International Journal of Aerospace Engineering The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Designing Backstepping Control System for Hypersonic Vehicle Based on Feedback Linearization Mon, 17 Aug 2015 13:52:39 +0000 A hypersonic vehicle uses the airbreathing scramjet engine and the airframe and engine integrated design. Therefore, there is a strong cross-coupling effect among its aerodynamic force, thrust, structure, and control. The nonlinearity and uncertainty of the model cause difficulties in control system design. Considering the nonlinearity, coupling characteristics, and aerodynamic parametric uncertainty of its longitudinal dynamic model, we design the control law for its altitude system and velocity system based on the adaptive backstepping control method. Because of the feedback linearization method, we introduce the constraints of the flight vehicle’s actuator into the design, obtaining the robust adaptive control system constrained by the actuator of the flight vehicle. To avoid the high-order derivation problem of the feedback linearization method and the derivation of the virtual control volume in adaptive backstepping control method, we use the arbitrary-order robust exact differentiator to solve the high-order derivatives in feedback linearization and utilize the command filter to obtain the virtual control volume and its derivatives. The simulation results show that the robust adaptive control system we designed can achieve the error-free tracking of altitude and velocity command. It can well overcome the influence of structural parameters, aerodynamic parametric uncertainty, and disturbances; meanwhile, the control command can satisfy the constraints of the actuator. Jianli Wei and Huan Chen Copyright © 2015 Jianli Wei and Huan Chen. All rights reserved. Guidance and Control Design for a Class of Spin-Stabilized Projectiles with a Two-Dimensional Trajectory Correction Fuze Tue, 11 Aug 2015 09:49:44 +0000 A guidance and control strategy for a class of 2D trajectory correction fuze with fixed canards is developed in this paper. Firstly, correction control mechanism is researched through studying the deviation motion, the key point of which is the dynamic equilibrium angle. Phase lag of swerve response is the dominating factor for correction control, and formula is deduced with the Mach number as argument. Secondly, impact point deviation prediction based on perturbation theory is proposed, and the numerical solution and application method are introduced. Finally, guidance and control strategy is developed, and simulations to validate the strategy are conducted. Yi Wang, Wei-dong Song, Dan Fang, and Qing-wei Guo Copyright © 2015 Yi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Robust Predictive Functional Control for Flight Vehicles Based on Nonlinear Disturbance Observer Thu, 30 Jul 2015 17:07:24 +0000 A novel robust predictive functional control based on nonlinear disturbance observer is investigated in order to address the control system design for flight vehicles with significant uncertainties, external disturbances, and measurement noise. Firstly, the nonlinear longitudinal dynamics of the flight vehicle are transformed into linear-like state-space equations with state-dependent coefficient matrices. And then the lumped disturbances are considered in the linear structure predictive model of the predictive functional control to increase the precision of the predictive output and resolve the intractable mismatched disturbance problem. As the lumped disturbances cannot be derived or measured directly, the nonlinear disturbance observer is applied to estimate the lumped disturbances, which are then introduced to the predictive functional control to replace the unknown actual lumped disturbances. Consequently, the robust predictive functional control for the flight vehicle is proposed. Compared with the existing designs, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed flight control are illustrated and validated in various simulation conditions. Yinhui Zhang, Huabo Yang, Zhenyu Jiang, Fan Hu, and Weihua Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yinhui Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization and Analysis of Hydrazine Monopropellant Propulsion System Tue, 28 Jul 2015 08:46:10 +0000 Monopropellant propulsion systems are widely used especially for low cost attitude control or orbit correction (orbit maintenance). To optimize the total propulsion system, subsystems should be optimized. Chemical decomposition, aerothermodynamics, and structure disciplines demand different optimum condition such as tank pressure, catalyst bed length and diameter, catalyst bed pressure, and nozzle geometry. Subsystem conflicts can be solved by multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) technique with simultaneous optimization