Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. The Use of Protease Inhibitors in Pregnancy: Maternal and Fetal Considerations Thu, 05 Nov 2015 08:33:45 +0000 Background. Previous studies examining protease inhibitor use in pregnancy and the rate of preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants have yielded conflicting results. Methods. This was a retrospective study of HIV-infected women who delivered singleton infants at our institution between 1984 and 2014. Women with protease inhibitor use were compared to women on regimens without a protease inhibitor as well as those who received no antepartum antiretroviral therapy. Infants were considered preterm if less than 37 completed weeks of gestation and small-for-gestational-age if less than 10th percentile. Results. During the study period 1,004 pregnancies met inclusion criteria. Of those, 597 received a protease inhibitor as part of their regimen, 230 ART without a protease inhibitor, and 177 no ART. There was no difference in the rate of preterm birth between groups who received ART with or without a protease inhibitor, 14% versus 13%. There was no difference in the rate of small-for-gestational-age infants between the three groups. Use of a protease inhibitor was associated with a greater fall in viral load during pregnancy, . Conclusion. In this population with access to prenatal care and ART, treatment with protease inhibitors was associated with a greater fall in viral load, but not an increase in small or preterm infants. Elaine Duryea, Fiona Nicholson, Sara Cooper, Scott Roberts, Vanessa Rogers, Donald McIntire, Jeanne Sheffield, and Robert Stewart Copyright © 2015 Elaine Duryea et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Viral Load Burden on Pregnancy Loss among HIV-Infected Women in the United States Sun, 25 Oct 2015 06:48:00 +0000 Background. To evaluate the effects of HIV viral load, measured cross-sectionally and cumulatively, on the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (pregnancy loss) among HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2013. Methods. We assessed three exposures: most recent viral load measure before the pregnancy ended, log10 copy-years viremia from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to conception, and log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception. Results. The risk of pregnancy loss for those with log10 viral load >4.00 before pregnancy ended was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 2.56) times as high as the risk for women whose log10 viral load was ≤1.60. There was not a meaningful impact of log10 copy-years viremia since ART or log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception on pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratios (aRRs): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.92) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.11), resp.). Conclusions. Cumulative viral load burden does not appear to be an informative measure for pregnancy loss risk, but the extent of HIV replication during pregnancy, as represented by plasma HIV RNA viral load, predicted loss versus live birth in this ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected US women. Jordan E. Cates, Daniel Westreich, Andrew Edmonds, Rodney L. Wright, Howard Minkoff, Christine Colie, Ruth M. Greenblatt, Helen E. Cejtin, Roksana Karim, Lisa B. Haddad, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Elizabeth T. Golub, and Adaora A. Adimora Copyright © 2015 Jordan E. Cates et al. All rights reserved. A Retrospective Audit of Clinically Significant Maternal Bacteraemia in a Specialist Maternity Hospital from 2001 to 2014 Thu, 01 Oct 2015 09:47:23 +0000 Maternal sepsis is a significant problem in obstetrics, with almost one in four maternal deaths related to severe sepsis. We carried out a retrospective review of clinically significant bacteraemia in obstetric patients attending Rotunda Hospital over 14 years. From 2001 to 2014, there were 252 clinically significant positive blood culture episodes in obstetric patients. There were 112,361 live births >500 g during the study period giving an overall rate of 2.24 clinically significant positive maternal blood culture episodes per 1000 live births >500 g. The median rate over the 14 years was 2.12 episodes per 1000 live births >500 g, with an interquartile range of 1.74–2.43 per 1000 live births >500 g. There was no discernable increasing or decreasing trend over the 14 years. E. coli was the most commonly isolated organism (n = 92/252, 37%), followed by group B Streptococcus (n = 64/252, 25%), Staphylococcus aureus (n = 28/252, 11%), and anaerobes (n = 11/252, 4%). These top four organisms represented three-quarters of all positive blood culture episodes (n = 195/252, 77.3%). Of note, there were only five cases of listeriosis, representing a rate of 4.4 cases per 100,000 live births >500 g. The rate of invasive group A streptococcal infection was also very low at 5.3 cases per 100,000 live births >500 g. Richard John Drew, Zara Fonseca-Kelly, and Maeve Eogan Copyright © 2015 Richard John Drew et al. All rights reserved. Maternal Obesity and Rectovaginal Group B Streptococcus Colonization at Term Sun, 02 Aug 2015 09:52:10 +0000 Objective. To test the hypothesis that maternal obesity is an independent risk factor for rectovaginal group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization at term. Study Design. