About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Agronomy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 437354, 11 pages
Research Article

The Effects of Some External Management Factors on the Nitrogen Composition of Cattle Manure on Smallholder Farms

1Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, 149 Morrison Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
2Department of Animal Science, Cornell University, 115 Day Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
3Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University, 235 Bradfield Hall, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA

Received 16 November 2011; Accepted 12 March 2012

Academic Editor: Dexter B. Watts

Copyright © 2012 H. A. Markewich et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. K. Lekasi, J. C. Tanner, S. K. Kimani, and P. J. C. Harris, “High potential production system portfolio of the natural resources systems programme renewable natural resources knowledge strategy department for international development. ryton-on-dunsmore,” in Manure Management in the Kenya Highlands: Practices and Potential, The Henry Doubleday Research Association (HDRA), Coventry, UK, 2nd edition, 2001.
  2. J. K. Lekasi, J. C. Tanner, S. K. Kimani, and P. J. C. Harris, “Cattle manure quality in maragua district, central kenya: effect of management practices and development of simple methods of assessment,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 289–298, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. C. Rufino, E. C. Rowe, R. J. Delve, and K. E. Giller, “Nitrogen cycling efficiencies through resource-poor African crop-livestock systems,” Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 261–282, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. K. Luebbe, G. E. Erickson, T. J. Klopfenstein, and M. A. Greenquist, “Aerobic composting or anaerobic stockpiling of feedlot manure. Nebraska Beef Cattle Reports,” 2008, http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/animalscinbcr/25/.
  5. S. Tamminga, “Nutrition management of dairy cows as a contribution to pollution control,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 75, pp. 345–357, 1992.
  6. H. K. Murwira, M. J. Swift, and P. G. H. Frost, “Animal-soil interactions: manure as a key resource in sustainable agriculture. livestock and sustainable nutrient cycling in mixed farming systems of sub-saharan africa. Vol. II: technical papers,” in Proceedings of an International Conference, J. M. Powell, S. Fernandez-Rivera, T. O. Williams, and C. Renard, Eds., pp. 131–148, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, November 1993.
  7. J. C. Marini and M. E. Van Amburgh, “Nitrogen metabolism and recycling in Holstein heifers,” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 545–552, 2003. View at Scopus
  8. H. M. van Es, C. P. Gomes, M. Sellmann, and C. L. van Es, “Spatially-balanced complete block designs for field experiments,” Geoderma, vol. 140, no. 4, pp. 346–352, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. J. E. Vercoe, “Breed and nutritional effects on the composition of faeces, urine, and plasma from Hereford and Brahman x Hereford steers fed on high and low quality diets,” Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, vol. 18, pp. 1003–1013, 1967.
  10. A. L. Chaney and E. P. Marbach, “Modified reagents for determination of urea and ammonia,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 130–132, 1962. View at Scopus
  11. AOAC, “Protein (crude) in animal feed, forage (plant tissue), grain, and oilseeds,” Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists 954.01, AOAC, Gaithersburg, Md, USA, 2000.
  12. G. Licitra, T. M. Hernandez, and P. J. Van Soest, “Standardization of procedures for nitrogen fractionation of ruminant feeds,” Animal Feed Science and Technology, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 347–358, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. SAS Institute Inc (v 9.1), SAS software, Version 9.1.3 of the SAS System for Windows. SAS and all other SAS Institute Inc. product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA, SAS Institute Inc.
  14. R. E. Muck and B. K. Richards, “Losses of manurial nitrogen in free-stall barns,” Agricultural Wastes, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 65–79, 1983. View at Scopus
  15. D. W. Bussink and O. Oenema, “Ammonia volatilization from dairy farming systems in temperate areas: a review,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 19–33, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. T. K. Kirk, W. J. Connors, and R. D. Bleam, “Preparation and microbial decomposition of synthetic [14C]lignins,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 2515–2519, 1975. View at Scopus
  17. D. L. Crawford and R. L. Crawford, “Microbial degradation of lignocellulose: the lignin component,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 714–717, 1976.
  18. O. Martins and T. Dewes, “Loss of nitrogenous compounds during composting of animal wastes,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 103–111, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. D. B. Dresbøll, J. Magid, and K. Thorup-Kristensen, “Long-term stability and mineralization rate of compost is influenced by timing of nutrient application during composting of plant residues,” Compost Science and Utilization, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 215–221, 2006. View at Scopus
  20. D. Said-Pullicino and G. Gigliotti, “Oxidative biodegradation of dissolved organic matter during composting,” Chemosphere, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 1030–1040, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus