Table 4: The percent of above-ground dry weight (with percent mortality in parenthesis) of ALS-resistant (AR1, AR2, and MS1) and -susceptible E. crus-galli populations at 21 d after treatment with different ALS herbicides applied alone or in combination with malathiona,b,c,d,e.

Above-ground dry weight
TreatmentRateSUSAR1AR2MS1
g ai ha−1% of control

Malathion1000105A92 (0)A137 (0)A126 (0)A
Bispyribac-sodium30 0.0A3.6 (70)E0.0 (100)D4.8 (85)C
Bispyribac-sodium + malathion30 + 10000.0A0.0 (100)E0.0 (100)D0.0 (100)C
Imazethapyr1050.0A23 (0)D92 (0)B1.4 (80)C
Imazethapyr + malathion105 + 10000.0A33 (0)C87 (0)B0.0 (100)C
Penoxsulam350.0A71 (0)B51 (0)C33 (10)B
Penoxsulam + malathion35 + 10000.0A43* (15)C3.2* (75)D1.1* (95)C

aMeans for each population within a column followed by the same letters are not significantly different according to Fisher’s protected LSD test ( ).
b*Represents reduced dry weight with addition of malathion to a particular herbicide treatment based on -test ( ).
c†Represents increased mortality with addition of malathion to a particular herbicide treatment based on chi-square test ( ).
dImazethapyr and penoxsulam treatments contained a nonionic surfactant at 0.25% v/v.
eBispyribac-sodium treatments contained a nonionic spray adjuvant and deposition aid at 2.5% v/v.