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive women with singleton term pregnancies admitted in labor at Barnes-Jewish Hospital (2004–2008). Maternal BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2 (obese) or <30 Kg/m2 (nonobese) defined the two comparison groups. The outcome of interest was GBS colonization from a positive culture. Baseline characteristics were compared using Student’s t-test and Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact test. The association between obesity and GBS colonization was assessed using univariable and multivariable analyses. Results. Of the 10,564 women eligible, 7,711 met inclusion criteria. The prevalence of GBS colonization in the entire cohort was relatively high (25.8%). Obese gravidas were significantly more likely to be colonized by GBS when compared with nonobese gravidas (28.4% versus 22.2%, ). Obese gravidas were still 35% more likely than nonobese women to test positive for GBS after adjusting for race, parity, smoking, and diabetes (adjusted OR 1.35 [95% CI 1.21–1.50]). Conclusion. Maternal obesity is a significant risk factor for GBS colonization at term. Further research is needed to evaluate the impact of this finding on risk-based management strategies. Shelby M. Kleweis, Alison G. Cahill, Anthony O. Odibo, and Methodius G. Tuuli Copyright © 2015 Shelby M. Kleweis et al. All rights reserved. Perinatal Outcomes in HIV Positive Pregnant Women with Concomitant Sexually Transmitted Infections Tue, 31 Mar 2015 11:54:15 +0000 Objective. To evaluate whether HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant sexually transmitted infection (STIs) are at increased risk of adverse perinatal and neonatal outcomes. Methods. We conducted a cohort study of HIV positive women who delivered at an inner-city hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, from 2003 to 2013. Demographics, presence of concomitant STIs, prenatal care information, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were collected. The outcomes examined were the association of the presence of concomitant STIs on the risk of preterm birth (PTB), postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, small for gestational age, low Apgar scores, and neonatal intensive care admission. Multiple logistic regression was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. HIV positive pregnant women with concomitant STIs had an increased risk of spontaneous PTB (odds ratio (OR) 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12–3.97). After adjusting for a history of preterm birth, maternal age, and low CD4+ count at prenatal care entry the association between concomitant STIs and spontaneous PTB persisted (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.01–3.78). Conclusions. HIV infected pregnant women with concomitant STIs relative to HIV positive pregnant women without a concomitant STI are at increased risk of spontaneous PTB. Erin Burnett, Tammy L. Loucks, and Michael Lindsay Copyright © 2015 Erin Burnett et al. All rights reserved. Preconception Counseling and Care in the Setting of HIV: Clinical Characteristics and Comorbidities Sun, 08 Mar 2015 12:42:26 +0000 Objective. To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of HIV-infected individuals and HIV-affected couples who were referred for preconception counseling (PCC) at a large urban US-based HIV clinic. Methods. Electronic medical records were reviewed for HIV-infected individuals and HIV-affected couples. Medical, reproductive, surgical, psychosocial, and family history data were abstracted. Univariate analyses were done. Results. There were 8 single HIV-infected women and 100 HIV-affected couples who underwent PCC. HIV-infected women were older (mean age 35 years versus 32 years, ), were more likely to smoke (23% versus 0%, ), and had more medical comorbidities (57% versus 33%, ) than HIV-uninfected women. The majority of couples were serodiscordant (77%), and of these couples, 32% had a detectable plasma viral load and 33% report inconsistent condom use. Conclusions. HIV-infected women have a number of medical and psychosocial issues, including those related to HIV that may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and HIV perinatal and sexual transmission. PCC is an important intervention to optimize maternal management to improve perinatal outcomes and minimize transmission risks. Rupsa C. Boelig, Jenell S. Coleman, Jean Keller, Catherine Sewell, and Jean Anderson Copyright © 2015 Rupsa C. Boelig et al. All rights reserved. Influenza and Pregnancy: A Review of the Literature from India Tue, 24 Feb 2015 12:06:11 +0000 Maternal influenza infection is known to cause substantial morbidity and mortality among pregnant women and young children. Many professional healthcare bodies including the World Health Organization (WHO) have identified pregnant women as a priority risk group for receipt of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination. However influenza prevention in this group is not yet a public health priority in India. This literature review was undertaken to examine the Indian studies of influenza among pregnant women. Eight Indian studies describing influenza burden and/or outcomes among pregnant women with influenza were identified. In most studies, influenza A (pH1N1) was associated with increased maternal mortality (25–75%), greater disease severity, and adverse fetal outcomes as compared to nonpregnant women. Surveillance for seasonal influenza infections along with higher quality prospective studies among pregnant women is needed to quantify disease burden, improve awareness among antenatal care providers, and formulate antenatal influenza vaccine policies. Ashwini Bhalerao-Gandhi, Pankdeep Chhabra, Saurabh Arya, and James Mark Simmerman Copyright © 2015 Ashwini Bhalerao-Gandhi et al. All rights reserved. Pelvic Surgical Site Infections in Gynecologic Surgery Wed, 18 Feb 2015 13:30:32 +0000 The development of surgical site infection (SSI) remains the most common complication of gynecologic surgical procedures and results in significant patient morbidity. Gynecologic procedures pose a unique challenge in that potential pathogenic microorganisms from the skin or vagina and endocervix may migrate to operative sites and can result in vaginal cuff cellulitis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic abscesses. Multiple host and surgical risk factors have been identified as risks that increase infectious sequelae after pelvic surgery. This paper will review these risk factors as many are modifiable and care should be taken to address such factors in order to decrease the chance of infection. We will also review the definitions, microbiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of pelvic SSIs after gynecologic surgery. Mark