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International Journal of Agronomy
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 429294, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/429294
Research Article

Physiology of Glyphosate-Resistant and Glyphosate-Susceptible Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Biotypes Collected from North Carolina

1Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, University of Georgia, P.O. Box 8112, Statesboro, GA 30460, USA
2Department of Horticultural Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7609, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
3Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University, Box 7620, Raleigh, NC 27695-7620, USA

Received 11 April 2013; Accepted 8 July 2013

Academic Editor: Kent Burkey

Copyright © 2013 Jared R. Whitaker et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of Palmer amaranth are now commonly found across the southern United States. Experiments were conducted to characterize physiological differences between a GR biotype and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype from North Carolina. The GR biotype had an 18-fold level of resistance based upon rates necessary to reduce shoot fresh weight 50%. Shikimate accumulated in both biotypes following glyphosate application, but greater concentrations were found in GS plants. Absorption and translocation of 14C-glyphosate were studied in both biotypes with and without an overspray with commercial glyphosate potassium salt (840 g ae ha−1) immediately prior to 14C-glyphosate application. Greater absorption was noted 6 h after treatment (HAT) in GS compared with GR plants, but no differences were observed at 12 to 72 HAT. Oversprayed plants absorbed 33 and 61% more 14C by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively, than plants not oversprayed. 14C distribution (above treated leaf, below treated leaf, roots) was similar in both biotypes. Together, these results suggest that resistance in this biotype is not due to an altered target enzyme or translocation but may be in part due to the rate of glyphosate absorption. These results also are consistent with resistance being due to increased gene copy number for the target enzyme.