of all subsystems with respect to any criteria and limitations. In this paper, monopropellant propulsion system design algorithm is presented and the results of the proposed algorithm are validated. Then, multidisciplinary design optimization of hydrazine propulsion system is proposed. The goal of optimization can be selected as minimizing the total mass (including propellant), minimizing the propellant mass (maximizing the Isp), or minimizing the dry mass. Minimum total mass, minimum propellant mass, and minimum dry mass are derived using MDO technique. It is shown that minimum total mass, minimum dry mass, and minimum propellant mass take place in different conditions. The optimum parameters include bed-loading, inlet pressure, mass flow, nozzle geometry, catalyst bed length and diameter, propellant tank mass, specific impulse (Isp), and feeding mass which are derived using genetic algorithm (GA). Amirhossein Adami, Mahdi Mortazavi, Mehran Nosratollahi, Mohammadreza Taheri, and Jalal Sajadi Copyright © 2015 Amirhossein Adami et al. All rights reserved. Research on Dynamic Reliability of a Jet Pipe Servo Valve Based on Generalized Stochastic Petri Nets Wed, 22 Jul 2015 10:17:45 +0000 The jet pipe servo valve is widely used in the military fields of aviation and ship, whose reliability has obvious randomness and dynamic. However, existing methods are either having complicated theory or analyzing static reliability. Based on the generalized stochastic petri nets (GSPN) theory and the collected basic failure modes and failure rate data of jet pipe servo valve, this paper proposes a novel modeling and simulating method for system’s dynamic behavior analysis. In this method, the dynamic reliability model considering failure’s random and repair is established and is simulated using GSPN software. Then, the steady state probability of servo valve is calculated, which is compared with the value calculated by Markov method. Finally, the dynamic reliability parameters of jet pipe servo valve are calculated using collected failure rate data and different repair rate data. Results show the probability that the maximum error between methods of GSPN and Markov is 2.07%, the optimal repair rate set is less than 1.71µi, and also the dynamic reliability parameters become better with increasing simulation time because of failure’s recovery. Therefore, research methods and results based on GSPN are concise and realistic, which can be used for failure’s qualitative forecast and dynamic reliability’s quantitative calculation of similar complicated system. Yuanbo Chu, Zhaohui Yuan, and Jia Chen Copyright © 2015 Yuanbo Chu et al. All rights reserved. Chaotic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for System Identification of a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter Tue, 21 Jul 2015 08:24:13 +0000 The purpose of this paper is devoted to developing a chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm (CABC) for the system identification of a small-scale unmanned helicopter state-space model in hover condition. In order to avoid the premature of traditional artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC), which is stuck in local optimum and can not reach the global optimum, a novel chaotic operator with the characteristics of ergodicity and irregularity was introduced to enhance its performance. With input-output data collected from actual flight experiments, the identification results showed the superiority of CABC over the ABC and the genetic algorithm (GA). Simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm and the accuracy of the identified helicopter model. Li Ding, Hongtao Wu, and Yu Yao Copyright © 2015 Li Ding et al. All rights reserved. Ionospheric Delay Handling for Relative Navigation by Carrier-Phase Differential GPS Thu, 16 Jul 2015 10:20:15 +0000 The paper investigates different solutions for ionospheric delay handling in high accuracy long baseline relative positioning by Carrier-Phase Differential GPS (CDGPS). Standard literature approaches are reviewed and the relevant limitations are discussed. Hence, a completely ionosphere-free approach is proposed, in which the differential ionospheric delays are cancelled out by combination of dual frequency GPS measurements. The performance of this approach is quantified over real-world spaceborne GPS data made available by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission and compared to the standard solution. A. Renga, U. Tancredi, and M. Grassi Copyright © 2015 A. Renga et al. All rights reserved. Prediction of Pressing Quality for Press-Fit Assembly Based on Press-Fit Curve and Maximum Press-Mounting Force Wed, 15 Jul 2015 09:13:34 +0000 In order to predict pressing quality of precision press-fit assembly, press-fit curves and maximum press-mounting force of press-fit assemblies