International Journal of Analytical Chemistry http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Determination of the Degree of Degradation of Frying Rapeseed Oil Using Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Combined with Partial Least-Squares Regression Mon, 23 Feb 2015 12:18:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/185367/ This rapid method for determining the degree of degradation of frying rapeseed oils uses Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with partial least-squares (PLS) regression. One hundred and fifty-six frying oil samples that degraded to different degrees by frying potatoes were scanned by an FTIR spectrometer using attenuated total reflectance (ATR). PLS regression with full cross validation was used for the prediction of acid value (AV) and total polar compounds (TPC) based on raw, first, and second derivative FTIR spectra (4000–650 cm−1). The precise calibration model based on the second derivative FTIR spectra shows that the coefficients of determination for calibration and standard errors of cross validation (SECV) were 0.99 and 0.16 mg KOH/g and 0.98 and 1.17% for AV and TPC, respectively. The accuracy of the calibration model, tested using the validation set, yielded standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.16 mg KOH/g and 1.10% for AV and TPC, respectively. Therefore, the degradation of frying oils can be accurately measured using FTIR spectroscopy combined with PLS regression. Jie Yu Chen, Han Zhang, Jinkui Ma, Tomohiro Tuchiya, and Yelian Miao Copyright © 2015 Jie Yu Chen et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Screening and Structural Characterization of Antioxidants from the Extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron with DPPH-UPLC-Q-TOF/MS Method Sun, 22 Feb 2015 06:51:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/849769/ 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-Q-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DPPH-UPLC-Q-TOF/MS), as a rapid and efficient means, now was used for the first time to screen antioxidants from Selaginella doederleinii. The nine biflavone compounds were screened as potential antioxidants. The biflavones were structurally identified and divided into the three types, that is, amentoflavone-type, robustaflavone-type, and hinokiflavone-type biflavonoids. Among the compounds bilobetin (3) and putraflavone (8) were found from Selaginella doederleinii for the first time and others including amentoflavone (1), robustaflavone (2), 4′-methoxy robustaflavone (4), podocarpusflavone A (5), hinokiflavone (6), ginkgetin (7), and heveaflavone (9) were identified previously in the plant. Moreover, nine biflavones possessed a good antioxidant activity via their DPPH free radical scavenging. It demonstrates that DPPH-UPLC-Q-TOF/MS exhibits strong capacity in separation and identification for small molecule. The method is suitable for rapid screening of antioxidants without the need for complicated systems and additional instruments. Gang Wang, Shun Yao, Xiu-Xiu Zhang, and Hang Song Copyright © 2015 Gang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Isolation, Characterization, and RP-HPLC Estimation of P-Coumaric Acid from Methanolic Extract of Durva Grass (Cynodon dactylon Linn.) (Pers.) Wed, 18 Feb 2015 13:22:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/201386/ P-coumaric acid is a nonflavonoid phenolic acid and is a major constituent of the species Cynodon dactylon Linn. (Pers.). In this study isolation of P-coumaric acid was achieved by preparative TLC and the compound thus isolated was characterised by UV, mass, and H1 NMR spectral analysis. An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed for the estimation of P-coumaric acid from methanolic extracts of durva grass. The chromatographic separations were achieved by RP-C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μ), Shimadzu LC-20AT Prominence liquid chromatograph, and a mobile phase composed of water : methanol : glacial acetic acid (65 : 34 : 1 v/v). The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the analyses of column effluents were performed using UV-visible detector at 310 nm. Retention time of P-coumaric acid was found to be 6.617 min. This method has obeyed linearity over the concentration range of 2–10 μg/mL and the regression coefficient obtained from linearity plot for P-coumaric acid was found to be 0.999. RP-HPLC method was validated in pursuance of ICH guidelines. Ramadoss Karthikeyan, Chapala Devadasu, and Puttagunta Srinivasa Babu Copyright © 2015 Ramadoss Karthikeyan et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Identification of Radix Bupleuri from Its Unofficial Varieties Based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation Feature Extraction of ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy Combined with Probability Neural Network Sun, 15 Feb 2015 08:27:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/950209/ The attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was employed to acquire the infrared spectra of Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties: the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule Helm. The infrared spectra and spectra of Fourier self-deconvolution (FSD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT), and probability neural network (PNN) of these species were analyzed. By the method of FSD, there were conspicuous differences of the infrared absorption peak intensity of different types between Radix Bupleuri and its unofficial varieties. But it is hard to tell the differences between the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule. The differences could be shown more clearly when the DWT was used. The research result shows that by the DWT technology it is easier to identify Radix Bupleuri from its unofficial varieties the root of Bupleurum smithii Wolff and the root of Bupleurum bicaule. Wenying Jin, Chayan Wan, and Cungui Cheng Copyright © 2015 Wenying Jin et al. All rights reserved. A New Technique for Quantitative Determination of Dexamethasone in Pharmaceutical and Biological Samples Using Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method Sun, 08 Feb 2015 14:10:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/439271/ Dexamethasone is a type of steroidal medications that is prescribed in many cases. In this study, a new reaction system using kinetic spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of dexamethasone is proposed. The method is based on the catalytic effect of dexamethasone on the oxidation of Orange G by bromate in acidic media. The change in absorbance as a criterion of the oxidation reaction progress was followed spectrophotometrically. To obtain the maximum sensitivity, the effective reaction variables were optimized. Under optimized experimental conditions, calibration graph was linear over the range 0.2–54.0 mg L−1. The calculated detection limit (3/m) was 0.14 mg L−1 for six replicate determinations of blank signal. The interfering effect of various species was also investigated. The present method was successfully applied for the determination of dexamethasone in pharmaceutical and biological samples satisfactorily. Ali Mohammad Akhoundi-Khalafi and Masoud Reza Shishehbore Copyright © 2015 Ali Mohammad Akhoundi-Khalafi and Masoud Reza Shishehbore. All rights reserved. Development and Validation of GC-ECD Method for the Determination of Metamitron in Soil Thu, 05 Feb 2015 08:49:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/592763/ This paper aims at developing and validating a convenient, rapid, and sensitive method for estimation of metamitron from soil samples.Determination andquantification was carried out by Gas Chromatography on microcapillary column with an Electron Capture Detector source. The compound was extracted from soil using methanol and cleanup by C-18 SPE. After optimization, the method was validated by evaluating the analytical curves, linearity, limits of detection, and quantification, precision (repeatability and intermediate precision), and accuracy (recovery). Recovery values ranged from 89 to 93.5% within 0.05- 2.0 µg L−1 with average RSD 1.80%. The precision (repeatability) ranged from 1.7034 to 1.9144% and intermediate precision from 1.5685 to 2.1323%. Retention time was 6.3 minutes, and minimum detectable and quantifiable limits were 0.02 ng mL−1 and 0.05 ng g−1, respectively. Good linearity () of the calibration curves was obtained over the range from 0.05 to 2.0 µg L−1. Results indicated that the developed method is rapid and easy to perform, making it applicable for analysis in large pesticide monitoring programmes. Shishir Tandon, Satyendra Kumar, and N. K. Sand Copyright © 2015 Shishir Tandon et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Quality by Design: A Tool for Regulatory Flexibility and Robust Analytics Mon, 02 Feb 2015 06:42:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/868727/ Very recently, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a few new drug applications (NDA) with regulatory flexibility for quality by design (QbD) based analytical approach. The concept of QbD applied to analytical method development is known now as AQbD (analytical quality by design). It allows the analytical method for movement within method operable design region (MODR). Unlike current methods, analytical method developed using analytical quality by design (AQbD) approach reduces the number of out-of-trend (OOT) results and out-of-specification (OOS) results due to the robustness of the method within the region. It is a current trend among pharmaceutical industry to implement analytical quality by design (AQbD) in method development process as a part of risk management, pharmaceutical development, and pharmaceutical quality system (ICH Q10). Owing to the lack explanatory reviews, this paper has been communicated to discuss different views of analytical scientists about implementation of AQbD in pharmaceutical quality system and also to correlate with product quality by design and pharmaceutical analytical technology (PAT). Ramalingam Peraman, Kalva