P. Lachiewicz, Laura J. Moulton, and Oluwatosin Jaiyeoba Copyright © 2015 Mark P. Lachiewicz et al. All rights reserved. Estimating the Attack Rate of Pregnancy-Associated Listeriosis during a Large Outbreak Sun, 15 Feb 2015 07:19:38 +0000 Background. In 2011, a multistate outbreak of listeriosis linked to contaminated cantaloupes raised concerns that many pregnant women might have been exposed to Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis during pregnancy can cause fetal death, premature delivery, and neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Little information is available to guide healthcare providers who care for asymptomatic pregnant women with suspected L. monocytogenes exposure. Methods. We tracked pregnancy-associated listeriosis cases using reportable diseases surveillance and enhanced surveillance for fetal death using vital records and inpatient fetal deaths data in Colorado. We surveyed 1,060 pregnant women about symptoms and exposures. We developed three methods to estimate how many pregnant women in Colorado ate the implicated cantaloupes, and we calculated attack rates. Results. One laboratory-confirmed case of listeriosis was associated with pregnancy. The fetal death rate did not increase significantly compared to preoutbreak periods. Approximately 6,500–12,000 pregnant women in Colorado might have eaten the contaminated cantaloupes, an attack rate of ~1 per 10,000 exposed pregnant women. Conclusions. Despite many exposures, the risk of pregnancy-associated listeriosis was low. Our methods for estimating attack rates may help during future outbreaks and product recalls. Our findings offer relevant considerations for management of asymptomatic pregnant women with possible L. monocytogenes exposure. Maho Imanishi, Janell A. Routh, Marigny Klaber, Weidong Gu, Michelle S. Vanselow, Kelly A. Jackson, Loretta Sullivan-Chang, Gretchen Heinrichs, Neena Jain, Bernadette Albanese, William M. Callaghan, Barbara E. Mahon, and Benjamin J. Silk Copyright © 2015 Maho Imanishi et al. All rights reserved. Acute Infectious Morbidity in Multiple Gestation Mon, 05 Jan 2015 06:32:07 +0000 Objectives. Physiologic and immunologic changes in pregnancy result in increased susceptibility to infection. These shifts are more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by multiple gestation. The objective of this study was to determine the association between multiple gestation and risk of infectious morbidity. Study Design. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2008–2010 was used to identify pregnant women during admission for delivery with International Classification of Diseases codes. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for demographic data, preexisting medical conditions, and acute medical and infectious complications for women with multiple versus singleton gestations. Results. Among women with multiple gestation, 38.4 per 1,000 women had an infectious complication compared to 12.8 per 1,000 women with singletons. The most significant infectious morbidity associated with multiple gestation was intestinal infections, pyelonephritis, influenza, and pneumonia. After controlling for confounding variables, infectious complications at delivery persisted for women with multiples, though the association was dependent on mode of delivery. Conclusions. Women with multiple gestations are at increased risk for infectious morbidity identified at the time of delivery. This association was diminished among women who had a cesarean suggesting that operative delivery is not responsible for this association. Sarah K. Dotters-Katz, Emily Patel, Chad A. Grotegut, and R. Phillips Heine Copyright © 2015 Sarah K. Dotters-Katz et al. All rights reserved. Sexually Transmitted Disease Partner Notification among African-American, Adolescent Women Thu, 25 Dec 2014 13:39:58 +0000 Objective. To better understand preferences and practices regarding partner notification of sexually transmitted infection (STI) among female, African-American adolescents. Methods. Participants completed a questionnaire and STI testing at baseline. Those diagnosed with Chlamydia or gonorrhea were recruited for a follow-up study, involving another questionnaire and repeat STI testing after three months. Results. At baseline, most participants (85.1%) preferred to tell their partner about an STI diagnosis themselves instead of having a health care provider inform him, and 71.0% preferred to bring their partner for clinic treatment instead of giving him pills or a prescription. Two-thirds of participants were classified as having high self-efficacy for partner notification of a positive STI diagnosis. In the multivariable analysis, older participants and those with fewer lifetime sexual partners were more likely to have high self-efficacy. Ninety-three participants (26.6%) had Chlamydia or gonorrhea and, of this subset, 55 participated in the follow-up study. Most adolescents in the follow-up study (76.4%) notified their partner about their infection. Conclusion. Although participants were willing to use most methods of partner notification, most preferred to tell partners themselves and few preferred expedited partner therapy. Traditional methods for partner notification and treatment may not be adequate for all adolescents in this population. Anna Buchsbaum, Maria F. Gallo, Maura K. Whiteman, Carrie Cwiak, Peggy Goedken, Joan Marie Kraft, Denise J. Jamieson, and Melissa Kottke Copyright © 2014 Anna Buchsbaum et al. All rights reserved. Antiviral Treatment among Pregnant Women with Chronic Hepatitis B Sun, 07 Dec 2014 00:10:03 +0000 Objective. To describe the antiviral treatment patterns for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Methods. Using 2011 MarketScan claims, we calculated the rates of antiviral treatment among women (aged 10–50 years) with CHB. We described the pattern of antiviral treatment during pregnancy and ≥1 month after delivery. Results. We identified 6274 women with CHB during 2011. Among these, 64 of 507 (12.6%) pregnant women and 1151 of 5767 (20.0%) nonpregnant women received antiviral treatment (P < 