International Journal of Agronomy The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of Two Biological Formulations Based on Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens on Control of Didymella applanata, the Causal Agent of Red Raspberry Cane Spur Blight Wed, 27 Apr 2016 12:57:04 +0000 In vitro and in vivo studies were conducted to estimate the efficacy of the two microbial formulations based on Bacillus subtilis Cohn. and Pseudomonas fluorescens Mig. on the fungus Didymella applanata (Niessl.) Sacc., the causal agent of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) spur blight. In vitro, both bacteria reduced the growth of D. applanata. In inoculation experiments with raspberry canes in two cultivars with different susceptibility to D. applanata, these antagonistic bacteria suppressed fungal development by reducing the lesions area and the number of D. applanata fruiting bodies. Field trials of two biological formulations under natural conditions showed a significant suppression of the disease. B. subtilis and P. fluorescens included in the formulations revealed antagonistic activity towards D. applanata that depended on the red raspberry cultivar and weather conditions. In all cases, B. subtilis showed better results than P. fluorescens in biocontrol of the raspberry spur blight. This study demonstrated for the first time the ability of the biocontrol agents B. subtilis and P. fluorescens to suppress red raspberry cane spur blight, a serious worldwide disease. Margarita Shternshis, Tatyana Shpatova, and Anatoly Belyaev Copyright © 2016 Margarita Shternshis et al. All rights reserved. Morphological and Physiological Plant Responses to Drought Stress in Thymus citriodorus Mon, 18 Apr 2016 13:43:48 +0000 Water availability is considered as a determinant factor that affects plant growth. The commercial medicinal values of an aromatic plant rely on the presence of secondary metabolites that are affected under water shortage. Two-year-old Thymus citriodorus plants were subjected to different polyethylene glycol (PEG-6000) levels (0, 2%, and 4%) under greenhouse condition. PEG treatment lasted for 15 days. Thyme plant showed a morphological drought avoidance mechanism by maintaining the root system development through shoot fresh weight reduction resulting in promoted root absorption capacity and sustained plant growth. Moreover, stressed plants were able to maintain water use efficiency and root : shoot ratio suggesting a strong relation between root water uptake and water use saving strategies. Furthermore, thyme plants reduced tissue dehydration through stomatal closure and improved root water uptake. Content of volatile oil constituents of geraniol and diisobutyl phthalate increased upon drought stress while pseudophytol was reduced. Unexpectedly, thymol was not reported as a main oil element under either control or mild stress condition, while it was increased upon high drought stress in measure of 4.4%. Finally, carvacrol significantly accumulated under high drought stress (+31.7%) as compared to control plants. Zdzislaw Attila Tátrai, Rabab Sanoubar, Zsuzsanna Pluhár, Silvia Mancarella, Francesco Orsini, and Giorgio Gianquinto Copyright © 2016 Zdzislaw Attila Tátrai et al. All rights reserved. Viability Assessment of Genipa americana L. (Rubiaceae) Embryonic Axes after Cryopreservation Using In Vitro Culture Wed, 06 Apr 2016 07:07:00 +0000 Embryonic axes excised from seeds of Genipa americana L. desiccated to different water contents were successfully cryopreserved by rapidly plunging seed samples directly into liquid nitrogen. Control and cryopreserved embryonic axes were excised and grown in WPM culture medium for viability assessment. All control embryonic axes (−LN2) excised from fully hydrated seeds (43.89% moisture content) germinated after 21 days of culture in vitro. These high germination percentages persisted even after the water content of the seeds was as low as 6.79%. After freezing in liquid nitrogen high germination percentages, 93%, 96%, and 93%, were observed for embryonic axes excised from seeds dehydrated to 13.26%, 9.57%, and 6.79 moisture content, respectively. The cryopreservation technique described here is recommended for long term conservation of G. americana germplasm. Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos and Antonieta Nassif Salomão Copyright © 2016 Izulmé Rita Imaculada Santos and Antonieta Nassif Salomão. All rights reserved. Efficacy of a Phosphate-Charged Soil Material in Supplying Phosphate for Plant Growth in Soilless Root Media Mon, 04 Apr 2016 09:24:43 +0000 A soil material high in crystalline Fe hydrous oxides and noncrystalline Al hydrous oxides collected from the Bw horizon of a Hemcross soil containing allophane from the state of Oregon was charged with phosphate-P at rates of 0, 2.2, and 6.5 mg·g−1, added to a soilless root medium at 5% and 10% by volume, and evaluated for its potential to supply phosphate at a low, stable concentration during 14 weeks of tomato (Solanum esculentum L.) seedling growth. Incorporation of the soil material improved pH stability, whether it was charged with phosphate or not. Bulk solution phosphate-P concentrations in the range of 0.13 to 0.34 mg·dm−3 were associated with P deficiency. The only treatment that sustained an adequate bulk solution concentration of phosphate-P above 0.34 mg·dm−3 for the 14 weeks of testing contained 10% soil material charged with 6.5 mg·g−1 P, but initial dissolved P concentrations were too high (>5 mg·g−1 phosphate-P) from