare provider75353.44656 46.56 *** ***
 No105 31.8222568.181.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes64860.0643139.943.222.48~4.19***2.27***1.67~3.08
Doctor recommendation for testing 73452.92653 47.08 *** ***
 No55046.37627 53.27 1.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes18487.6226 12.388.07***5.27~12.369.00***5.60~14.44
Doctor’s spoken language71157.29530 42.71 ***
 Vietnamese49653.97423 46.031.00Reference1.00Reference
 English and Vietnamese3457.6325 42.371.16**0.68~1.981.64 0.89~3.02
 English18168.8282 31.181.88***1.41~2.52 2.10*** 1.47~2.99
Difficulty getting time off to see doctor75153.38656 46.62 *** ***
 No55856.65427 43.351.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes19345.73229 54.270.65***0.51~0.810.70**0.54~0.89
Preference for doctor’s gender for a vaginal exam76153.7465546.26 *** ***
 Female41854.9343150.771.00Reference1.00Reference
 Male3366.001734.002.00*1.10~3.652.41*1.20~4.85
 Does not matter31059.9620740.041.54***1.24~1.931.62***1.26~2.08

Note: a ***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively.
bIt was the overall significance when following the factor category names; otherwise, it was the significance of the factor level.