- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 604141, 10 pages
Reliable Measurements of the β-Amyloid Pool in Blood Could Help in the Early Diagnosis of AD
1Araclon Biotech Ltd., I + D Laboratory, Zaragoza, Spain
2Araclon Biotech Ltd., Proteomic Laboratory, CIBIR Logroño, Spain
3Alzheimer Research Center and Memory Clinic, Fundació ACE, Institut Català de Neurciències Aplicades, Barcelona, Spain
Received 13 December 2011; Revised 7 May 2012; Accepted 9 May 2012
Academic Editor: Seishi Terada
Copyright © 2012 Pedro Pesini et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- P. T. Nelson, H. Braak, and W. R. Markesbery, “Neuropathology and cognitive impairment in alzheimer disease: a complex but coherent relationship,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2009.
- L. M. Shaw, H. Vanderstichele, M. Knapik-Czajka et al., “Cerebrospinal fluid biomarker signature in alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative subjects,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 403–413, 2009.
- O. Hansson, H. Zetterberg, P. Buchhave et al., “Prediction of Alzheimer's disease using the CSF Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 316–320, 2007.
- P. Lewczuk, J. Kornhuber, H. Vanderstichele et al., “Multiplexed quantification of dementia biomarkers in the CSF of patients with early dementias and MCI: a multicenter study,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 812–818, 2008.
- N. Mattsson, H. Zetterberg, O. Hansson et al., “CSF biomarkers and incipient Alzheimer disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 302, no. 4, pp. 385–393, 2009.
- O. Hansson, H. Zetterberg, E. Vanmechelen et al., “Evaluation of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 as predictors of conversion to Alzheimer's disease in patients with mild cognitive impairment,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 357–367, 2010.
- M. Shibata, S. Yamada, S. Ram Kumar et al., “Clearance of Alzheimer's amyloid-β1-40 peptide from brain by LDL receptor-related protein-1 at the blood-brain barrier,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 1489–1499, 2000.
- R. E. Tanzi, R. D. Moir, and S. L. Wagner, “Clearance of Alzheimer's Aβ peptide: the many roads to perdition,” Neuron, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 605–608, 2004.
- R. Deane, R. D. Bell, A. Sagare, and B. V. Zlokovic, “Clearance of amyloid-β peptide across the blood-brain barrier: implication for therapies in Alzheimer's disease,” CNS and Neurological Disorders, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 16–30, 2009.
- H. Zetterberg, “Is plasma amyloid-β a reliable biomarker for Alzheimer's disease?” Recent Patents on CNS Drug Discovery, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 109–111, 2008.
- O. I. Okereke, W. Xia, M. C. Irizarry et al., “Performance characteristics of plasma amyloid-β 40 and 42 assays,” Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 277–285, 2009.
- A. Cedazo-Minguez and B. Winblad, “Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia: clinical needs, limitations and future aspects,” Experimental Gerontology, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 5–14, 2010.
- N. Schupf, B. Patel, D. Pang et al., “Elevated plasma β-amyloid peptide Aβ42 levels, incident dementia, and mortality in Down syndrome,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 7, pp. 1007–1013, 2007.
- D. Scheuner, C. Eckman, M. Jensen et al., “Secreted amyloid β-protein similar to that in the senile plaques of Alzheimer's disease is increased in vivo by the presenilin 1 and 2 and APP mutations linked to familial Alzheimer's disease,” Nature Medicine, vol. 2, no. 8, pp. 864–870, 1996.
- A. Assini, S. Cammarata, A. Vitali et al., “Plasma levels of amyloid β-protein 42 are increased in women with mild cognitive impairment,” Neurology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 828–831, 2004.
- R. Mayeux, L. S. Honig, M. X. Tang et al., “Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 and Alzheimer's disease: relation to age, mortality, and risk,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 9, pp. 1185–1190, 2003.
- N. Ertekin-Taner, L. H. Younkin, D. M. Yager et al., “Plasma amyloid β protein is elevated in late-onset Alzheimer disease families,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 596–606, 2008.
- I. Blasko, K. Jellinger, G. Kemmler et al., “Conversion from cognitive health to mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: prediction by plasma amyloid beta 42, medial temporal lobe atrophy and homocysteine,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2008.
- N. Schupf, M. X. Tang, H. Fukuyama et al., “Peripheral Aβ subspecies as risk biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 37, pp. 14052–14057, 2008.
- W. Xia, T. Yang, G. Shankar et al., “A specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring β-amyloid protein oligomers in human plasma and brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer Disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 190–199, 2009.
- T. Sobów, M. Flirski, I. Kloszewska, and P. P. Liberski, “Plasma levels of Aβ peptides are altered in amnestic mild cognitive impairment but not in sporadic Alzheimer's disease,” Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 117–124, 2005.
- T. Kawarabayashi, L. H. Younkin, T. C. Saido, M. Shoji, K. H. Ashe, and S. G. Younkin, “Age-dependent changes in brain, CSF, and plasma amyloid β protein in the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 372–381, 2001.
- A. L. Biere, B. Ostaszewski, E. R. Stimson, B. T. Hyman, J. E. Maggio, and D. J. Selkoe, “Amyloid β-peptide is transported on lipoproteins and albumin in human plasma,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 271, no. 51, pp. 32916–32922, 1996.
- J. Rogers, R. Li, D. Mastroeni et al., “Peripheral clearance of amyloid β peptide by complement C3-dependent adherence to erythrocytes,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1733–1739, 2006.