the standpoint of phosphate leaching. The treatment amended with 10% soil material charged with 2.2 mg·g−1 P maintained phosphate-P within an acceptable range of 0.4 to 2.3 mg·dm−3 for 48 d in a medium receiving no postplant phosphate fertilization. Young-Mi Oh, Paul V. Nelson, Dean L. Hesterberg, and Carl E. Niedziela Jr. Copyright © 2016 Young-Mi Oh et al. All rights reserved. Growth Response of Two Phaseolus mungo L. Cultivars Induced by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Trichoderma viride Tue, 29 Mar 2016 13:30:31 +0000 The present investigation aimed to quantify the difference in response of two Phaseolus mungo L. cultivars (i.e., UH-1 and IPU-94-1) to Glomus mosseae (G), that is, Funneliformis mosseae, Acaulospora laevis (A), and Trichoderma viride (T), in different combinations or alone. All the treatments were inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum to ensure nodulation as soil used in the experiment was sterilized. After 120 days of inoculation, plants were analyzed for chlorophyll content, nodulation, mycorrhization, leaf area, and protein content. Results indicate variation in growth response of two cultivars with different treatments. Triple inoculation of plants with G + A + T proved to be the best treatment for growth followed by G + T in both cultivars. Our work allowed the selection of P. mungo L. cultivar UH-1 as highly mycorrhizal responsive as compared to IPU-94-1 and G. mosseae to be an efficient bioinoculant as compared to A. laevis for growth enhancement of P. mungo. Further characterization of P. mungo genotypes will enhance our knowledge of physiological and genetic mechanism behind increase in plant growth and yield due to AM symbiosis. Navnita Sharma, Kuldeep Yadav, and Ashok Aggarwal Copyright © 2016 Navnita Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Quick Decline Disease Disturbs the Levels of Important Phytochemicals and Minerals in the Stem Bark of Mango (Mangifera indica) Wed, 23 Mar 2016 10:41:51 +0000 Quick decline is one of the deadly diseases of mango (Mangifera indica) which causes a serious damage to the tree and its production. In the current study, we examined the levels of important phytochemicals and minerals in the stem bark of healthy and infected mango tree. Infected stem bark showed 12.5% lower levels of total sugars and 51.1% higher levels of proteins as compared to healthy parts, whereas no variation was observed in reducing sugar, free amino acid, and ascorbic acid. Among micronutrients, the levels of Zn, Na, Cr, and Cl were lowered by 25%, 54.3%, 25%, and 75.4%, respectively, whereas the level of Ni was 62.5% higher in the infected stem bark when compared with the healthy stem bark. However, other micronutrients did not show significant differences between healthy and infected parts. Among macronutrients, the quantity of N, P, and Mg showed an increase of 51.2%, 34.7%, and 27.6%, respectively, whereas the quantity of Ca and K was decreased by 25.2% and 7.66% in the infected stem barks as compared to healthy ones. The results of this study provide some basic but important information that may ultimately be helpful in managing the quick decline disease in the mango trees. Abdul Saeed, Muhammad Aslam Shad, Haq Nawaz, Mustafa Nawaz Shafqat, Zahid Muneer, Aqeela Shaheen, and Syed Tahir Abbas Shah Copyright © 2016 Abdul Saeed et al. All rights reserved. Detection of Bacterial Wilt Pathogen and Isolation of Its Bacteriophage from Banana in Lumajang Area, Indonesia Tue, 22 Mar 2016 14:15:25 +0000 Bacterial wilt disease on banana is an important disease in Lumajang District and causes severe yield loss. Utilizing bacteriophage as natural enemy of pathogenic bacteria has been widely known as one of the control strategies. This research was aimed at determining the causing agent of bacterial wilt on banana isolated from Lumajang area, to obtain wide-host range bacteriophages against bacterial wilt pathogen and to know the basic characteristic of bacteriophages, particularly its nucleic acid type. Causative agent of bacterial wilt was isolated from symptomatic banana trees from seven districts in Lumajang area on determinative CPG plates followed by rapid detection by PCR technique using specific pair-primer. Bacteriophages were also isolated from soil of infected banana crop in Sukodono District. Morphological observation showed that all bacterial isolates have similar characteristic as common bacterial wilt pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum. In addition, detection of FliC region in all isolates confirmed that all isolates were R. solanacearum according to the presence of 400 bp of FliC DNA fragment. Moreover, two bacteriophages were obtained from this experiment (RSSKD1 and RSSKD2), which were able to infect all nine R. solanacearum isolates. Nucleic acid analysis showed that the nucleic acid of bacteriophages was DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Hardian Susilo Addy, Norita Fatatik Azizi, and Paniman Ashna Mihardjo Copyright © 2016 Hardian Susilo Addy et al. All rights reserved. Response of Sorghum bicolor L. to Residual Phosphate on Two Contrasting Soils Previously Planted to Cowpea or Maize Sun, 20 Mar 2016 14:31:37 +0000 Proper fertilizer nutrient management through adequate utilization of the residual value coupled with healthy crop rotation contributes significantly to sustainable crop production. This study was conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of two rock phosphate (RP) materials on two contrasting soils