Bhadraya, and Yiragamreddy Padmanabha Reddy Copyright © 2015 Ramalingam Peraman et al. All rights reserved. Fast Measurement of Methanol Concentration in Ionic Liquids by Potential Step Method Sat, 31 Jan 2015 11:16:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/106173/ The development of direct methanol fuel cells required the attention to the electrolyte. A good electrolyte should not only be ionic conductive but also be crossover resistant. Ionic liquids could be a promising electrolyte for fuel cells. Monitoring methanol was critical in several locations in a direct methanol fuel cell. Conductivity could be used to monitor the methanol content in ionic liquids. The conductivity of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate had a linear relationship with the methanol concentration. However, the conductivity was significantly affected by the moisture or water content in the ionic liquid. On the contrary, potential step could be used in sensing methanol in ionic liquids. This method was not affected by the water content. The sampling current at a properly selected sampling time was proportional to the concentration of methanol in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate. The linearity still stood even when there was 2.4 M water present in the ionic liquid. Michael L. Hainstock and Yijun Tang Copyright © 2015 Michael L. Hainstock and Yijun Tang. All rights reserved. Stability-Indicating HPLC Determination of Trandolapril in Bulk Drug and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms Sat, 31 Jan 2015 09:49:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/820517/ A rapid, simple, accurate, precise, economical, robust, and stability indicating reverse phase HPLC-PDA procedure has been developed and validated for the determination of trandolapril. The trandolapril was separated isocratically on Hypersil-Gold C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of 50% acetonitrile and 50% water (containing 0.025% triethylamine, pH ), at °C. Retention time of the drug was ~4.6 min. The eluted compounds were monitored and identified at 210 nm. The linearity of the method was excellent over the concentration range of 1–24 μg/mL; the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were 0.0566 μg/mL and 0.1715 μg/mL, respectively. The overall precision was less than 2%. Mean recovery of trandolapril was more than 99%; no interference was found from the component present in the preparation. Stability studies indicate that the drug was stable to sunlight and UV light. The drug gives 6 different oxidative products on exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Slight degradation was observed in acidic condition. Degradation was higher in the alkaline condition compared to other conditions. The robustness of the method was studied using factorial design experiment. Leena A. Al-Hawash, Ashok K. Shakya, and Maher L. Saleem Copyright © 2015 Leena A. Al-Hawash et al. All rights reserved. High Sensitive Sensor Fabricated by Reduced Graphene Oxide/Polyvinyl Butyral Nanofibers for Detecting Cu (II) in Water Wed, 28 Jan 2015 12:15:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2015/723276/ Graphene oxide (GO)/polyvinyl butyral (PVB) nanofibers were prepared by a simple electrospinning technique with PVB as matrix and GO as a functional nanomaterial. GO/PVB nanofibers on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were reduced through electrochemical method to form reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/PVB nanofibers. The morphology and structure of GO/PVB nanofiber were studied by scanning election microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). RGO/PVB modified GCE was used for fabricating an electrochemical sensor for detecting Cu (II) in water. The analysis results showed that RGO/PVB modified GCE had good analytical results with the linear range of 0.06–2.2 μM, detection limit of 4.10 nM (), and the sensitivity of 103.51 μAμM−1cm−2. Rui Ding, Zhimin Luo, Xiuling Ma, Xiaoping Fan, Liqun Xue, Xiuzhu Lin, and Sheng Chen Copyright © 2015 Rui Ding et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry Wed, 31 Dec 2014 00:10:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/247316/ A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson and , ). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. Caroline E. West and Blaine N. Rhodes Copyright © 2014 Caroline E. West and Blaine N. Rhodes. All rights reserved. The Development and Application of Novel IR and NMR-Based Model for the Evaluation of Carminative Effect of Artemisia judaica L. Essential Oil Mon, 29 Dec 2014 06:33:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/627038/ Artemisia judaica L. is a medicinal plant that is traditionally used to relieve abdominal pains through its carminative activity. In this study, spectroscopic analysis was employed to investigate the carminative activity associated with A. judaica. Using infrared spectroscopy, the carminative activity was evaluated based on the first derivative of IR-characteristic stretching signal of CO2. Our