were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA). The analysis was based on a 3D Solidworks model using the real dimensions of the microparts and the subsequent FEA model that was built using ANSYS Workbench. The press-fit process could thus be simulated on the basis of static structure analysis. To verify the FEA results, experiments were carried out using a press-mounting apparatus. The results show that the press-fit curves obtained by FEA agree closely with the curves obtained using the experimental method. In addition, the maximum press-mounting force calculated by FEA agrees with that obtained by the experimental method, with the maximum deviation being 4.6%, a value that can be tolerated. The comparison shows that the press-fit curve and max press-mounting force calculated by FEA can be used for predicting the pressing quality during precision press-fit assembly. Bo You, Zhifeng Lou, Yi Luo, Yang Xu, and Xiaodong Wang Copyright © 2015 Bo You et al. All rights reserved. The Simultaneous Interpolation of Target Radar Cross Section in Both the Spatial and Frequency Domains by Means of Legendre Wavelets Model-Based Parameter Estimation Sun, 12 Jul 2015 08:30:00 +0000 The understanding of the target radar cross section (RCS) is significant for target identification and for radar designing and optimization. In this paper, a numerical algorithm for calculating target RCS is presented which is based on Legendre wavelet model-based parameter estimation (LW-MBPE). The Padé rational function fitting model applied for MBPE in the frequency domain is enhanced to include spatial dependence on the numerator and denominator coefficients. This allows the function to interpolate target RCS in both the frequency and spatial domains simultaneously. The combination of Legendre wavelets guarantees the convergence of the algorithm. The method is convergent by increasing the sampling frequency and spatial points. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the validity and applicability of the new technique. Yongqiang Yang, Yunpeng Ma, and Lifeng Wang Copyright © 2015 Yongqiang Yang et al. All rights reserved. GPS Based Reduced-Dynamic Orbit Determination for Low Earth Orbiters with Ambiguity Fixing Tue, 07 Jul 2015 06:48:33 +0000 With the ever-increasing number of satellites in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for scientific missions, the precise determination of the position and velocity of the satellite is a necessity. GPS (Global Positioning System) based reduced-dynamic orbit determination (RPOD) method is commonly used in the post processing with high precision. This paper presents a sequential RPOD strategy for LEO satellite in the framework of Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Precise Point Positioning (PPP) technique is used to process the GPS observations, with carrier phase ambiguity resolution using Integer Phase Clocks (IPCs) products. A set of GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) mission data is used to test and validate the RPOD performance. Results indicate that orbit determination accuracy could be improved by 15% in terms of 3D RMS error in comparison with traditional RPOD method with float ambiguity solutions. Yang Yang, Xiaokui Yue, and Jianping Yuan Copyright © 2015 Yang Yang et al. All rights reserved. A New Adaptive Square-Root Unscented Kalman Filter for Nonlinear Systems with Additive Noise Mon, 06 Jul 2015 05:45:04 +0000 The Kalman filter (KF), extended KF, and unscented KF all lack a self-adaptive capacity to deal with system noise. This paper describes a new adaptive filtering approach for nonlinear systems with additive noise. Based on the square-root unscented KF (SRUKF), traditional Maybeck’s estimator is modified and extended to nonlinear systems. The square root of the process noise covariance matrix Q or that of the measurement noise covariance matrix R is estimated straightforwardly. Because positive semidefiniteness of Q or R is guaranteed, several shortcomings of traditional Maybeck’s algorithm are overcome. Thus, the stability and accuracy of the filter are greatly improved. In addition, based on three different nonlinear systems, a new adaptive filtering technique is described in detail. Specifically, simulation results are presented, where the new filter was applied to a highly nonlinear model (i.e., the univariate nonstationary growth model (UNGM)). The UNGM is compared with the standard SRUKF to demonstrate its superior filtering performance. The adaptive SRUKF (ASRUKF) algorithm can complete direct recursion and calculate the square roots of the variance matrixes of the system state and noise, which ensures the symmetry and nonnegative definiteness of the matrixes and greatly improves the accuracy, stability, and self-adaptability of the filter. Yong Zhou, Chao Zhang, Yufeng Zhang, and Juzhong