previously planted with either the cereal crop or the leguminous crop. The effectiveness of the RP materials as substitute for the conventional P fertilizers was evaluated using single superphosphate as reference at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiments were 2 × 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design. The test crops in the first cropping performed better on the slightly acidic loamy sand than on the strongly acidic sandy clay loam. Performance of each crop was improved by P supply in the first and second cropping. Single superphosphate proved to be more efficient than the RPs in the first cropping but not as effective as MRP in the second cropping. In the second cropping, sorghum performed better on the soil previously cropped to cowpea while Morocco RP had the highest residual effect among the P-fertilizer sources. It is evident that rock phosphates are better substitutes to the conventional phosphorus fertilizers due to their long term residual effect in soils. The positive effects of healthy rotation of crops as well as the negative effects of low soil pH are also quite obvious. Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi and Ezekiel Akinkunmi Akinrinde Copyright © 2016 Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi and Ezekiel Akinkunmi Akinrinde. All rights reserved. Effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid on the Adventitious Rooting in Shoot Cuttings of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wall. ex Nees: An Important Therapeutical Herb Sun, 13 Mar 2016 13:46:21 +0000 Andrographis paniculata is one of the most important therapeutical herbs, widely used in traditional medical systems for the treatment of diverse diseases for thousands of years. This study was carried out to assess the effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on adventitious rooting in A. paniculata shoot cuttings. The cuttings were treated with six concentrations of NAA (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mM) by applying soaking method and cuttings without hormone (soaking in distilled water) were considered as control. The cuttings were then inoculated into peat moss in the planting tray and incubated under complete shade for root induction. Water was sprayed on peat moss once daily to moisten it. The results showed that different concentrations of NAA significantly () affected the rooting characteristics of A. paniculata and 2.5 mM of NAA was found to be more effective to induce rooting in young apical shoot (YAS) cuttings compared to other concentrations and old apical shoot (OAS). This study also postulates that adventitious rooting response depends on the juvenility of plant material and concentration of growth regulator. This report describes a technique for adventitious rooting in A. paniculata, which could be feasible to use for commercial scale propagation of this plant. Md. Sanower Hossain and Zannat Urbi Copyright © 2016 Md. Sanower Hossain and Zannat Urbi. All rights reserved. Impact of Forage Fertilization with Urea and Composted Cattle Manure on Soil Fertility in Sandy Soils of South-Central Vietnam Thu, 03 Mar 2016 11:19:54 +0000 Increased production in smallholder beef systems requires improved forage management. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of composted cattle manure and mineral nitrogen (urea) application on soil fertility and partial nutrient balances in plots established to Brachiaria cv. Mulato II in south-central coastal Vietnam from 2010 to 2013. A randomized complete block design was implemented on six farms (blocks), with five rates of composted cattle manure (0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 Mg DM/ha per yr) and three urea rates (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha per yr) in a factorial design. Soil was analyzed before and after the experiment. Compost increased soil pH, organic matter, Ca, Mg, and Mn. The effect of compost and urea applications on postexperiment soil fertility depended on preexperiment soil fertility for K, P, S, Mg, Zn, Mn, Cu, and organic matter, suggesting that the ability to maintain soil fertility depends on the interaction between soil organic and inorganic amendments and existing soil fertility. Highest farm yields were also achieved on farms with higher preexperiment soil fertility levels. Negative partial nutrient balances for N, P, and K suggest that yields will not be sustainable over time even for the highest fertilization inputs used in this experiment. Keenan C. McRoberts, Quirine M. Ketterings, David Parsons, Tran Thanh Hai, Nguyen Hai Quan, Nguyen Xuan Ba, Charles F. Nicholson, and Debbie J. R. Cherney Copyright © 2016 Keenan C. McRoberts et al. All rights reserved. Approximating Optimal Release in a Deterministic Model for the Sterile Insect Technique Mon, 29 Feb 2016 18:50:42 +0000 Cost/benefit analyses are essential to support management planning and decisions before launching any pest control program. In particular, applications of the sterile insect technique (SIT) are often prevented by the projected economic burden associated with rearing processes. This has had a deep impact on the technique development and its use on insects with long larval periods, as often seen in beetles. Under the assumptions of long adult timespan and multiple mating, we show how to find approximate optimal sterile release policies that minimize costs. The theoretical framework proposed considers the release of insects by pulses and finds approximate optimal release