results indicate that A. judaica oil effectively reduced the response of CO2 signal equivalent to thymol standard. Additionally, 1H-NMR spectroscopy was utilized to assess surface activity of A. judaica crude oil through the reduction of interfacial tension in a D2O/CDCl3 system. Apparently, 10 mg of the oil was able to solubilize water in a chloroform layer up to 4.3% (w/w). In order to correlate the observed surface activity of the oil to its actual composition, GC-MS and GC-FID structural analysis were undertaken. The results revealed that the oil composition consists of oxygenated terpenes which might be responsible for the carminative effect. Furthermore, owing to its sensitivity, our model provides a fundamental basis for the pharmacological assessment of trace amounts of oils with high precision and accuracy. Muhammed Alzweiri, Ibrahim M. Alrawashdeh, and Sanaa K. Bardaweel Copyright © 2014 Muhammed Alzweiri et al. All rights reserved. Flow Injection Photosensitized Chemiluminescence of Luminol with Cu(II)-Rose Bengal: Mechanistic Approach and Vitamin A and C Determination Sun, 28 Dec 2014 08:07:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/109592/ Rose Bengal photosensitized flow injection chemiluminescence method is reported using luminol-Cu(II) for the determination of vitamins A and C in pharmaceutical formulations. The reaction is based on the enhancement effect of analyte in the production of anion radicals of Rose Bengal (RB•−) which rapidly interact with dissolved oxygen and generate superoxide anions radicals (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Highly reactive hydroxyl radicals (•OH) were produced via dismutation of H2O2 by catalyst (Cu2+). The generated superoxide anions radicals and hydroxyl radicals thus oxidize luminol in alkaline medium to generate strong chemiluminescence. The limit of detection (3s of the blank, ) of vitamins A and C and RB was found to be 0.008, 0.005, and 0.05 μg mL−1, respectively. The sample throughput of 70 h−1 for vitamins A and C and 30 h−1 for RB was found. Calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.05–15, 0.01–20, and 0.1–50 μg mL−1 for vitamins A and C and RB, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; ) in the range 1.6–3.6%. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical formulations and the results obtained were in good agreement with the labeled values. Muhammad Asgher, Mohammad Yaqoob, Abdul Nabi, Ghulam Murtaza, Abdul Rauf Siddiqi, and Amir Waseem Copyright © 2014 Muhammad Asgher et al. All rights reserved. Preparation of Electrochemical Biosensor for Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides Wed, 24 Dec 2014 05:53:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/303641/ Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) can be used to develop reaction beaker which acts as electrochemical cell for the measurement of OP pesticides. Being chemically inert, corrosion resistant, and easy in molding to various shapes and size, PVC can be used for the immobilization of enzyme. Organophosphorus hydrolase was immobilized covalently onto the chemically activated inner surface of PVC beaker by using glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. The carbon nanotubes paste working electrode was constructed for amperometric measurement at a potential of +0.8 V. The biosensor showed optimum response at pH 8.0 with incubation temperature of 40°C. and for substrate (methyl parathion) were 322.58 µM and 1.1 µA, respectively. Evaluation study showed a correlation of 0.985, which was in agreement with the standard method. The OPH biosensor lost 50% of its initial activity after its regular use for 25 times over a period of 50 days when stored in 0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 8.0 at 4°C. No interference was observed by interfering species. Ashish Gothwal, Puneet Beniwal, Vikas Dhull, and Vikas Hooda Copyright © 2014 Ashish Gothwal et al. All rights reserved. Identification of New Metabolites of Bacterial Transformation of Indole by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and High Performance Liquid Chromatography Thu, 04 Dec 2014 07:26:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/239641/ Arthrobacter sp. SPG transformed indole completely in the presence of an additional carbon source. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde as biotransformation products. This is the first report of the formation of indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-glyoxylic acid, and indole-3-aldehyde from indole by any bacterium. Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae Copyright © 2014 Pankaj Kumar Arora and Hanhong Bae. All rights reserved. Quantitation of α-Lactalbumin by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in Medicinal Adjuvant Lactose Thu, 04 Dec 2014 00:10:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/841084/ Lactose is a widely used pharmaceutical excipient, sometimes irreplaceable. Traces of residual proteins left during production of lactose are potential allergen to body. The present paper describes a sensitive and specific LC-MS method for the determination of α-lactalbumin (α-La) in lactose samples. