Table 4: Associations between Papanicolaou (PAP) testing and HPV-specific knowledge.

Associated factorsEver had a Pap testUnadjusted odds ratiosAdjusted odds ratios
YesNoPoint estimate 95% CIPoint estimate 95% CI
No.%No.%

HPV causes cervical cancer70254.6758245.33
 No44647.3549652.651.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes25674.858625.15 3.312.51~4.36***3.762.70~5.24***
HPV is sexually transmitted68854.4357645.57
 No41446.4647753.541.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes27473.469926.543.192.45~4.16***3.862.78~5.35***
Risk factors for HPV:
(1) Early puberty66754.6755345.33
 No60355.6348144.371.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes6447.067252.940.710.50~1.010.600.39~0.90*
(2) Multiple sexual partners66754.6755345.33
 No45151.1343148.871.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes21663.9112236.091.691.31~2.19***1.781.32~2.40***
(3) Partner has multiple sexual partners66754.6755345.33
 No47951.3945348.611.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes18865.2810034.721.781.35~2.34***1.581.16~2.16**
(4) Early initiation of sexual activity66754.6755345.33
 No54856.0942943.911.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes11948.9712451.030.750.57~1.00*0.700.51~0.96*
(5) Failure to use condoms 66754.6755345.33
 No46956.0336843.971.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes19851.7018548.300.840.66~1.070.750.57~0.99*
(6) Who does HPV affect? 64253.9554846.05
 Men13954.9411445.061.00Reference1.00Reference
 Women25444.2532055.750.650.48~0.88**0.600.43~0.83**
 Both24968.6011431.401.791.29~2.50***1.861.26~2.74***
(7) HPV is symptomatic71154.0760445.93
 Always symptomatic5346.906053.101.00Reference1.00Reference
 Sometimes12374.554225.453.321.99~5.52***3.722.08~6.67***
 Never2626.267373.740.400.23~0.72**0.420.22~0.79**
 Do not know50954.2642945.741.340.91~1.991.531.00~2.36
(8) HPV is rare70154.5158545.49
 No61562.8236437.181.00Reference1.00Reference
 Yes8628.0122171.990.230.17~0.35***0.230.17~0.31***

Note: ***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively.