Table 1: Demographic and clinical profile of study participants.

Diabetic subjectsNondiabetic subjects
ADCNADCN

Number2526130125
Age (years)78.6 (5.8)*72.7 (5.6) 77.5 (6.3) 72.6 (4.6)
Female (%)68.0*50.280.0#50.4
Education (years)9.3 (2.0)*11.9 (3.0) 11.0 (2.5)12.5 (3.0)
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 (4.6)23.0 (3.4)21.7 (2.2)#23.6 (4.2)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)127.0 (16.0)130.0 (13.3)126.6 (17.3)128.6 (15.7)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)60.0 (15.1)*70.0 (9.4)58.5 (16.0)#72.0 (9.0)
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)197.8 (43.7)206.1 (30.0)214.4 (34.1)196.1 (29.8)
Triglyceride (mg/dL)118.9 (49.3)157.4 (83.7)131.0 (61.6)109.8 (54.0)
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL)60.2 (12.5)53.4 (14.7)69.5 (18.6)60.9 (17.9)
HbA1c (%)7.1 (0.8)7.2 (1.1)
Duration of diabetes (years)16.6 (9.9)14.6 (10.7)
Hypoglycemic episodes (times/year) 4.5 (13.0)11.4 (47.2)
Insulin use (%)40.030.3
Insulin dose (U/day)17.0 (11.6)22.7 (12.9)
Insulin injection (times/day)2.4 (1.0)2.4 (1.0)
Oral hypoglycemic agent use (yes = 1, no = 0)0.8 (0.4)0.7 (0.5)
Exercise (minutes/week) 72.3 (12.9)*221.9 (468.7) 209.3 (161)225.8 (208.7)
Diet therapy compliance (very poor = 1, poor = 2, normal = 3, good = 4)3.2 (0.9)3.3 (0.6)3.3 (0.7)3.4 (0.8)
History of heart disease (%)4.019.93.720.0
History of cerebrovascular disease (%)12.010.06.78.0
MMSE (score)20.6 (3.8)*28.0 (0.0)20.8 (3.7)#27.4 (2.1)
Computer-based screening test (score)9.0 (2.9)*14.3 (0.5)9.9 (2.9)#14.4 (0.5)

Values are the mean and (SD) and percentages. *P < 0.05 and #P < 0.05 compared with cognitively normal subjects in the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, respectively. AD: Alzheimer’s disease; CN: cognitively normal; BMI: body mass index; MMSE: mini-mental state examination.