sizes through stochastic searching. The scheme is then used to compare simulated release strategies obtained for different pulse schedules and release bounds, providing a platform for evaluating the convenience of increasing sterile male release intensity or extending the period of control. Sergio Ramirez and Luis F. Gordillo Copyright © 2016 Sergio Ramirez and Luis F. Gordillo. All rights reserved. Glufosinate Rate and Timing for Control of Glyphosate-Resistant Rhizomatous Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense) in Glufosinate-Resistant Soybean Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:00:56 +0000 Field studies were conducted over a three-year period (2011, 2012, and 2013) in Louisiana to evaluate the effect of glufosinate rate and timing on glyphosate-resistant (GR) rhizomatous johnsongrass control in glufosinate-resistant soybean. Treatments included glufosinate (0.5, 0.6, or 0.7 kg ai ha−1) applied alone POST1 (46 cm tall johnsongrass) and sequentially 3 (POST2) or 4 (POST3) wk after POST1 at 0.5 or 0.6 kg ha−1. Glufosinate (0.7 kg ha−1) applied POST1 controlled johnsongrass 77% at soybean harvest. Averaged across sequential application rate, delaying the sequential application from POST2 to POST3 increased control from 65 to 78% at harvest. Increasing sequential application rate from 0.5 to 0.6 kg ha−1 reduced johnsongrass heights 15% at harvest. Furthermore, delaying the sequential application from POST2 to POST3 reduced GR rhizomatous johnsongrass heights to 63% of the nontreated at harvest. Soybean yields were maximized following the POST1 application of glufosinate at 0.7 kg ha−1 (2670 kg ha−1) and by applying 0.6 kg ha−1 of glufosinate sequentially (2620 kg ha−1), regardless of sequential application timing. Maximum control and soybean yield were observed following glufosinate POST1 at 0.7 kg ha−1 followed by 0.6 kg ha−1 at POST3. This data indicates that glufosinate is an option for management of GR rhizomatous johnsongrass. Randall L. Landry, Daniel O. Stephenson IV, and Brandi C. Woolam Copyright © 2016 Randall L. Landry et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Visco Analyzer Measurements of japonica Rice Cultivars to Study Interrelationship between Pasting Properties and Farming System Thu, 18 Feb 2016 11:25:15 +0000 Rheological properties influence the starch softness and cooking quality. Two japonica rice cultivars were studied that were cultivated under organic and conventional farming. Study was conducted for 2 years in popular japonica cultivars, that is, Kaohsiung number 139 and Taikeng number 16, which were grown twice a year in Taiwan. The results highlighted that major pasting properties such as peak viscosity, setback value, and pasting temperature improved under organic farming; however, in further analysis, eating and cooking quality reported no significant changes except aroma in rice. Amit Kesarwani, Po Yuan Chiang, and Shih Shiung Chen Copyright © 2016 Amit Kesarwani et al. All rights reserved. Characteristic Profiles of an Original Drink Sap from Male and Female Deglet Nour Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during Collection Period Thu, 11 Feb 2016 12:06:27 +0000 This work aimed to evaluate the nutritional quality of a typical natural drink from male and female Deglet Nour (DN) date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. Dry matter, protein, amino acids, and sugar profiles were determined using AFNOR norm, Kjeldahl method, HPLC, and HPAEC-PAD, respectively. The male sap dry matter content was higher than that of the female. It decreased significantly through the tapping period. During the harvest, the male sap protein content decreased but increased significantly in the female sap. Finally, sugar fraction, for both male and female DN sap, was dominated by sucrose, glucose, fructose, and a small amount of myo-inositol. During the collection time, sugar content is affected by the sex especially for myo-inositol content that increased significantly in the female date sap, unlike that of the male one. This may be related to the fact that the male palm is more resistant to physiological stress, inducing myo-inositol formation during tapping. Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi, Abir Mokni-Ghribi, Hamadi Attia, Christophe Blecker, and Souhail Besbes Copyright © 2016 Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi et al. All rights reserved. Environmental Influences on Growth and Reproduction of Invasive Commelina benghalensis Thu, 11 Feb 2016 11:10:02 +0000 Commelina benghalensis (Benghal dayflower) is a noxious weed that is invading agricultural systems in the southeastern United States. We investigated the influences of nutrition, light, and photoperiod on growth and reproductive output of C. benghalensis. In the first experimental series, plants were grown under high or low soil nutrition combined with either full light or simulated shade. Lowered nutrition strongly inhibited vegetative growth and aboveground spathe production. Similar but smaller effects were exerted by a 50% reduction in light, simulating conditions within a developing canopy. In the second series of experiments, C. benghalensis plants were exposed to different photoperiod conditions that produced short- and long-day plants growing in similar photosynthetic periods. A short-day photoperiod decreased time to flowering by several days and led to a 40 to 60% reduction in vegetative growth, but reproduction above and below ground was unchanged. Collectively, the results