Table 5: Factors associated with receipt of prior Pap test in multivariate analyses.

Variable groupAssociated factorsForward selection adjusted odds ratios
Point estimation95% CI

Access barriers Doctor recommendation for testing ***
Current health insurance ***
Difficulty getting time off to see doctor ***

Knowledge, attitude, and beliefsPap test can detect cancer early and prolong life ***
 Do not know0.53*0.32~0.87
Ever heard of HPV ***
Can have cancer but no symptoms ***
 Do not know0.68*0.48~0.97
See doctor only when sick **
 Do not know1.210.78~1.89
God or higher power controls cancer *
 Do not know0.70*0.50~0.98
Cancer can be cured if detected early *
 Do not know0.75 0.47~1.21

Note: All demographic variables significant in the univariate logistic regression model (Table 1) were included in the multivariate model.
***, **, *indicating significance levels of 0.001, 0.01, and 0.05, respectively.