- E. Matsubara, Y. Sekijima, T. Tokuda et al., “Soluble Aβ homeostasis in AD and DS: impairment of anti-amyloidogenic protection by lipoproteins,” Neurobiology of Aging, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 833–841, 2004.
- K. Blennow, H. Hampel, M. Weiner, and H. Zetterberg, “Cerebrospinal fluid and plasma biomarkers in Alzheimer disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 131–144, 2010.
- P. Scheltens, D. Leys, F. Barkhof et al., “Atrophy of medial temporal lobes on MRI in 'probable' Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing: diagnostic value and neuropsychological correlates,” Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 10, pp. 967–972, 1992.
- M. Alegret, M. Boada-Rovira, G. Vinyes-Junqué et al., “Detection of visuoperceptual deficits in preclinical and mild Alzheimer's disease,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 31, no. 7, pp. 860–867, 2009.
- J. E. Hixson and D. T. Vernier, “Restriction isotyping of human apolipoprotein E by gene amplification and cleavage with HhaI,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 545–548, 1990.
- H. X. Barnhart, M. Haber, and J. Song, “Overall concordance correlation coefficient for evaluating agreement among multiple observers,” Biometrics, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1020–1027, 2002.
- Y. M. Kuo, M. R. Emmerling, H. C. Lampert et al., “High levels of circulating Aβ42 are sequestered by plasma proteins in Alzheimer's disease,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 257, no. 3, pp. 787–791, 1999.
- P. D. Mehta, T. Pirttilä, S. P. Mehta, E. A. Sersen, P. S. Aisen, and H. M. Wisniewski, “Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid β proteins 1-40 and 1- 42 in Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 100–105, 2000.
- R. C. Petersen, P. S. Aisen, L. A. Beckett et al., “Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative (ADNI): clinical characterization,” Neurology, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 201–209, 2010.
- N. Sureshbabu, R. Kirubagaran, and R. Jayakumar, “Surfactant-induced conformational transition of amyloid β-peptide,” European Biophysics Journal, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 355–367, 2009.
- P. Vemuri, H. J. Wiste, S. D. Weigand et al., “MRI and CSF biomarkers in normal, MCI, and AD subjects: predicting future clinical change,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 294–301, 2009.
- O. L. Lopez, L. H. Kuller, P. D. Mehta et al., “Plasma amyloid levels and the risk of AD in normal subjects in the Cardiovascular Health Study,” Neurology, vol. 70, no. 19, pp. 1664–1671, 2008.
- P. Szabo, N. Relkin, and M. E. Weksler, “Natural human antibodies to amyloid beta peptide,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 415–420, 2008.
- M. van Oijen, A. Hofman, H. D. Soares, P. J. Koudstaal, and M. M. Breteler, “Plasma Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 and the risk of dementia: a prospective case-cohort study,” Lancet Neurology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 655–660, 2006.
- C. R. Jack Jr, V. J. Lowe, S. D. Weigand et al., “Serial PIB and MRI in normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimers disease: implications for sequence of pathological events in Alzheimers disease,” Brain, vol. 132, no. 5, pp. 1355–1365, 2009.
- V. Giedraitis, J. Sundelöf, M. C. Irizarry et al., “The normal equilibrium between CSF and plasma amyloid beta levels is disrupted in Alzheimer's disease,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 427, no. 3, pp. 127–131, 2007.
- B. V. Zlokovic, “Neurovascular mechanisms of Alzheimer's neurodegeneration,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 202–208, 2005.
- A. M. Fagan, D. Head, A. R. Shah et al., “Decreased cerebrospinal fluid Aβ42 correlates with brain atrophy in cognitively normal elderly,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 176–183, 2009.
- P. Vemuri, H. J. Wiste, S. D. Weigand et al., “MRI and CSF biomarkers in normal, MCI, and AD subjects: diagnostic discrimination and cognitive correlations,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 287–293, 2009.
- G. B. Frisoni, N. C. Fox, C. R. Jack Jr, P. Scheltens, and P. M. Thompson, “The clinical use of structural MRI in Alzheimer disease,” Nature Reviews Neurology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 67–77, 2010.
- W. J. Jagust, S. M. Landau, L. M. Shaw et al., “Relationships between biomarkers in aging and dementia,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 15, pp. 1193–1199, 2009.
- H. Hampel, K. Bürger, S. J. Teipel, A. L. W. Bokde, H. Zetterberg, and K. Blennow, “Core candidate neurochemical and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease**This paper was presented in part by the 1st author at the 10th International Conference of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders (ICAD), Madrid, Spain, July 2006, as an invited plenary lecture,” Alzheimer's and Dementia, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 38–48, 2008.
- N. R. Graff-Radford, J. E. Crook, J. Lucas et al., “Association of low plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 ratios with increased imminent risk for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 354–362, 2007.
- S. H. Freeman, S. Raju, B. T. Hyman, M. P. Frosch, and M. C. Irizarry, “Plasma Aβ levels do not reflect brain Aβ levels,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 264–271, 2007.
- J. Sundelof, V. Giedraitis, M. C. Irizarry et al., “Plasma β amyloid and the risk of Alzheimer disease and dementia in elderly men: a prospective, population-based cohort study,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 65, no. 2, pp. 256–263, 2008.
- P. Lewczuk, J. Kornhuber, E. Vanmechelen et al., “Amyloid β peptides in plasma in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: a multicenter study with multiplexing,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 223, no. 2, pp. 366–370, 2010.
- J. C. Lambert, S. Schraen-Maschke, F. Richard et al., “Association of plasma amyloid β with risk of dementia: the prospective Three-City Study,” Neurology, vol. 73, no. 11, pp. 847–853, 2009.