indicate that (1) fertility management in highly weathered soils may strongly constrain competitiveness of C. benghalensis; (2) shorter photoperiods will limit vegetative competitiveness later in the growing seasons of most crops; and (3) the high degree of reproductive plasticity and output possessed by C. benghalensis will likely cause continual persistence problems in agricultural fields. Mandeep K. Riar, Danesha S. Carley, Chenxi Zhang, Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno, David L. Jordan, Theodore M. Webster, and Thomas W. Rufty Copyright © 2016 Mandeep K. Riar et al. All rights reserved. Growth Performance and Nutrient Uptake of Oil Palm Seedling in Prenursery Stage as Influenced by Oil Palm Waste Compost in Growing Media Mon, 08 Feb 2016 07:10:31 +0000 The use of composted oil palm wastes in the oil palm nursery as an organic component of growing medium for oil palm seedlings seems promising in sustainable oil palm seedling production. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of six oil palm waste compost rates (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) on the growth performance of oil palm seedling and nutrient uptake in the prenursery stage (0–3 months). The addition of oil palm compost reduced the soil bulk density (1.32 to 0.53 g cm−3) and increased soil pH (4.7 to 5.1) of growth media. Oil palm waste compost treatment produced positive growth performance up to 70%. A regression analysis indicated in 72% of compost and topsoil mixture as a polybag growth medium was optimum in producing best growth performance of oil palm seedling in the prenursery stage. Foliar analysis implied highest nutrients uptake (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu) for seedlings grown in 60 to 100% compost media. A. B. Rosenani, R. Rovica, P. M. Cheah, and C. T. Lim Copyright © 2016 A. B. Rosenani et al. All rights reserved. Variation of Wheat Cultivars in Their Response to Elevated Temperature on Starch and Dry Matter Accumulation in Grain Wed, 03 Feb 2016 11:28:54 +0000 Three wheat cultivars, namely, BARI Gom 25, BARI Gom 26, and Pavon 76, were sown in experimental field of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, in Bangladesh, on 18 November, 2013. Two temperature regimes, namely, normal (23°C in open field) and elevated (6 ± 1°C higher compared to open field mean air temperature in polythene chamber) temperature, were created immediately after anthesis to investigate the response of wheat cultivars to heat stress. Elevated temperature cuts back the duration of grain filling by 5 days in BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 and 10 days in Pavon 76. Starch synthesis was also cut back by the same duration in respective cultivars under elevated temperature condition. Results indicate that failure of conversion of sugar to starch rather than limited supply of sugar under high temperature condition was responsible for shortening of grain filling duration in all wheat cultivars. However, the response of elevated temperature on grain starch and main stem grain dry matter was less profound in BARI Gom 25 and BARI Gom 26 compared to Pavon 76 indicating their better tolerance to elevated temperature. Soyema Khatun, Jalal Uddin Ahmed, Tofazzal Hossain, M. Rafiqul Islam, and Mohammed Mohi-Ud-Din Copyright © 2016 Soyema Khatun et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Curing Period of Livestock Droppings on the Growth and Yield of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) Varieties Sun, 24 Jan 2016 06:21:14 +0000 A field study was carried out across two cropping seasons (2010 and 2011) to explore the effects of curing periods of cow dung and poultry droppings used in soil amendment on the performance of two okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.) varieties: NHAe 47-3 and LD 88-1. The effects of cow dung and poultry droppings cured for 3, 6, and 9 weeks were compared to that of NPK fertilizer (100 kg N ha−1 and 60 kg ha−1 each of P2O5 and K2O) and a control (no amendment). The application of organic amendment cured for 3 to 6 weeks enhanced the growth and yield of okra when compared with inorganic fertilizer or the unamended soil across the two cropping seasons. Based on this outcome, the use of adequate quantity of livestock droppings cured for 3–6 weeks, in case of poultry dropping, and for 6 weeks, in case of cow dung, is recommended as an alternative to inorganic fertilizer. The variety NHAe 47-4 was also demonstrated to give better yield (1.73 and 2.18 t ha−1) than LD 88-1 (1.63 and 1.80 t ha−1) in the years 2010 and 2011, respectively. S. Y. Abdulmaliq, Y. A. Abayomi, M. O. Aduloju, and O. Olugbemi Copyright © 2016 S. Y. Abdulmaliq et al. All rights reserved. Apple Cultivation and Breeding in Afghanistan: S-RNase Genotypes and Search System for Suitable Cultivar Combination Wed, 20 Jan 2016 16:10:16 +0000 We investigated S-RNase genotypes of nine useful Afghan apple cultivars including six original cultivars and one rootstock. We also determined S-RNase genotypes of 11 apple cultivars and lineages and seven rootstocks in Japan. We speculated regarding the unidentified parents of cultivars and lineages from the S-RNase genotypes and their fruit and branch characteristics and also identified mistaken parents. We compiled a database of the apple S-RNase genotypes of 622 apple cultivars investigated, which included a survey system of cultivar combinations showing those that were fully incompatible, semicompatible, and fully compatible, written in the