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH300 C18 column ( mm, 1.7 μm) with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of water containing 0.1% TFA and acetonitrile containing 0.1% TFA (80 : 20, v/v). Mass spectrometric detection was achieved by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an ESI interface operating in positive ionization mode. Quantitation was performed using selected ion monitoring of m/z 2364 for α-La. The calibration curve was linear from 0.2 to 10 µg/mL. The intra- and interday precisions were less than 7.6% and the accuracy ranged from 96.4 to 104.5%. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.15 µg/mL and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05 µg/mL. This method was then successfully applied to investigate 6 different lactose samples. The application can provide technical preparation for the development of specification of lactose. Rui Yan, Longmei Qu, Nan Luo, Yang Liu, Yu Liu, Li Li, and Lijiang Chen Copyright © 2014 Rui Yan et al. All rights reserved. Cyclic Nanostructures of Tungsten Oxide as Gas Sensor: A Theoretical Study Tue, 02 Dec 2014 08:27:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/240197/ Today’s WO3-based gas sensors have received a lot of attention, because of important role as a sensitive layer for detection of the small quantities of  . In this research, a theoretical study has been done on the sensing properties of different cyclic nanoclusters of for gases. Based on the calculated adsorption energies by B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, from the different orientations of   molecule on the tungsten oxide clusters, O–NW was preferred. Different sizes of the mentioned clusters have been analyzed and W2O6 cluster was chosen as the best candidate for detection from the energy viewpoint. Using the concepts of the chemical hardness and electronic charge transfer, some correlations between the energy of adsorption and interaction energy have been established. These analyses confirmed that the adsorption energy will be boosted with charge transfer enhancement. However, the chemical hardness relationship is reversed. Finally, obtained results from the natural bond orbital and electronic density of states analysis confirmed the electronic charge transfer from the adsorbates to WO3 clusters and Fermi level shifting after adsorption, respectively. The last parameter confirms that the cyclic clusters of tungsten oxide can be used as gas sensors. Mohammad Izadyar and Azam Jamsaz Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Izadyar and Azam Jamsaz. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Evolution of Tannic Acid Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles Using Mie Theory Sun, 23 Nov 2014 08:48:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/832657/ Spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been synthesized in aqueous solutions using sodium citrate (SC) and tannic acid (TA) as reducing and stabilizing agents. Upon addition of TA and compared to the GNP TA-free aqueous solutions, a reduction of the GNPs size and consequently a dramatic change of their optical properties have been observed and quantitatively analyzed using Mie theory. An increase in the concentration of TA reveals a modification of the colloidal solution refractive index that is evidenced by the shift in the peak position of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band. The variations of the peak absorbance with the TA concentration are examined in the low and high concentration regimes. Assia Rachida Senoudi, Sidi Mohammed Chabane Sari, and Ilhem Faiza Hakem Copyright © 2014 Assia Rachida Senoudi et al. All rights reserved. Bioactive Paper Sensor Based on the Acetylcholinesterase for the Rapid Detection of Organophosphate and Carbamate Pesticides Tue, 18 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/536823/ In many countries, people are becoming more concerned about pesticide residues which are present in or on food and feed products. For this reason, several methods have been developed to monitor the pesticide residue levels in food samples. In this study, a bioactive paper-based sensor was developed for detection of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors including organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Based on the Ellman colorimetric assay, the assay strip is composed of a paper support ( cm), onto which a biopolymer chitosan gel immobilized in crosslinking by glutaraldehyde with AChE and 5,5′-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic) acid (DTNB) and uses acetylthiocholine iodide (ATChI) as an outside reagent. The assay protocol involves introducing the sample to sensing zone via dipping of a pesticide-containing solution. Following an incubation period, the paper is placed into ATChI solution to initiate enzyme catalyzed hydrolysis of the substrate, causing a yellow color change. The absence