Table 5: Factors associated with receipt of prior Pap test in multivariate analyses.

Variable groupAssociated factorsForward selection adjusted odds ratios
Point estimation95% CI

Access barriers Doctor recommendation for testing ***
 No1.00Reference
 Yes8.45***5.02~14.23
Current health insurance ***
 No1.00Reference
 Yes3.04***2.25~4.11
Difficulty getting time off to see doctor ***
 No1.00Reference
 Yes0.51***0.38~0.69

Knowledge, attitude, and beliefsPap test can detect cancer early and prolong life ***
 Yes1.00Reference
 Do not know0.53*0.32~0.87
 No0.24***0.12~0.48
Ever heard of HPV ***
 No1.00Reference
 Yes2.37***1.56~3.59
Can have cancer but no symptoms ***
 Yes1.00Reference
 Do not know0.68*0.48~0.97
 No1.470.98~2.21
See doctor only when sick **
 Yes1.00Reference
 Do not know1.210.78~1.89
 No1.85**1.27~2.70
God or higher power controls cancer *
 Yes1.00Reference
 Do not know0.70*0.50~0.98
 No0.55**0.35~0.85
Cancer can be cured if detected early *
 Yes1.00Reference
 Do not know0.75 0.47~1.21
 No0.34**0.16~0.74

Note: All demographic variables significant in the univariate logistic regression model (Table 1) were included in the multivariate model.
***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively.