Table 3: Associations between Papanicolaou (PAP) testing and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs.

BeliefsTotalEver had a Pap testUnadjusted odds ratiosAdjusted odds ratios
%YesNo Point estimate 95% CIPoint estimate 95% CI
No.%No.%

God or higher power controls cancer76453.5866246.42 *** a , b ***
 Yes21.014849.5015150.501.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know41.126244.6332555.370.820.62~1.090.810.59~1.09
 No37.835465.5618634.441.94***1.46~2.592.06***1.49~2.84
Can have cancer but no symptoms76253.5166246.49 *** ***
 Yes36.634365.7117934.291.00 Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know46.127041.1038758.900.36***0.29~0.460.36***0.27~0.47
 No17.214960.829639.180.810.59~1.110.860.60~1.21
See doctor only when sick76253.5166246.49 *** ***
 Yes65.845948.9347951.071 Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know10.86844.168655.840.830.59~1.160.940.64~1.39
 No23.323570.789729.222.53***1.93~3.313.03***2.21~4.18
Cancer can be cured if detected early76553.6166246.39 *** ***
 Yes49.047868.4822031.521.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know47.326839.6440860.360.30***0.24~0.380.31***0.24~0.40
 No3.71935.853464.150.26***0.14~0.460.27***0.14~0.52
Women 21 or older should have Pap test regularly 76553.8765546.13 *** ***
 Yes 38.238971.7715328.231.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know54.833743.2644256.740.30***0.24~0.380.290.22~0.38
 No7.03939.396060.610.26***0.16~0.400.27***0.17~0.45
Pap test necessary for women not engaging in sexual activities76453.6566046.35 *** ***
 Yes26.126571.2410728.761.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know64.042846.9348453.070.36***0.28~0.460.32***0.23~0.43
 No9.87150.716949.290.42***0.28~0.620.43***0.27~0.67
Women under 21 but sexually active for 3 years need Pap test76453.6965946.31 *** ***
 Yes26.226470.7810952.701.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know62.542147.3046929.220.37***0.29~0.480.32***0.24~0.44
 No11.27949.388150.630.40***0.28~0.590.41***0.27~0.63
Pap test is necessary for women who no longer menstruate75853.4965946.51 *** ***
 Yes68.155357.3141242.691.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know27.017445.5520854.450.62***0.49~0.790.54***0.41~0.70
 No5.03144.293955.710.59*0.36~0.970.680.40~1.18
Cancer affects women of all ages76253.5966046.41 *** ***
 Yes45.644368.2620631.741.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know46.027441.9637958.040.34***0.27~0.420.37***0.28~0.47
 No8.44537.507562.500.28***0.19~0.420.28***0.18~0.44
Pap test can detect cancer early and prolong life76253.6665846.34 *** ***
 Yes45.045370.8918629.111.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know 49.428841.0341458.970.29***0.23~0.360.30***0.23~0.38
 No5.52126.585873.420.15***0.09~0.25016***0.09~0.29
Cancer risk increases with increasing age75953.4566146.55 *** ***
 Yes32.332871.3013228.701.00Reference1.00Reference
 Do not know 59.639046.0445753.960.34***0.27~0.440.33***0.25~0.44
 No8.04136.287263.720.23***0.15~0.350.23***0.15~0.37
Four symptoms of cervical cancer
No. 1 Vaginal bleeding76953.0368146.97 *** ***
 No78.655648.7358551.271.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes21.321368.939631.072.33***1.79~3.051.88***1.39~2.53
No. 2 Unusual vaginal discharge76953.0368146.97 *** ***
 No74.853148.9455451.061.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes25.123865.2112734.791.96***1.53~2.501.70***1.29~2.26
No. 3 Pelvic pain76953.0368146.97 *** *
 No86.464351.3261048.681.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes13.512663.967136.041.68***1.23~2.301.59*1.12~2.27
No. 4 Pain during sexual intercourse76953.0368146.97 * *
 No8.5163851.7059648.301.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes14.813160.658539.351.44*1.07~1.931.340.96~1.88
Ever heard of HPV74453.3065246.70 *** ***
 No77.250246.5757653.431.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes22.724276.107623.903.65***2.75~4.854.49***3.15~6.38

Note: a ***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively.
bIt was the overall significance when following the factor category names; otherwise, it was the significance of the factor level.