or decrease of the yellow color indicates the levels of the AChE inhibitors. The biosensor is able to detect organophosphate and carbamate pesticides with good detection limits ( mM and  mM) and rapid response times (~5 min). The results show that the paper-based biosensor is rapid, sensitive, inexpensive, portable, disposable, and easy-to-use. Mohamed E. I. Badawy and Ahmed F. El-Aswad Copyright © 2014 Mohamed E. I. Badawy and Ahmed F. El-Aswad. All rights reserved. Field Dissipation and Storage Stability of Glufosinate Ammonium and Its Metabolites in Soil Mon, 13 Oct 2014 11:43:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/256091/ A simple analytical method was developed to measure concentrations of glufosinate ammonium and its metabolites, 3-methylphosphinico-propionic acid (MPP) and 2-methylphosphinico-acetic acid (MPA), in field soil samples. To determine the minimum quantification limit, samples were spiked at different levels (0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg). Soil samples were extracted with ammonium hydroxide solution 5% (v/v), concentrated, and reacted with trimethyl orthoacetate (TMOA) in the presence of acetic acid for derivatization. The derivatives were quantified by gas chromatography (GC) using a flame photometric detector (FPD). The linear correlation coefficients of glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 0.991, 0.999, and 0.999, respectively. The recoveries of this method for glufosinate ammonium, MPP, and MPA in soil were 77.2–95.5%, 98.3–100.3%, and 99.3–99.6% with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 1.8–4.1%, 0.4–1.4%, and 1.3–2.0%, respectively. Glufosinate ammonium dissipated rapidly in soil to MPA in hours and gradually degraded to MPP. The half-life of glufosinate ammonium degradation in soil was 2.30–2.93 days in an open field. In soil samples stored at −20°C glufosinate ammonium was stable for two months. The results of this study should provide guidance for the safe application of the herbicide glufosinate ammonium to agricultural products and the environment. Yun Zhang, Kai Wang, Junxue Wu, and Hongyan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Yun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Estimation of Measurement Uncertainties for the DGT Passive Sampler Used for Determination of Copper in Water Mon, 01 Sep 2014 12:41:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/389125/ Diffusion-based passive samplers are increasingly used for water quality monitoring. While the overall method robustness and reproducibility for passive samplers in water are widely reported, there has been a lack of a detailed description of uncertainty sources. In this paper an uncertainty budget for the determination of fully labile Cu in water using a DGT passive sampler is presented. Uncertainty from the estimation of effective cross-sectional diffusion area and the instrumental determination of accumulated mass of analyte are the most significant sources of uncertainty, while uncertainties from contamination and the estimation of diffusion coefficient are negligible. The results presented highlight issues with passive samplers which are important to address if overall method uncertainty is to be reduced and effective strategies to reduce overall method uncertainty are presented. Jesper Knutsson, Sebastien Rauch, and Gregory M. Morrison Copyright © 2014 Jesper Knutsson et al. All rights reserved. Development of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantification of Glucaric Acid Derivatives in Beverage Substrates Sun, 15 Jun 2014 11:48:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/402938/ A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method using the standard addition methodology was developed for the determination of glucuronolactone (GL) and glucuronic acid (DGuA) in four beverages categorized as detoxification, recovery, or energy drinks. The method features a precolumn derivatization step with a combination of BSTFA (N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide) and TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) to silylate the analytes. The sample pretreatment required no extraction, filtration, or reduction step prior to the injection. The quantification of the analytes was performed using a five-point standard addition protocol. The proposed method presented excellent intraday precision (%RSD 10) and linearity for GL calibration curves (correlation coefficients 0.995) and acceptable linearity for DGuA calibration curves (correlation coefficients 0.97). The estimated limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for GL ranged from 0.006 ppm to 0.14 ppm, and 0.02 ppm to 0.47 ppm, respectively. The estimated LOD and LOQ for DGuA determination ranged, respectively, from 0.06 ppm to 1.1 ppm and 0.2 ppm to 3.8 ppm. The results demonstrated that the method should be regarded as a reliable alternative to the simultaneous determination of GL and DGuA. Ana Paula Craig, Christine C. Fields, and John V. Simpson Copyright © 2014 Ana Paula Craig et al. All rights