Table 3: Comparison of age, gender, test language, and MoCA-ChLA score among the three education groups.

VariablesEducation 1–6 years (n = 178)Education 7–11 years (n = 282)Education 12–20 years (n = 732)P value1Adjusted P value2

Age in years, mean ± SD63.6 ± 9.761.1 ± 8.862.8 ± 10.40.01
Female, no. (%)128 (71.9)172 (61.0)434 (59.3)0.01
Testing language, no. (%)
 Cantonese134 (75.3)167 (59.2)274 (37.4)<0.0001
 Mandarin44 (24.7)115 (40.8)453 (61.9)
 Taiwanese0 (0)0 (0)5 (0.7)
Unadjusted MoCA, mean ± SD20.2 ± 4.723.1 ± 3.925.0 ± 3.6<0.0001
Adjusted MoCA2, lsmean ± SE19.7 ± 0.622.3 ± 0.624.3 ± 0.6<0.0001

1P value obtained from Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous variables, from Chi-square test for gender, from Fisher exact test for testing language.
2P value obtained from nonparametric analysis of covariance with adjustment for age, gender, and testing language.