Table 2: “Good” microglia in Alzheimer disease.

Publication(s)Type of studyObservations

Martin et al., 2008 [41]EpidemiologicNo primary prevention of AD in an NSAID clinical trial; weak evidence for lower cognitive scores in naproxen users.
Schenk et al., 1999 [45]Mouse modelsAβ immunotherapy mitigates β-amyloid plaque pathology in PDAPP mice; phagocytic microglia colocalize with remaining Aβ deposits.
Janus et al., 2000 [46]; Morgan et al., 2000 [47]Mouse modelsBehavioral impairment is reduced in Aβ-immunized TgCRND8 or APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Bard et al., 2000 [48]Mouse modelsPassive Aβ immunotherapy reduces cerebral amyloidosis in PDAPP mice. Remaining Aβ deposits colocalize with phagocytic microglia.
Nicoll et al., 2003 [50]NeuropathologicAN-1792 Aβ immunotherapy results in striking reduction of amyloid pathology; remaining plaques colocalize with phagocytic microglia.
Tan et al., 2000 [53]Mouse modelsMicroglial CD45 negatively regulates microglial activation and opposes activated microglia-induced neuronal cell injury.
Zhu et al., 2011 [54]Mouse modelsMicroglial CD45 endorses phagocytosis and clearance of Aβ peptides and oligomers in PSAPP mice.
Shaftel et al., 2007 [55]Mouse modelsForcing brain IL-1β expression using IL-1β XAT transgenic mice activates “good” neuroinflammation and dramatically reduces amyloid plaque pathology in APP/PS1 mice.
Chakrabarty et al., 2010 [56]Mouse modelsForcing cerebral IFN-γ expression leads to profound neuroinflammation and clears amyloid plaques in TgCRND8 mice via microglial phagocytosis.
Chakrabarty et al., 2010 [57]Mouse modelsOverexpressing brain IL-6 leads to massive gliosis and clears amyloid plaques in TgCRND8 mice via microglial phagocytosis.
Chakrabarty et al., 2011 [58]Mouse modelsIncreasing cerebral proinflammatory TNF-α expression clears amyloid pathology in TgCRND8 mice.
DiCarlo et al., 2001 [59]Mouse modelsAcute intrahippocampal injection of LPS reduces Aβ plaque load in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Wilcock et al., 2008 [60]Mouse modelsAPPSwDI mice deficient in proinflammatory NOS2 have tau pathology and neuronal loss.