reserved. Analytical Performances of Nanostructured Gold Supported on Metal Oxide Sorbents for the Determination of Gaseous Mercury Sun, 06 Apr 2014 14:03:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/490291/ Nanostructured gold supported TiO2, ZnO, and Al2O3 materials (1% w/w Au) were tested as sorbents for gaseous mercury (Hg) trapping and preconcentration. Their analytical performances were first compared with the one of traditional gold wool trap for the quantification of Hg standards injected into the argon flow followed by thermal desorption at 600°C and CVAFS detection. Good linearity and reproducibility were obtained, especially for Au/TiO2 material (; slope: 1.39) in the volume range of 10 to 60 µL (132–778 pg Hg). This latter even showed a better performance compared to pure Au in the volume range of 10 to 100 µL (132–1329 pg Hg) when the carrier gas flow was increased from 60 to 100 mL . The method detection limit (MDL) obtained with Au/TiO2 trap (0.10 pg ) was suitable for total gaseous mercury (TGM) determination. Au/TiO2 was, therefore, used in trapping and determining TGM in collected air samples. TGM values in the samples ranged from 6 to 10 ng . Similar results were obtained with the commercial gold-coated sand trap which showed an average TGM concentration of  ng . Julien Lusilao-Makiese, Emmanuel Tessier, David Amouroux, and Ewa Cukrowska Copyright © 2014 Julien Lusilao-Makiese et al. All rights reserved. Determination of Acid Dissociation Constants () of Bicyclic Thiohydantoin-Pyrrolidine Compounds in 20% Ethanol-Water Hydroorganic Solvent Sun, 30 Mar 2014 07:42:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/634194/ The acid dissociation constants of potential bioactive fused ring thiohydantoin-pyrrolidine compounds were determined by potentiometric titration in 20% (v/v) ethanol-water mixed at °C, at an ionic background of 0.1 mol/L of NaCl using the HYPERQUAD computer program. Proton affinities of potential donor atoms of the ligands were calculated by AM1 and PM3 semiempiric methods. We found, potentiometrically, three different acid dissociation constants for 1a–f. We suggest that these acid dissociation constants are related to the carboxyl, enol, and amino groups. Yahya Nural, H. Ali Döndaş, Hayati Sarı, Hasan Atabey, Samet Belveren, and Müge Gemili Copyright © 2014 Yahya Nural et al. All rights reserved. Trace Analysis in End-Exhaled Air Using Direct Solvent Extraction in Gas Sampling Tubes: Tetrachloroethene in Workers as an Example Tue, 18 Mar 2014 12:17:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/904512/ Simple and cost-effective analytical methods are required to overcome the barriers preventing the use of exhaled air in routine occupational biological monitoring. Against this background, a new method is proposed that simplifies the automation and calibration of the analytical measurements. End-exhaled air is sampled using valveless gas sampling tubes made of glass. Gaseous analytes are transferred to a liquid phase using a microscale solvent extraction performed directly inside the gas sampling tubes. The liquid extracts are analysed using a gas chromatograph equipped, as usual, with a liquid autosampler, and liquid standards are used for calibration. For demonstration purposes, the method’s concept was applied to the determination of tetrachloroethene in end-exhaled air, which is a biomarker for occupational tetrachloroethene exposure. The method’s performance was investigated in the concentration range 2 to 20 μg tetrachloroethene/L, which corresponds to today’s exposure levels. The calibration curve was linear, and the intra-assay repeatability and recovery rate were sufficient. Analysis of real samples from dry-cleaning workers occupationally exposed to tetrachloroethene and from nonexposed subjects demonstrated the method’s utility. In the case of tetrachloroethene, the method can be deployed quickly, requires no previous experiences in gas analysis, provides sufficient analytical reliability, and addresses typical end-exhaled air concentrations from exposed workers. Chris-Elmo Ziener and Pia-Paulin Braunsdorf Copyright © 2014 Chris-Elmo Ziener and Pia-Paulin Braunsdorf. All rights reserved. Determination of β-Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography Wed, 26 Feb 2014 09:37:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/768406/ Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90–110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80–120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92–102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%. Sean Austin, Thierry Bénet, Julien Michaud, Denis Cuany, and Philippe Rohfritsch Copyright © 2014 Sean Austin et al. All rights reserved. Study of a Conformational Equilibrium of Lisinopril by HPLC, NMR, and DFT Tue, 25 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/494719/ The isomerization of lisinopril has been investigated using chromatographic, NMR spectroscopic, and theoretical calculations. The NMR data, particularly the NOEDIFF experiments, show that the major