Zhang Copyright © 2015 Yong Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Distributed Cooperative Search Control Method of Multiple UAVs for Moving Target Wed, 17 Jun 2015 09:54:00 +0000 To reduce the impact of uncertainties caused by unknown motion parameters on searching plan of moving targets and improve the efficiency of UAV’s searching, a novel distributed Multi-UAVs cooperative search control method for moving target is proposed in this paper. Based on detection results of onboard sensors, target probability map is updated using Bayesian theory. A Gaussian distribution of target transition probability density function is introduced to calculate prediction probability of moving target existence, and then target probability map can be further updated in real-time. A performance index function combining with target cost, environment cost, and cooperative cost is constructed, and the cooperative searching problem can be transformed into a central optimization problem. To improve computational efficiency, the distributed model predictive control method is presented, and thus the control command of each UAV can be obtained. The simulation results have verified that the proposed method can avoid the blindness of UAV searching better and improve overall efficiency of the team effectively. Chang-jian Ru, Xiao-ming Qi, and Xu-ning Guan Copyright © 2015 Chang-jian Ru et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Flow Control for the Hypersonic Inlets via Counter Flow Wed, 17 Jun 2015 08:28:31 +0000 Experimental results show that there exist two flow fields in the hypersonic inlets when the forebody waves interact with the lip boundary, which is similar to the shock reflection ion hysteresis phenomenon. In order to improve the performance of the flow field, counterflow is applied to control the shock reflection configuration in the hypersonic inlets. For better understanding of the internal mechanism, inviscid numerical simulation is conducted. And the results demonstrate that it is feasible to realize the transition between the regular reflection configuration and the Mach reflection ion configuration in the hypersonic inlets. That is because the von Neumann criterion and detached criterion play a dominant role, respectively, in these transitions. In addition, the evolution process of Mach reflection ion in the hypersonic inlets can be divided into three stages: transmission of waves, emergence of Mach stem, and stabilization of flow field. Xiaoqiang Fan and Yuan Tao Copyright © 2015 Xiaoqiang Fan and Yuan Tao. All rights reserved. ARMA Prediction of SBAS Ephemeris and Clock Corrections for Low Earth Orbiting Satellites Tue, 16 Jun 2015 08:49:28 +0000 For low earth orbit (LEO) satellite GPS receivers, space-based augmentation system (SBAS) ephemeris/clock corrections can be applied to improve positioning accuracy in real time. The SBAS correction is only available within its service area, and the prediction of the SBAS corrections during the outage period can extend the coverage area. Two time series forecasting models, autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and autoregressive (AR), are proposed to predict the corrections outside the service area. A simulated GPS satellite visibility condition is applied to the WAAS correction data, and the prediction accuracy degradation, along with the time, is investigated. Prediction results using the SBAS rate of change information are compared, and the ARMA method yields a better accuracy than the rate method. The error reductions of the ephemeris and clock by the ARMA method over the rate method are 37.8% and 38.5%, respectively. The AR method shows a slightly better orbit accuracy than the rate method, but its clock accuracy is even worse than the rate method. If the SBAS correction is sufficiently accurate comparing with the required ephemeris accuracy of a real-time navigation filter, then the predicted SBAS correction may improve orbit determination accuracy. Jeongrae Kim and Mingyu Kim Copyright © 2015 Jeongrae Kim and Mingyu Kim. All rights reserved. Helicopter Vibratory Loads Alleviation through Combined Action of Trailing-Edge Flap and Variable-Stiffness Devices Thu, 04 Jun 2015 11:37:58 +0000 The aim of this paper is the assessment of the capability of controllers based on the combined actuation of flaps and variable-stiffness devices to alleviate helicopter main rotor vibratory hub loads. Trailing-edge flaps are positioned at the rotor blade tip region, whereas variable-stiffness devices are located at the pitch link and at the blade root. Control laws are derived by an optimal control procedure based on the best trade-off between control effectiveness and control effort, under the constraint of satisfaction of the equations governing rotor blade aeroelastic response. The numerical investigation concerns the