0.01). Pregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (73.4%) and lamivudine (21.9%); nonpregnant women were most commonly prescribed tenofovir (50.2%) and entecavir (41.3%) (P < 0.01). Among 48 treated pregnant women with an identifiable delivery date, 16 (33.3%) were prescribed an antiviral before pregnancy and continued treatment for at least one month after delivery; 14 (29.2%) started treatment during the third trimester and continued at least one month after delivery. Conclusion. Among this insured population, pregnant women with CHB received an antiviral significantly less often than nonpregnant women. The most common antiviral prescribed for pregnant women was tenofovir. These data provide a baseline for assessing changes in treatment patterns with anticipated increased use of antivirals to prevent breakthrough perinatal hepatitis B virus infection. Lin Fan, Kwame Owusu-Edusei Jr., Sarah F. Schillie, and Trudy V. Murphy Copyright © 2014 Lin Fan et al. All rights reserved. Safer Conception Needs for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Burkina Faso and Togo Thu, 23 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Reproductive health programming for female sex workers (FSW) may include contraceptive services but rarely addresses safer pregnancy planning. Methods. Adult FSW were enrolled into a cross-sectional study across four sites in Burkina Faso and Togo using respondent-driven sampling. Sociobehavioral questionnaires and HIV counseling and testing were administered. Sample statistics and engagement in HIV treatment were described and compared using Chi-squared statistics. Results. 1,349 reproductive-aged FSW were enrolled from January to July 2013. Overall, 267 FSW (19.8%) were currently trying to conceive. FSW trying to conceive were more likely to test positive for HIV at enrollment as compared to women not trying to become pregnant (24.5% versus 17.7%, ); however awareness of HIV status was similar across groups. Among FSW trying to conceive, 79.0% (211/267) had previously received HIV testing, yet only 33.8% (23/68) of HIV-infected FSW reported a previous HIV diagnosis. Overall 25.0% (17/68) of HIV-infected FSW trying to conceive were on antiretroviral therapy. Conclusion. FSW frequently desire children. However engagement in the HIV prevention and treatment cascade among FSW trying to conceive is poor potentiating periconception transmission risks to partners and infants. Programs to facilitate earlier HIV diagnosis for FSW and safer conception counseling are needed as components of effective combination HIV prevention services. Sheree R. Schwartz, Erin Papworth, Odette Ky-Zerbo, Simplice Anato, Ashley Grosso, Henri Gautier Ouedraogo, Sosthenes Ketende, Vincent Palokinam Pitche, and Stefan Baral Copyright © 2014 Sheree R. Schwartz et al. All rights reserved. Cervical Dysplasia and High-Risk Human Papillomavirus Infections among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adolescent Females in South Africa Mon, 20 Oct 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. HIV-infected adolescents may be at higher risk for high-grade cervical lesions than HIV-uninfected adolescents. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infections and Pap smear abnormalities between these two groups. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we compared the HPV DNA and Pap smear results between 35 HIV-infected and 50 HIV-uninfected adolescents in order to determine the prevalence of HR-HPV genotypes and cervical cytological abnormalities. Comparisons were made using Pearson and independent-samples t-tests analyses, and associations between demographic and behavioral characteristics and HPV infections were examined. Results. HIV-infected participants were more likely to be infected with any HPV (88.6% versus 48.0%; ) and with at least one HR-HPV (60.0% versus 24.0%; ), and to have multiple concurrent HPV infections (68.6% versus 22.0%; ). HPV 16 and 18 were relatively underrepresented among HR-HPV infections. Abnormal Pap test results were more common among HIV-infected participants (28.8% versus 12.0%; ). A history of smoking was associated with HR-HPV infection. Conclusions. HIV-infected adolescents have an increased risk of infection with HR-HPV and of Pap test abnormalities. The majority of HR-HPV infections among our participants would not be prevented by the currently available vaccinations against HPV. David H. Adler, Melissa Wallace, Thola Bennie, Megan Mrubata, Beau Abar, Tracy L. Meiring, Anna-Lise Williamson, and Linda-Gail Bekker Copyright © 2014 David H. Adler et al. All rights reserved. Antenatal Atazanavir: A Retrospective Analysis of Pregnancies Exposed to Atazanavir Thu, 25 Sep 2014 07:25:08 +0000 Introduction. There are few data regarding the tolerability, safety, or efficacy of antenatal atazanavir. We report our clinical experience of atazanavir use in pregnancy. Methods. A retrospective medical records review of atazanavir-exposed pregnancies in 12 London centres between 2004 and 2010. Results. There were 145 pregnancies in 135 women: 89 conceived whilst taking atazanavir-based combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), “preconception” atazanavir exposure; 27 started atazanavir-based cART as “first-line” during the pregnancy; and 29 “switched” to an atazanavir-based regimen from another cART regimen during pregnancy. Gastrointestinal intolerance requiring atazanavir cessation occurred in five pregnancies. Self-limiting, new-onset transaminitis was most common in first-line use, occurring in 11.0%. Atazanavir was commenced in five switch pregnancies in the presence of transaminitis, two of which discontinued atazanavir with persistent transaminitis. HIV-VL < 50 copies/mL was achieved in 89.3% preconception, 56.5% first-line, and 72.0% switch exposures. Singleton preterm delivery (<37 weeks) occurred in 11.7% preconception, 9.1% first-line, and 7.7% switch exposures. Four infants required phototherapy. There was one mother-to-child transmission in a poorly adherent woman. Conclusions. These data suggest that atazanavir is well tolerated and can be