Pashto language. Matiullah Akbari, Mao Yamaguchi, Tsutomu Maejima, Shungo Otagaki, Katsuhiro Shiratake, and Shogo Matsumoto Copyright © 2016 Matiullah Akbari et al. All rights reserved. Phytotoxicity and Benzoxazinone Concentration in Field Grown Cereal Rye (Secale cereale L.) Wed, 06 Jan 2016 06:28:30 +0000 Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) is used as a cover crop because of the weed suppression potential of its mulch. To gain insight into the more effective use of rye as a cover crop we assessed changes in benzoxazinone (BX) levels in rye shoot tissue over the growing season. Four rye varieties were planted in the fall and samples harvested at intervals the following spring. Two different measures of phytotoxic compound content were taken. Seed germination bioassays were used as an estimate of total phytotoxic potential. Dilutions of shoot extracts were tested using two indicator species to compare the relative toxicity of tissue. In addition, BX (DIBOA, DIBOA-glycoside, and BOA) levels were directly determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that rye tissue harvested in March was the most toxic to indicator species, with toxicity decreasing thereafter. Likewise the BX concentration in rye shoot tissue increased early in the season and then decreased over time. Thus, phytotoxicity measured by bioassay and BX levels measured by GC have a similar but not identical temporal profile. The observed decrease in phytotoxic potential and plant BX levels in rye later in the season appears to correlate with the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. C. La Hovary, D. A. Danehower, G. Ma, C. Reberg-Horton, J. D. Williamson, S. R. Baerson, and J. D. Burton Copyright © 2016 C. La Hovary et al. All rights reserved. High-Throughput Screening of Sensory and Nutritional Characteristics for Cultivar Selection in Commercial Hydroponic Greenhouse Crop Production Sun, 27 Dec 2015 10:12:04 +0000 Hydroponic greenhouse-grown and store-bought cultivars of tomato (cherry and beefsteak), cucumbers, bibb lettuce, and arugula were investigated to see if they could be distinguished based on sensory qualities and phytonutrient composition. Only the more dominant sensory criteria were sufficiently robust to distinguish between cultivars and could form the core of a consolidated number of criteria in a more discriminating sensory evaluation test. Strong determinants for cultivar selection within each crop included the following: mineral analysis (particularly Cu, Fe, K, Mg, and P); total carotenoids (particularly β-carotene, lycopene, and lutein); total carbohydrate (except in arugula); organic acids; total phenolics and total anthocyanins (except in cucumber). Hydroponically grown and store-bought produce were of similar quality although individual cultivars varied in quality. Storage at 4°C for up to 6 days did not affect phytonutrient status. From this, we conclude that “freshness,” while important, has a longer duration than the 6 days used in our study. Overall, the effect of cultivar was more important than the effect of growing method or short-term storage at 4°C under ideal storage conditions. Atef M. K. Nassar, Stan Kubow, and Danielle J. Donnelly Copyright © 2015 Atef M. K. Nassar et al. All rights reserved. Efficient Rooting System for Apple “M.9” Rootstock Using Rice Seed Coat and Smocked Rice Seed Coat Sun, 27 Dec 2015 06:08:43 +0000 “M.9” rootstock is considered as one of the most useful apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) rootstocks; it produces dwarfing trees efficiently. As “M.9” rootstock shows a poor, brittle, and shallow roots system, we grafted “M.9” rootstocks onto “Marubakaidou” (M. prunifolia Borkh. var. ringo Asami Mo 84-A). We then propagated them by mound layering to establish a high-density root system. It was found that covering the roots with rice seed coat (RSC), RSC + smoked rice seed coat (SRSC), and vermiculite during mound layering was effective for the initiation of rooting. Utilizing RSC and SRSC seemed especially effective for producing “M.9” roots efficiently. Matiullah Akbari, Tsutomu Maejima, Shungo Otagaki, Katsuhiro Shiratake, and Shogo Matsumoto Copyright © 2015 Matiullah Akbari et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato Thu, 24 Dec 2015 08:36:58 +0000 Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha), cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha), horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha), goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha), organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha), and carbofuran (3 kg a.i/ha) in the management of M. incognita on sweet potato using a randomized complete block design. The unamended plots served as control. Data were analysed using ANOVA (). All organic materials and carbofuran significantly () reduced nematode reproduction and root damage compared with control. Poultry dung (10 and 20 t/ha) and carbofuran were, however, more efficient in nematode control than other organic materials. Sweet potato plants that were grown on soil treated with organomineral fertilizer had the highest mean number of vines and fresh shoot weight, while poultry dung improved sweet potato quality and yield. It is therefore recommended that the use of poultry dung be employed in combination with other nematode control strategies to achieve sustainable, economic, and environment-friendly nematode management. Oluremi Solomon Osunlola and Bamidele Fawole Copyright © 2015 Oluremi Solomon Osunlola