analysis of performance and robustness of the control techniques developed, through application to a four-bladed helicopter rotor in level flight. The identification of the most efficient control configuration is also attempted. Massimo Gennaretti, Giovanni Bernardini, Jacopo Serafini, and Marco Molica Colella Copyright © 2015 Massimo Gennaretti et al. All rights reserved. Stress Distribution on Sandwich Structure with Triangular Grid Cores Suffered from Bending Load Sun, 31 May 2015 12:02:14 +0000 Triangular grid reinforced by carbon fiber/epoxy (CF/EP) was designed and manufactured. The sandwich structure was prepared by gluing the core and composite skins. The mechanical properties of the sandwich structure were investigated by the finite element analysis (FEA) and three-point bending methods. The calculated bending stiffness and core shear stress were compared to the characteristics of a honeycomb sandwich structure. The results indicated that the triangular core ultimately failed under a bending load of 11000 N; the principal stress concentration was located at the loading region; and the cracks occurred on the interface top skin and triangular core. In addition, the ultimate stress bearing of the sandwich structure was 8828 N. The experimental results showed that the carbon fiber reinforced triangular grid was much stiffer and stronger than the honeycomb structure. Cui Xu, Huang Yanjiao, Wang Shou, Lu Chun, and Fang Luping Copyright © 2015 Cui Xu et al. All rights reserved. An EBSPK-/MPPSK-Modem Based Transceiver for Radar-Communications Tue, 05 May 2015 09:32:11 +0000 A joint communication and ranging system would constitute a unique platform for future weapon platform or intelligent transportation system to affect the essential tasks of Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system and location sharing services, in terms of both spectrum efficiency and cost effectiveness. In this paper, the design of efficient modulation system which is suitable for simultaneously performing both data transmission and range measurement is proposed. The approach is based on extended binary phase shift keying (EBPSK) or -ary Position Phase Shift Keying (MPPSK) modulated waveforms utilized in digital communication. In particular, requirements that allow for employing such signals for range measurements are investigated. Also, Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR) target detection performances of the new proposed system are discussed when target velocity and time delay take different values. Moreover, Doppler tolerance range of impacting filter for demodulating EBPSK/MPPSK pulse signal at 10 GHz is considered. In addition to theoretical considerations, the paper presents simulations and measurement results of the new systems, demonstrating the high spectral utilization of integrated communication and ranging applications. Yu Yao and Lenan Wu Copyright © 2015 Yu Yao and Lenan Wu. All rights reserved. Cartesian Mesh Linearized Euler Equations Solver for Aeroacoustic Problems around Full Aircraft Thu, 30 Apr 2015 14:19:09 +0000 The linearized Euler equations (LEEs) solver for aeroacoustic problems has been developed on block-structured Cartesian mesh to address complex geometry. Taking advantage of the benefits of Cartesian mesh, we employ high-order schemes for spatial derivatives and for time integration. On the other hand, the difficulty of accommodating curved wall boundaries is addressed by the immersed boundary method. The resulting LEEs solver is robust to complex geometry and numerically efficient in a parallel environment. The accuracy and effectiveness of the present solver are validated by one-dimensional and three-dimensional test cases. Acoustic scattering around a sphere and noise propagation from the JT15D nacelle are computed. The results show good agreement with analytical, computational, and experimental results. Finally, noise propagation around fuselage-wing-nacelle configurations is computed as a practical example. The results show that the sound pressure level below the over-the-wing nacelle (OWN) configuration is much lower than that of the conventional DLR-F6 aircraft configuration due to the shielding effect of the OWN configuration. Yuma Fukushima, Daisuke Sasaki, and Kazuhiro Nakahashi Copyright © 2015 Yuma Fukushima et al. All rights reserved. Firing Control Optimization of Impulse Thrusters for Trajectory Correction Projectiles Mon, 27 Apr 2015 06:50:55 +0000 This paper presents an optimum control scheme of firing time and firing phase angle by taking impact point deviation as optimum objective function which takes account of the difference of longitudinal and horizontal correction efficiency, firing delay, roll rate, flight stability, and so forth. Simulations indicate that this control scheme can assure lateral impulse thrusters are activated