safely prescribed as a component of combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy. Miriam Samuel, Daniel Bradshaw, Melissa Perry, Sum Yee Chan, Rageshri Dhairyawan, Laura Byrne, Katherine Smith, Judith Zhou, Charlotte Eve Short, Claire Naftalin, Ngozi Offodile, Sundhiya Mandalia, Sherie Roedling, Rimi Shah, Gary Brook, Mary Poulton, Mette Rodgers, Liat Sarner, Heather Noble, Philip Hay, Jane Anderson, Macky Natha, David Hawkins, Graham Taylor, and Annemiek de Ruiter Copyright © 2014 Miriam Samuel et al. All rights reserved. Maternal β-Hemolytic Streptococcal Pharyngeal Exposure and Colonization in Pregnancy Wed, 20 Aug 2014 12:57:23 +0000 Objectives. To report the pharyngeal colonization rate of β-hemolytic streptococci and changes in the value of antistreptolysin O (ASO) and anti-DNase B serology titers during pregnancy. Methods. Healthy pregnant women were recruited and blood was drawn in each trimester. The upper limit of normal (ULN) values for ASO and anti-DNase B was calculated for each trimester. Throat swabs were collected for culture and positive cultures were further assessed for the identification of serogroup of the isolated β-hemolytic streptococcus. Results. Out of a total of 126 pregnant women, 34.1% had positive throat cultures. Group C and group G strains were isolated in 18.2% of throat cultures while group F was detected in 13.5% of cases. The rate of colonization with GAS was 1.6%. There was an overall drop in ASO titer during pregnancy while anti-DNase B titers remained relatively unchanged. ULN values of , and were calculated for ASO at the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Based on the ULN values, 28.6% of patients had recent streptococcal exposure. Conclusions. These results show that pregnant women act as a reservoir for spreading potentially immunogenic (groups C and G) and disease producing (group F) virulent strains of streptococci. Giv Heidari-Bateni, Anoop K. Brar, Matthew Hall, Trupti Hathcock, Deirdre Epstein, Lisa S. Goessling, Madeleine W. Cunningham, and Pirooz Eghtesady Copyright © 2014 Giv Heidari-Bateni et al. All rights reserved. Frequent Genital HSV-2 Shedding among Women during Labor in Soweto, South Africa Tue, 20 May 2014 11:31:25 +0000 Background. Despite high herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) incidence and prevalence among women in Africa, we are unaware of published neonatal herpes reports. To assess neonatal HSV transmission potential in South Africa, we investigated the frequency of the strongest risk factors: HSV acquisition in late pregnancy and HSV shedding during labor. Methods. Women admitted in early labor to a hospital in Soweto underwent HSV serologic testing and genital swab collection for HSV PCR. HSV-2 seronegative women were assessed for seroconversion 4–6 weeks after delivery. Results. Of 390 women enrolled, 229 (58.7%) were HSV-2 seropositive. Genital HSV-2 was detected in 17.2% of HSV-2 seropositive women, including 26 of 115 HIV-positive and 13 of 110 HIV-negative women (22.6% versus 11.8%; RR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.04–3.53; ), but in none of 161 HSV-2 seronegative women. Among the 91 HSV-2 seronegative women followed after delivery, none seroconverted. Conclusions. HSV-2 reactivation is common among South African women during labor, especially those with HIV coinfection. To determine the epidemiology of neonatal herpes in South Africa and to investigate whether the lack of reported cases is due to alterations in immune control or HSV-2 virulence, studies evaluating acutely ill neonates for HSV and studies of maternal HSV-2 shedding patterns are needed. Tara Perti, Mandisa Nyati, Glenda Gray, Guy De Bruyn, Stacy Selke, Amalia Magaret, Meei-Li Huang, Sithembiso Velaphi, Lawrence Corey, and Anna Wald Copyright © 2014 Tara Perti et al. All rights reserved. Determinants of Symptomatic Vulvovaginal Candidiasis among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infected Women in Rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa Wed, 09 Apr 2014 07:50:19 +0000 Introduction. We sought to determine the association between HIV-induced immunosuppression, virologic correlates, and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Methods. This is a retrospective cohort study, where HIV infected and uninfected women were studied with VVC being the primary outcome. Ninety-seven HIV-infected and 101 HIV-uninfected women were enrolled between June and December 2011. Cases of VVC were confirmed. HIV RNA load was determined by RT-PCR and CD4 counts were obtained from medical records. Results. Fifty-two of 97 (53.6%) HIV-infected and 38/101 (37.6%) HIV-uninfected women were diagnosed with VVC (). The relative risk for VVC amongst HIV-infected patients was 1.53 (95% CI: 1.04–2 ). Cases of VVC increased at CD4+ T cell count below 200 cells/mm3 () and plasma HIV RNA load above 10 000 copies/mL (). VVC was associated with increased genital shedding of HIV (), and there was a linear correlation between plasma HIV load and genital HIV shedding (; ; ). Women on HAART were 4-fold less likely () to develop VVC. Conclusion. CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm3 and plasma HIV loads ≥10 000 copies/mL were significantly associated with VVC. Teke Apalata, William H. Carr, Willem A. Sturm, Benjamin Longo-Mbenza, and Prashini Moodley Copyright © 2014 Teke Apalata et al. All rights reserved. Predischarge Postpartum Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infection and Group B Streptococcus Carriage at the Individual and Hospital Levels Thu, 06 Mar 2014 19:59:40 +0000 Background. We sought to characterize the relationship between individual group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization and pre-discharge postpartum methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in United States women delivering at term. We also sought to examine the association between hospital GBS colonization prevalence and MRSA infection. Materials and Methods. Data was from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a representative sample of United States community