species that was eluted first is the trans form. The proportion was 77% and 23% for the trans and cis, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (, , and ) were determined by varying the temperature in the NMR experiments. The interpretations of the experimental data were further supported by DFT/B3LYP calculations. Sondes Bouabdallah, Med Thaieb Ben Dhia, and Med Rida Driss Copyright © 2014 Sondes Bouabdallah et al. All rights reserved. Four Derivative Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R in Drinks and Comparison with High Performance Liquid Chromatography Wed, 12 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/650465/ Four simple, rapid, and accurate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of two food colorants, Carmoisine (E122) and Ponceau 4R (E124), in their binary mixtures and soft drinks. The first method is based on recording the first derivative curves and determining each component using the zero-crossing technique. The second method uses the first derivative of ratio spectra. The ratio spectra are obtained by dividing the absorption spectra of the binary mixture by that of one of the components. The third method, derivative differential procedure, is based on the measurement of difference absorptivities derivatized in first order of solution of drink samples in 0,1 N NaOH relative to that of an equimolar solution in 0,1 N HCl at wavelengths of 366 and 451 nm for Carmoisine and Ponceau 4R, respectively. The last method, based on the compensation method is presented for derivative spectrophotometric determination of E122 and E124 mixtures with overlapping spectra. By using ratios of the derivative maxima, the exact compensation of either component in the mixture can be achieved, followed by its determination. These proposed methods have been successfully applied to the binary mixtures and soft drinks and the results were statistically compared with the reference HPLC method (NMKL 130). Fatma Turak, Mithat Dinç, Öznur Dülger, and Mahmure Ustun Özgür Copyright © 2014 Fatma Turak et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of 6-(2-Methoxynaphthyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-3-thione as a New Reagent for Spectrophotometric Determination of Copper Tue, 04 Feb 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/260179/ A simple, sensitive, accurate, and green spectrophotometric method for the determination of Cu(II) using newly synthesized reagent, 6-(2-methoxynaphthyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-3-thione (MNDTT), has been developed. MNDTT was synthesized based on the acylation of methoxy naphthalene and reaction of the product with amyl nitrite, which upon reaction with thiosemicarbazide yielded 6-(2-meyhoxynaphthyl)-2,3-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-3-thione. MNDTT produces a dark red complex with copper in methanol according to the 1 : 2 stoichiometry. Beer’s law was obeyed over the concentration range of 2.5–20 µg/mL with . The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.33 and 1.10 µg/mL, respectively. Within-day and between-day precision values were less than 3.68%. Finally, the method has been applied to a dental alloy (110-plus) successfully and the results were compared with atomic absorption method. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the two methods (). Maliheh Barazandeh Tehrani, Hutan Ghanbari, Effat Souri, Fazel Shamsa, and Mohsen Amini Copyright © 2014 Maliheh Barazandeh Tehrani et al. All rights reserved. Analysis of Five Earthy-Musty Odorants in Environmental Water by HS-SPME/GC-MS Thu, 02 Jan 2014 15:08:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijac/2014/697260/ The pressing issue of earthy and musty odor compounds in natural waters, which can affect the organoleptic properties of drinking water, makes it a public health concern. A simple and sensitive method for simultaneous analysis of five odorants in environmental water was developed by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), including geosmin (GSM) and 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB), as well as dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), β-cyclocitral, and β-ionone. Based on the simple modification of original magnetic stirrer purchased from CORNING (USA), the five target compounds can be separated within 23 min, and the calibration curves show good linearity with a correlation coefficient above 0.999 (levels = 5). The limits of detection (LOD) are all below 1.3 ng L−1, and the relative standard deviation (%RSD) is between 4.4% and 9.9% () and recoveries of the analytes from water samples are between 86.2% and 112.3%. In addition, the storage time experiment indicated that the concentrations did not change significantly for GSM and 2-MIB if they were stored in canonical environment. In conclusion, the method in this study could be applied for monitoring these five odorants in natural waters. Zhen Ding, Shifu Peng, Weiwen Xia, Hao Zheng, Xiaodong Chen, and Lihong Yin Copyright © 2014 Zhen Ding et al. All rights reserved.