at time and phase angle when the correction efficiency is higher. Further simulations show that the impact point dispersion is mainly influenced by the total impulse deployed, and the impulse, number, and firing interval need to be optimized to reduce the impact point dispersion of rockets. Live firing experiments with two trajectory correction rockets indicate that the firing control scheme works effectively. Min Gao, Yongwei Zhang, and Suochang Yang Copyright © 2015 Min Gao et al. All rights reserved. Load-Sharing Characteristics of Power-Split Transmission System Based on Deformation Compatibility and Loaded Tooth Contact Analysis Sun, 12 Apr 2015 14:20:39 +0000 In order to implement the uniform load distribution of the power-split transmission system, a pseudostatic model is built. Based on the loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) technique, the actual meshing process of each gear pair is simulated and the fitting curve of time-varying mesh stiffness is obtained. And then, the torsional angle deformation compatibility conditions are proposed according to the closed-loop characteristic of power flow, which will be combined with the torque equilibrium conditions and elastic support conditions to calculate the transfer torque of each gear pair. Finally, the load-sharing coefficient of the power-split transmission system is obtained, and the influences of the installation errors are analyzed. The results show that the above-mentioned installation errors comprehensively influence the load-sharing characteristics, and the reduction of only one error could not effectively achieve perfect load-sharing characteristics. Allowing for the spline clearance floating and constrained by the radial spacing ring, the influence of the floating pinion is analyzed. It shows that the floating pinion can improve the load-sharing characteristics. Through the comparison between the theoretical and related experimental data, the reasonability and feasibility of the above-proposed method and model are verified. Hao Dong, Ling-ling Duan, Jun-an Zhang, and Zhou Fang Copyright © 2015 Hao Dong et al. All rights reserved. Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flows in Overexpanded Supersonic Nozzle with Film Cooling Sun, 05 Apr 2015 08:34:05 +0000 Reignition phenomena occurring in a supersonic nozzle flow may present a crucial safety issue for rocket propulsion systems. These phenomena concern mainly rocket engines which use H2 gas (GH2) in the film cooling device, particularly when the nozzle operates under over expanded flow conditions at sea level or at low altitudes. Consequently, the induced wall thermal loads can lead to the nozzle geometry alteration, which in turn, leads to the appearance of strong side loads that may be detrimental to the rocket engine structural integrity. It is therefore necessary to understand both aerodynamic and chemical mechanisms that are at the origin of these processes. This paper is a numerical contribution which reports results from CFD analysis carried out for supersonic reactive flows in a planar nozzle cooled with GH2 film. Like the experimental observations, CFD simulations showed their ability to highlight these phenomena for the same nozzle flow conditions. Induced thermal load are also analyzed in terms of cooling efficiency and the results already give an idea on their magnitude. It was also shown that slightly increasing the film injection pressure can avoid the reignition phenomena by moving the separation shock towards the nozzle exit section. Mohamed Sellam and Amer Chpoun Copyright © 2015 Mohamed Sellam and Amer Chpoun. All rights reserved. Collaborative Deformation Design Using Control Integrated Analysis Methods for Hypersonic Waverider Mon, 30 Mar 2015 12:00:38 +0000 Hypersonic waveriders have a large flight envelope, leading to the difficulty in keeping overall flight stability for a fixed geometry. Accordingly, hypersonic waveriders can be considered to design as a morphing vehicle such that the flight range is expanded for waveriding stability. To this end, this paper investigates the collaborative deformation design using control integrated analysis methods for the hypersonic waverider. Firstly, a parametric model is applied to combine the shape deformation with the geometrical properties. Secondly, the morphing process with regard to the change in a single geometric parameter and the static and dynamic characteristics affected by this deformation are analyzed. Afterwards, the collaborative relations are discussed for the changes in the lower forebody angle and elevon area. Furthermore, a flight control law is designed to guarantee flight stability while implementing the collaborative deformation, and the morphing results are evaluated based on the control-oriented idea. Finally, a simulation example is