hospitals. Hierarchical regression models were used to estimate odds ratios adjusted for patient age, race, expected payer, and prepregnancy diabetes and hospital teaching status, urbanicity, ownership, size, and geographic region. We used multiple imputation for missing covariate data. Results. There were 3,136,595 deliveries and 462 cases of MRSA infection included in this study. The odds ratio for individual GBS colonization was 1.2 (95% confidence interval: 0.9 to 1.5). For a five-percent increase in the hospital prevalence of GBS colonization, the odds ratio was 0.9 (95% CI: 0.1 to 5.6). Conclusions. The odds ratio estimate for the association of hospital GBS prevalence with MRSA infection is too imprecise to make conclusions about its magnitude and direction. Barring major bias in our estimates, individual GBS carriage does not appear to be strongly associated with predischarge postpartum MRSA infection. Andrea M. Parriott, Joelle M. Brown, and Onyebuchi A. Arah Copyright © 2014 Andrea M. Parriott et al. All rights reserved. Postnatal Cytomegalovirus Exposure in Infants of Antiretroviral-Treated and Untreated HIV-Infected Mothers Mon, 03 Mar 2014 00:00:00 +0000 HIV-1 and CMV are important pathogens transmitted via breastfeeding. Furthermore, perinatal CMV transmission may impact growth and disease progression in HIV-exposed infants. Although maternal antiretroviral therapy reduces milk HIV-1 RNA load and postnatal transmission, its impact on milk CMV load is unclear. We examined the relationship between milk CMV and HIV-1 load (4–6 weeks postpartum) and the impact of antiretroviral treatment in 69 HIV-infected, lactating Malawian women and assessed the relationship between milk CMV load and postnatal growth in HIV-exposed, breastfed infants through six months of age. Despite an association between milk HIV-1 RNA and CMV DNA load (0.39 log10 rise CMV load per log10 rise HIV-1 RNA load, 95% CI 0.13–0.66), milk CMV load was similar in antiretroviral-treated and untreated women. Higher milk CMV load was associated with lower length-for-age (−0.53, 95% CI: −0.96, −0.10) and weight-for-age (−0.40, 95% CI: −0.67, −0.13) Z-score at six months in exposed, uninfected infants. As the impact of maternal antiretroviral therapy on the magnitude of postnatal CMV exposure may be limited, our findings of an inverse relationship between infant growth and milk CMV load highlight the importance of defining the role of perinatal CMV exposure on growth faltering of HIV-exposed infants. Sarah A. Meyer, Daniel J. Westreich, Emily Patel, Elizabeth P. Ehlinger, Linda Kalilani, Rachel V. Lovingood, Thomas N. Denny, Geeta K. Swamy, and Sallie R. Permar Copyright © 2014 Sarah A. Meyer et al. All rights reserved. High Rate of Chronic Villitis in Placentas of Pregnancies Complicated by Influenza A/H1N1 Infection Sun, 16 Feb 2014 15:10:15 +0000 Introduction. Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 infection during pregnancy has a negative impact on several aspects of pregnancy outcome. As yet, no elucidating mechanism has been revealed for these effects. We investigated whether placentas of pregnancies complicated by 2009 influenza A/H1N1 infection demonstrated an increased rate of chronic villitis and whether this villitis was caused by influenza virus. Methods. We performed a cohort study on 145 pregnant outpatients during the 2009-2010 influenza A H1N1 pandemic. The placentas of patients with influenza infection were examined for histologic signs of chronic villitis. In case of villitis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on influenza virus was performed on placental tissue. Results. 29 patients had influenza infection. Placentas of 15 of these patients were collected and examined. In 7 cases (47%) chronic villitis was detected. Placental weight and birth weight of the neonates did not differ between cases with and without chronic villitis. In all cases PCR was negative for influenza. Conclusion. In our series, chronic villitis was present in a high proportion of placentas of pregnancies complicated by 2009 influenza A/H1N1 infection. We could not demonstrate the presence of influenza virus in placental tissue. Wouter J. Meijer, Annemarie M. J. Wensing, Hein W. Bruinse, and Peter G. J. Nikkels Copyright © 2014 Wouter J. Meijer et al. All rights reserved. Performance of BVBlue Rapid Test in Detecting Bacterial Vaginosis among Women in Mysore, India Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:48:08 +0000 Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in reproductive age women. It is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV/STI and adverse birth outcomes. Diagnosis of BV in resource-poor settings like India is challenging. With little laboratory infrastructure there is a need for objective point-of-care diagnostic tests. Vaginal swabs were collected from women 18 years and older, with a vaginal pH > 4.5 attending a reproductive health clinic. BV was diagnosed with Amsel’s criteria, Nugent scores, and the OSOM BVBlue test. Study personnel were blinded to test results. There were 347 participants enrolled between August 2009 and January 2010. BV prevalence was 45.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 41.5%–52.8%) according to Nugent score. When compared with Nugent score, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value for Amsel’s criteria and BVBlue were 61.9%, 88.3%, 81.5%, 73.7% and 38.1%, 92.7%, 82.1%, 63.9%, respectively. Combined with a “whiff” test, the performance of BVBlue increased sensitivity to 64.4% and negative predictive value to 73.8%. Despite the good specificity, poor sensitivity limits the usefulness of the BVBlue as a screening test in this population. There is a need to examine the usefulness of this test in other Indian populations. Purnima Madhivanan, Karl Krupp, Tan Li, Kavitha Ravi, Julia Selezneva, Vijaya Srinivas, Anjali Arun, and Jeffrey D. Klausner Copyright © 2014 Purnima Madhivanan et al. All rights reserved. Silencing Sexually Transmitted Infections: Topical siRNA-Based Interventions for the Prevention of HIV and HSV Sun, 12 Jan 2014 16:42:54 +0000 The global