and Bamidele Fawole. All rights reserved. Preharvest and Postharvest Factors Affecting the Quality and Shelf Life of Harvested Tomatoes: A Mini Review Tue, 15 Dec 2015 09:46:53 +0000 Tomato production can serve as a source of income for most rural and periurban producers in most developing countries of the world. However, postharvest losses make its production unprofitable in these parts of the world. Postharvest losses in tomatoes can be as high as 42% globally. Postharvest losses in tomatoes can be either quantitative or qualitative. Even though emphasis in crop research nowadays is increasing shifting from quantity to quality of produce, there is still little improvement in the quality of commercially produced tomato varieties, hence resulting in high quality losses. From the study it was discovered that the postharvest quality status of tomatoes partly depended on some preharvest practices carried out during production. Some of these factors are fertiliser application, pruning, maturity stage, cultivar selection, and irrigation. Using best postharvest handling practices or factors such as temperature, relative humidity, gases in storage, postharvest calcium chloride application, and physical handling procedures to maintain the quality after harvest was also critical. It was concluded by this study that understanding and managing both preharvest and postharvest factors properly will reduce the postharvest quality losses in tomatoes. Isaac Kojo Arah, Harrison Amaglo, Ernest Kodzo Kumah, and Hayford Ofori Copyright © 2015 Isaac Kojo Arah et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Priming and Seed Size on Germination and Emergence of Six Food-Type Soybean Varieties Thu, 10 Dec 2015 12:44:10 +0000 Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), a good source of protein and oil, is used to produce nutritious isoflavone-rich soybean-based foods. The objectives of this study were (i) to determine the germination difference among soybean seeds in various seed sizes and (ii) to evaluate effects of seed pretreatment on germination and seedling emergence. Six varieties of different seed size class were used: (i) small size (MFS-561 and V08-4773), (ii) medium size (Glen and V03-47050), and (iii) large size (MFL-159 and V07-1897). Pregermination treatments include 0, 5, or 10 hours soaking and germinating/planting with or without nitrogen fertilizer. Large seed size varieties showed low germination rate and N addition caused the least reduction in germination in these seeds during the first 24 hours. While N had no effect on seed germination after 72 hours, growth in N treated seed was low. Seedling emergence was comparable across varieties in 2013 and water priming and N application had no effect. However, while varieties did not differ in final emergence for nonprimed seeds in 2014, water priming led to a high reduction in seedling emergence of large seed varieties in this study. Application of N fertilizer had no effect on seedling emergence in field experiments. Maru K. Kering and Bo Zhang Copyright © 2015 Maru K. Kering and Bo Zhang. All rights reserved. Short-Term Changes in Fertility Attributes and Soil Organic Matter Caused by the Addition of EM Bokashis in Two Tropical Soils Wed, 09 Dec 2015 11:47:24 +0000 The present work aimed to evaluate the behavior of ten fertility attributes of soil organic matter physical fractions and total organic carbon upon addition of three EM Bokashis to a Rhodic Ferralsol (FRr) and a Dystric Cambisol (CMd). An experiment was carried out in greenhouse in which the soils were placed into plastic trays and cultivated with tomato. A completely randomized design was used with four repetitions and factorial scheme of 2 × 3 + 2, consisting of two soils (FRr and CMd), three EM Bokashis (Poultry Manure Bokashi (BPM); CNPH Bokashi (BC); and Cattle Manure Bokashi (BCM)), and two controls (both soils without addition of Bokashi). The following fertility attributes were evaluated: pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, P, SB, H + Al, CEC, and . Particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MOC) and total organic carbon (TOC) were also investigated. Finally, the Principal Component Analysis was conducted in order to identify possible patterns related to soils when fertilized with EM Bokashi. The addition of EM Bokashi increased the soil fertility and contents of POC. Different EM Bokashi presents distinguished effects on each soil. The PCA suggests that BPM presents higher capacity to modify the analyzed chemical attributes. Carlos Eduardo Pacheco Lima, Mariana Rodrigues Fontenelle, Luciana Rodrigues Borba Silva, Daiane Costa Soares, Antônio Williams Moita, Daniel Basílio Zandonadi, Ronessa Bartolomeu Souza, and Carlos Alberto Lopes Copyright © 2015 Carlos Eduardo Pacheco Lima et al. All rights reserved. Winter Annual Weed Response to Nitrogen Sources and Application Timings prior to a Burndown Corn Herbicide Wed, 02 Dec 2015 09:55:16 +0000 Autumn and early preplant N applications, sources, and placement may affect winter annual weed growth. Field research evaluated (1) the effect of different nitrogen sources in autumn and early preplant on total winter annual weed growth (2006–2010), and (2) strip-till and broadcast no-till N applied in autumn and early preplant on henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.) growth (2008–2010) prior to a burndown herbicide application. Total winter annual weed biomass was greater than the nontreated control when applying certain N sources in autumn