used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods for the hypersonic waverider. Yanbin Liu and Yuping Lu Copyright © 2015 Yanbin Liu and Yuping Lu. All rights reserved. Hybrid Vortex Method for the Aerodynamic Analysis of Wind Turbine Mon, 30 Mar 2015 08:49:29 +0000 The hybrid vortex method, in which vortex panel method is combined with the viscous-vortex particle method (HPVP), was established to model the wind turbine aerodynamic and relevant numerical procedure program was developed to solve flow equations. The panel method was used to calculate the blade surface vortex sheets and the vortex particle method was employed to simulate the blade wake vortices. As a result of numerical calculations on the flow over a wind turbine, the HPVP method shows significant advantages in accuracy and less computation resource consuming. The validation of the aerodynamic parameters against Phase VI wind turbine experimental data is performed, which shows reasonable agreement. Hao Hu, Bo Gu, Hongtao Zhang, Xiancheng Song, and Wanli Zhao Copyright © 2015 Hao Hu et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Software Simulator Model Based on Active Hybrid Architecture Mon, 23 Mar 2015 12:44:53 +0000 The simulated training is an important issue for any type of missions such as aerial, ground, sea, or even space missions. In this paper, a new flexible aerial simulator based on active hybrid architecture is introduced. The simulator infrastructure is applicable to any type of training missions and research activities. This software-based simulator is tested on aerial missions to prove its applicability within time critical systems. The proposed active hybrid architecture is introduced via using the VB.NET and MATLAB in the same simulation loop. It exploits the remarkable computational power of MATLAB as a backbone aircraft model, and such mathematical model provides realistic dynamics to the trainee. Meanwhile, the Human-Machine Interface (HMI), the mission planning, the hardware interfacing, data logging, and MATLAB interfacing are developed using VB.NET. The proposed simulator is flexible enough to perform navigation and obstacle avoidance training missions. The active hybrid architecture is used during the simulated training, and also through postmission activities (like the generation of signals playback reports for evaluation purposes). The results show the ability of the proposed architecture to fulfill the aerial simulator demands and to provide a flexible infrastructure for different simulated mission requirements. Finally, a comparison with some existing simulators is introduced. Amr AbdElHamid and Peng Zong Copyright © 2015 Amr AbdElHamid and Peng Zong. All rights reserved. Approximate State Transition Matrix and Secular Orbit Model Tue, 10 Mar 2015 06:33:10 +0000 The state transition matrix (STM) is a part of the onboard orbit determination system. It is used to control the satellite’s orbital motion to a predefined reference orbit. Firstly in this paper a simple orbit model that captures the secular behavior of the orbital motion in the presence of all perturbation forces is derived. Next, an approximate STM to match the secular effects in the orbit due to oblate earth effect and later in the presence of all perturbation forces is derived. Numerical experiments are provided for illustration. M. P. Ramachandran Copyright © 2015 M. P. Ramachandran. All rights reserved. Theoretical and Numerical Studies of Dynamic Scaling of a Six-Degree-of-Freedom Laser Propulsion Vehicle Sun, 08 Mar 2015 06:54:00 +0000 To estimate the flight reactions of a full-scale vehicle from reduced-scale tests, we constructed a scaling theory for the vehicle size, input energy, moment of inertia, and pulse frequency needed to maintain dynamic equivalence between a laboratory-scale and full-scale launch of a laser propulsion vehicle. The dynamic scaling law for a single pulse was constructed using translational and angular equations of motion. The analytical scaling was confirmed for a single-pulse incident using a fluid-orbit coupling simulator for the interaction between the blast wave and the vehicle. Motion equivalence was maintained for multiple pulses by adjusting the repetition frequency of the pulse incident to correct for the effect of aerodynamic drag during the free flight of the pulse-to-pulse interval. The flight of a full-scale vehicle can be estimated for single- and multiple-pulse operations from the flight data for a small-scale vehicle using the proposed scaling theory, which provides correlations between the characteristics of small-scale and large-scale flight systems. Small-scale tests were shown to be useful in estimating the flight of a full-scale vehicle using dynamic scaling theory. Masayuki Takahashi and Naofumi Ohnishi Copyright © 2015 Masayuki Takahashi and Naofumi Ohnishi. All rights