impact of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is significant. The sexual transmission of viruses such as herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) and the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), has been especially difficult to control. To date, no effective vaccines have been developed to prevent the transmission of these STIs. Although antiretroviral drugs have been remarkably successful in treating the symptoms associated with these viral infections, the feasibility of their widespread use for prevention purposes may be more limited. Microbicides might provide an attractive alternative option to reduce their spread. In particular, topically applied small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs) have been shown to not only block transmission of viral STIs to mucosal tissues both in vitro and in vivo, but also confer durable knockdown of target gene expression, thereby circumventing the need to apply a microbicide around the time of sexual encounter, when compliance is mostly difficult. Despite numerous clinical trials currently testing the efficacy of siRNA-based therapeutics, they have yet to be approved for use in the treatment of viral STIs. While several obstacles to their successful implementation in the clinic still exist, promising preclinical studies suggest that siRNAs are a viable modality for the future prevention and treatment of HSV and HIV. Lee Adam Wheeler Copyright © 2014 Lee Adam Wheeler. All rights reserved. Effect of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and Menopause on Risk of Progression of Cervical Dysplasia in Human Immune-Deficiency Virus- (HIV-) Infected Women Wed, 18 Dec 2013 10:01:30 +0000 Background. More HIV-infected women are reaching older age and menopause, but there is limited information on cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) on these women. Methods. To assess the effect of HAART and menopause on SILs in HIV-infected women, we reviewed the results of Papanicolaou (Pap) tests obtained between 1991 and 2011 on 245 women. Progression to SILs was determined by comparing Pap test results. The association of HAART and transition to menopause on SILs was assessed using survival analysis. Results. Women receiving HAART had a 52% reduced risk in the progression to SILs compared to women receiving any other antiretroviral regimen or no regimen (CI: 0.33–0.70, ). A greater increase of CD4+ cell counts was associated with a greater reduction on the risk of progression to SILs. Menopausal women had a 70% higher risk of progression to SILs than premenopausal women (CI: 1.11–2.62, ), adjusting for HIV medications, CD4+ count, duration of HIV infection, moderation effect of menopause by age, prior IV drug use, and smoking. Conclusion. HAART had a positive long-term effect on the progression to SILs. However, being younger and menopausal increases the risk of progression. Suk Chul Kim, Susan Messing, Krupa Shah, and Amneris E. Luque Copyright © 2013 Suk Chul Kim et al. All rights reserved. Clinical Characteristics of Turkish Women with Candida krusei Vaginitis and Antifungal Susceptibility of the C. krusei Isolates Wed, 11 Dec 2013 09:19:58 +0000 Objective. Candida krusei causes approximately 1% of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) cases and is naturally resistant to fluconazole. Antifungal testing may be required if C. krusei vaginitis fails to respond to non-fluconazole therapy, particularly in patients with recurrent infections. Design. We investigated the clinical characteristics and antifungal susceptibility profile of vaginal C. krusei isolates. Between 2009 and 2012, we identified 560 unrelated Candida spp.-positive vaginal cultures, of which 28 (5.0%) were C. krusei. These isolates were analyzed according to host factors and the clinical forms of VVC, and their in vitro susceptibility to 10 antifungal agents was tested using a reference microdilution method. Results. We observed that perineal laceration and increased age (>50 years) were significant predictors of C. krusei in vaginal samples (). All isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, caspofungin, ketoconazole, and miconazole. Additionally, susceptible dose-dependent and resistant rates were found for fluconazole as 42.9% and 57.1%, respectively. Remarkably, only 42.9% and 67.9% of the isolates were susceptible to itraconazole and voriconazole, respectively. Conclusions. Understanding local susceptibility patterns, especially those of non-C. albicans Candida species, can significantly aid in the selection of an effective antifungal agent. The in vivo response of C. krusei vaginitis to various antifungal therapeutics remains unknown and requires further research. Ahmet Bariş Güzel, Merve Aydın, Melda Meral, Ayşe Kalkancı, and Macit Ilkit Copyright © 2013 Ahmet Bariş Güzel et al. All rights reserved. Benzoyl Peroxide Formulated Polycarbophil/Carbopol 934P Hydrogel with Selective Antimicrobial Activity, Potentially Beneficial for Treatment and Prevention of Bacterial Vaginosis Sat, 07 Dec 2013 14:31:25 +0000 The human vagina is colonized by a variety of indigenous microflora; in healthy individuals the predominant bacterial genus is Lactobacillus while those with bacterial vaginosis (BV) carry a variety of anaerobic representatives of the phylum Actinobacteria. In this study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) encapsulated in a hydrogel against Gardnerella vaginalis, one of the causative agents of BV, as well as indicating its safety for healthy human lactobacilli. Herein, it is shown that in well diffusion assays G. vaginalis is inhibited at 0.01% hydrogel-encapsulated BPO and that the tested Lactobacillus spp. can tolerate concentrations of BPO up to 2.5%. In direct contact assays (cells grown in a liquid culture containing hydrogel with 1% BPO or BPO particles), we demonstrated that hydrogels loaded with 1% BPO caused 6-log reduction of G. vaginalis. Conversely, three of the tested Lactobacillus spp. were not inhibited while L. acidophilus growth was slightly delayed. The rheological properties of the hydrogel formulation were probed using oscillation frequency sweep, oscillation shear stress sweep, and shear rate sweep. This shows the gel to be suitable for vaginal application and that the encapsulation of BPO did not alter rheological properties. Shiqi Xu, Veronica L. Cavera, Michael A. Rogers, Qingrong Huang, Konstantin Zubovskiy, and Michael L. Chikindas Copyright © 2013 Shiqi Xu et al. All rights reserved. Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in HIV-Infected Women: Need for Screening by a Sensitive and Specific Test Thu, 05 Dec 2013 10:52:40 +0000 Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission. Sonali Bhattar, Preena Bhalla, Sanjim Chadha, Reva Tripathi, Ravinder Kaur, and Kabir Sardana Copyright © 2013 Sonali Bhattar et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Cotrimoxazole Prophylactic Treatment on Malaria, Birth Outcomes, and Postpartum CD4 Count in HIV-Infected Women Mon, 02 Dec 2013 14:57:44 +0000 Background. Limited data exist on cotrimoxazole prophylactic treatment (CPT) in pregnant women, including protection against malaria versus standard intermittent preventive therapy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp). Methods. Using observational data we examined the effect of CPT in HIV-infected pregnant women on malaria during pregnancy, low birth weight and preterm birth using proportional hazards, logistic, and log binomial regression, respectively. We used linear regression to assess effect of CPT on CD4 count. Results. Data from 468 CPT-exposed and 768 CPT-unexposed women were analyzed. CPT was associated with protection against malaria versus IPTp (hazard ratio: 0.35, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.20, 0.60). After adjustment for time period this effect was not statistically significant (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28, 1.52). Among women receiving and not receiving CPT, rates of low birth weight (7.1% versus 7.6%) and preterm birth (23.5% versus 23.6%) were similar. CPT was associated with lower CD4 counts 24 weeks postpartum in women receiving (−77.6 cells/μL, 95% CI: −125.2, −30.1) and not receiving antiretrovirals (−33.7 cells/μL, 95% CI: −58.6, −8.8). Conclusions. Compared to IPTp, CPT provided comparable protection against malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and against preterm birth or low birth weight. Possible implications of CPT-associated lower CD4 postpartum warrant further examination. Anna Dow, Dumbani Kayira, Michael G. Hudgens, Annelies Van Rie, Caroline C. King, Sascha Ellington, Nelecy Chome, Athena Kourtis, Abigail Norris Turner, Zebrone Kacheche, Denise J. Jamieson, Charles Chasela, and Charles van der Horst Copyright © 2013 Anna Dow et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Anemia on Pregnancy Outcome in Patients with Pyelonephritis Wed, 27 Nov 2013 10:12:15 +0000 Objective. Pyelonephritis is a common infectious morbidity of pregnancy. Though anemia is commonly associated with pyelonephritis, there are little data describing the effect of pyelonephritis with anemia on pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to further assess the association of anemia with infectious morbidity and pregnancy complications among women with pyelonephritis. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant women admitted to Duke University Hospital between July 2006 and May 2012 with pyelonephritis. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data from the subject’s pregnancy and hospitalizations were analyzed. Patients with pyelonephritis and anemia (a hematocrit < 32) were compared to those without anemia. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the two groups. Results. 114 pregnant women were admitted with pyelonephritis and 45 (39.5%) had anemia on admission. There was no significant difference in age, race, preexisting medical conditions, or urine bacterial species between patients with anemia and those without. Women with anemia were more likely to deliver preterm (OR 3.3 (95% CI 1.07, 11.4), ). When controlling for race and history of preterm delivery, women with anemia continued to have increased odds of preterm birth (OR 6.0, CI 1.4, 35, ). Conclusion. Women with pyelonephritis and anemia are at increased risk for preterm delivery. Sarah K. Dotters-Katz, Chad A. Grotegut, and R. Phillips Heine Copyright © 2013 Sarah K. Dotters-Katz et al. All rights reserved. Medical and Infectious Complications Associated with Pyelonephritis among Pregnant Women at Delivery Sat, 28 Sep 2013 12:12:09 +0000 Objective. Pyelonephritis is a common cause of antepartum admission and maternal morbidity. Medical complications associated with pyelonephritis during delivery are not well described; thus the objective of this study was to estimate medical, infectious, and obstetric complications associated with pyelonephritis during the delivery admission. Study Design. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2008–2010. The NIS was queried for all delivery-related discharges. During the delivery admission, the ICD-9-CM codes for pyelonephritis were used to identify cases and were compared to women without pyelonephritis. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed for various medical, infectious, and obstetric complications among women with pyelonephritis compared to women without, while controlling for preexisting medical conditions and demographics. Results. During the years 2008–2010, there were 26,397 records with a diagnosis of pyelonephritis during the delivery admission, for a rate of 2.1 per 1000 deliveries. Women with pyelonephritis had increased associated risks for transfusion, need for mechanical ventilation, acute heart failure, pneumonia, pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, acute renal failure, preterm labor, and chorioamnionitis, while controlling for preexisting medical conditions. Conclusions. Pyelonephritis at delivery admissions is associated with significant medical and infectious morbidity. Sarah K. Dotters-Katz, R. Phillips Heine, and Chad A. Grotegut Copyright © 2013 Sarah K. Dotters-Katz et al. All rights reserved.