or early preplant for no-till corn. Anhydrous ammonia had the lowest average weed density (95 weeds m−2), though results were inconsistent over the years. Winter annual weed biomass was lowest (43 g m−2) when applying 32% urea ammonium nitrate in autumn and was similar to applying anhydrous ammonia in autumn or early preplant and the nontreated control. Henbit biomass was 28% greater when applying N in the autumn compared to an early preplant application timing. Nitrogen placement along with associated tillage with strip-till placement was important in reducing henbit biomass. Nitrogen source selection, application timing, and placement affected the impact of N on winter annual weed growth and should be considered when recommending a burndown herbicide application timing. Kelly A. Nelson Copyright © 2015 Kelly A. Nelson. All rights reserved. Climate Change and Sugarcane Production: Potential Impact and Mitigation Strategies Thu, 22 Oct 2015 08:19:29 +0000 Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is an important crop for sugar and bioenergy worldwide. The increasing greenhouse gas emission and global warming during climate change result in the increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Climate change is expected to have important consequences for sugarcane production in the world, especially in the developing countries because of relatively low adaptive capacity, high vulnerability to natural hazards, and poor forecasting systems and mitigating strategies. Sugarcane production may have been negatively affected and will continue to be considerably affected by increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme environmental conditions due to climate change. The degree of climate change impact on sugarcane is associated with geographic location and adaptive capacity. In this paper, we briefly reviewed sugarcane response to climate change events, sugarcane production in several different countries, and challenges for sugarcane production in climate change in order for us to better understand effects of climate change on sugarcane production and to propose strategies for mitigating the negative impacts of climate change and improving sugarcane production sustainability and profitability. Duli Zhao and Yang-Rui Li Copyright © 2015 Duli Zhao and Yang-Rui Li. All rights reserved. Effects of Fungicides, Time of Application, and Application Method on Control of Sclerotinia Blight in Peanut Wed, 07 Oct 2015 08:50:17 +0000 Field studies were conducted from 2007 to 2010 to evaluate the response of peanut cultivars to different fungicides, application timings, and methods. Overall, fungicides reduced Sclerotinia blight incidence and increased pod yields when applied to susceptible and partially resistant cultivars. Disease suppression was greater when full fungicide rates were applied preventatively; however, yields between fungicide treated plots were similar. Lower levels of disease and higher yields were achieved with the partially resistant cultivar Tamrun OL07 compared to the susceptible cultivars Flavor Runner 458 and Tamrun OL 02. Despite possessing improved resistance Tamrun OL07 responded to all fungicide applications. While similar levels of disease control were achieved with broadcast or banded applications made during the day or at night, the yield response for the different application methods was inconsistent among years. A negative relationship (slope = −73.8; ; ) was observed between final disease incidence ratings and yield data from studies where a fungicide response was observed. These studies suggest that both boscalid and fluazinam are effective at controlling Sclerotinia blight in peanuts. Alternative management strategies such as nighttime and banded applications could allow for lower fungicide rates to be used; however, additional studies are warranted. Jason E. Woodward, Scott A. Russell, Michael R. Baring, John M. Cason, and Todd A. Baughman Copyright © 2015 Jason E. Woodward et al. All rights reserved. Growth, Development, and Mineral Nutrient Accumulation and Distribution in Tulip from Planting through Postanthesis Shoot Senescence Mon, 03 Aug 2015 06:09:24 +0000 Tulips were grown under field conditions from mid-November through early-June. Plants were harvested and dissected into eight organs on twenty-one dates. These parts were dried, weighed, and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. A transition (as determined by curve join points) from a linear to a steep negative cubic response occurred prior to shoot emergence for N (82 days after planting (DAP)), at shoot emergence for K (93 DAP) and Ca (94 DAP), and after shoot emergence for Mg (102 DAP) and dry matter (118 DAP). A transition from a linear to a steeper linear response occurred at shoot emergence for P (93 DAP). Growth, organ development, and nutrient accumulation occurred continuously from planting to maturity (188 DAP), except for K which did not accumulate during the initial linear phase. Since the increase in accumulation of all five nutrients preceded the dry matter accumulation, these nutrients could be used as predictors in growth models. Practical implications from this study include the importance of maintaining soil Ca levels through liming and applying the N, P, and Mg as split applications with smaller rates at planting and larger rates at emergence. The entire K application may be applied at emergence. Carl E. Niedziela Jr., Paul V. Nelson, and David A. Dickey Copyright © 2015 Carl E. Niedziela Jr. et al. All rights reserved.