reserved. Degree Distribution of Arbitrary AANET Sat, 28 Feb 2015 06:52:40 +0000 Taking the safe distance between two adjacent planes in the same airline into account, we give a model for the multiairline aeronautical ad hoc network (AANET). Based on our model, we analyze the plane’s degree distribution of any arbitrary AANET. Then, the expressions of the degree distributions of one single plane and the whole networks are both worked out and verified by the simulations, in which we generate several random AANETs. Since our model is a reasonable abstraction of the real situation, the theoretical result we get is very close to the result of the real networks, which is also shown in the simulations. Xue Liu, Xiaoping Zeng, Zhiming Wang, Li Chen, and Yuemei Jin Copyright © 2015 Xue Liu et al. All rights reserved. Assessments of - Turbulence Model Based on Menter’s Modification to Rotta’s Two-Equation Model Thu, 26 Feb 2015 06:53:21 +0000 The main objective of this paper is to construct a turbulence model with a more reliable second equation simulating length scale. In the present paper, we assess the length scale equation based on Menter’s modification to Rotta’s two-equation model. Rotta shows that a reliable second equation can be formed in an exact transport equation from the turbulent length scale and kinetic energy. Rotta’s equation is well suited for a term-by-term modeling and shows some interesting features compared to other approaches. The most important difference is that the formulation leads to a natural inclusion of higher order velocity derivatives into the source terms of the scale equation, which has the potential to enhance the capability of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes to simulate unsteady flows. The model is implemented in the CFD solver with complete formulation, usage methodology, and validation examples to demonstrate its capabilities. The detailed studies include grid convergence. Near-wall and shear flows cases are documented and compared with experimental and large eddy simulation data. The results from this formulation are as good or better than the well-known shear stress turbulence model and much better than - results. Overall, the study provides useful insights into the model capability in predicting attached and separated flows. Khaled S. Abdol-Hamid Copyright © 2015 All rights reserved. LARES: A New Satellite Specifically Designed for Testing General Relativity Thu, 19 Feb 2015 16:03:08 +0000 It is estimated that today several hundred operational satellites are orbiting Earth while many more either have already reentered the atmosphere or are no longer operational. On the 13th of February 2012 one more satellite of the Italian Space Agency has been successfully launched. The main difference with respect to all other satellites is its extremely high density that makes LARES not only the densest satellite but also the densest known orbiting object in the solar system. That implies that the nongravitational perturbations on its surface will have the smallest effects on its orbit. Those design characteristics are required to perform an accurate test of frame dragging and specifically a test of Lense-Thirring effect, predicted by General Relativity. LARES satellite, although passive, with 92 laser retroreflectors on its surface, was a real engineering challenge in terms of both manufacturing and testing. Data acquisition and processing are in progress. The paper will describe the scientific objectives, the status of the experiment, the special feature of the satellite and separation system including some manufacturing issues, and the special tests performed on its retroreflectors. Antonio Paolozzi, Ignazio Ciufolini, Claudio Paris, and Giampiero Sindoni Copyright © 2015 Antonio Paolozzi et al. All rights reserved. Autopilot Design Method for the Blended Missile Based on Model Predictive Control Sun, 08 Feb 2015 14:23:21 +0000 This paper develops a novel autopilot design method for blended missiles with aerodynamic control surfaces and lateral jets. Firstly, the nonlinear model of blended missiles is reduced into a piecewise affine (PWA) model according to the aerodynamics properties. Secondly, based on the equivalence between the PWA model and mixed logical dynamical (MLD) model, the MLD model of blended missiles is proposed taking into account the on-off constraints of lateral pulse jets. Thirdly, a hybrid model predictive control (MPC) method is employed to design autopilot. Finally, simulation results under different conditions are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method, which demonstrate that control allocation between aerodynamic control surfaces and lateral jets is realized by adjusting the weighting matrix in an index function. Baoqing Yang and Yuyu Zhao Copyright © 2015 Baoqing Yang and Yuyu Zhao. All rights reserved.