International Journal of Antibiotics http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Chlorophyll-Derived Efflux Pump Inhibitor Pheophorbide a and Pyropheophorbide a on Growth and Macrolide Antibiotic Resistance of Indicator and Anaerobic Swine Manure Bacteria Tue, 11 Feb 2014 12:17:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijan/2014/185068/ Natural plant compounds, such as the chlorophyll a catabolites pheophorbide a (php) and pyropheophorbide a (pyp), are potentially active in the gastrointestinal tracts and manure of livestock as antimicrobial resistance-modifying agents through inhibition of bacterial efflux pumps. To investigate whether php, a known efflux pump inhibitor, and pyp influence bacterial resistance, we determined their long-term effects on the MICs of erythromycin for reference strains of clinically relevant indicator bacteria with macrolide or multidrug resistance efflux pumps. Pyp reduced the final MIC endpoint for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli by up to 1536 and 1024 μg erythromycin mL−1 or 1.4- and 1.2-fold, respectively. Estimation of growth parameters of S. aureus revealed that pyp exerted an intrinsic inhibitory effect under anaerobic conditions and was synergistically active, thereby potentiating the effect of erythromycin and partially reversing high-level erythromycin resistance. Anaerobe colony counts of total and erythromycin-resistant bacteria from stored swine manure samples tended to be lower in the presence of pyp. Tylosin, php, and pyp were not detectable by HPLC in the manure or medium. This is the first study showing that pyp affects growth and the level of sensitivity to erythromycin of S. aureus, E. coli, and anaerobic manure bacteria. Mareike Kraatz, Terence R. Whitehead, Michael A. Cotta, Mark A. Berhow, and Mark A. Rasmussen Copyright © 2014 Mareike Kraatz et al. All rights reserved. The Occurrence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM Genes in Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Positive Strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis in Poland Thu, 06 Feb 2014 13:03:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijan/2014/935842/ Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family that produce extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes are important pathogens of infections. Increasing numbers of ESBL-producing bacterial strains exhibiting multidrug resistance have been observed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of , , and genes among ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Proteus mirabilis strains and to examine susceptibility to antibiotics of tested strains. In our study, thirty-six of the tested strains exhibited genes , , , and . Moreover, twelve ESBL-positive strains harbored genes , , , and , and the presence of a gene in twenty-five ESBL-positive strains was revealed. Among K. pneumoniae the multiple ESBL genotype composed of , and genes encoding particular ESBL variants was observed. Analysis of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics revealed that, among β-lactam antibiotics, the most effective against E. coli strains was meropenem (100%), whereas K. pneumoniae were completely susceptible to ertapenem and meropenem (100%), and P. mirabilis strains were susceptible to ertapenem (91.7%). Moreover, among non-β-lactam antibiotics, gentamicin showed the highest activity to E. coli (91.7%) and ciprofloxacin the highest to K. pneumoniae (83.3%). P. mirabilis revealed the highest susceptibility to amikacin (66.7%). Dominika Ojdana, Paweł Sacha, Piotr Wieczorek, Sławomir Czaban, Anna Michalska, Jadwiga Jaworowska, Anna Jurczak, Bogusław Poniatowski, and Elżbieta Tryniszewska Copyright © 2014 Dominika Ojdana et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factor Analysis and Microbial Etiology of Surgical Site Infections following Lower Segment Caesarean Section Sun, 01 Sep 2013 11:50:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijan/2013/283025/ Background. Lower segment caesarean section (LSCS) is a common mode of delivery now and surgical site infection is the second most common infectious complication in these patients. This study was planned with this background to have a comprehensive approach to SSI following LSCS. Methods. 500 consecutive patients undergoing LSCS, irrespective of indication, were studied. A questionnaire was developed to assess the risk factors associated with development of SSI. All patients were followed up from day one of surgery till discharge and then up till the postoperative day 30 after discharge. Results. SSI was identified in 121 (24.2%) out of 500 patients. In all age groups, Gram-negative bacilli were the commonest finding. The commonest isolate was Acinetobacter species (32.03%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (21.09%). 23.8% of Staphylococcus aureus strains were MRSA. By multivariate logistic regression premature rupture of membrane (PROM), antibiotics given earlier than 2 hours and increased duration of stay in the hospital were found to be significant. Conclusions. A proper assessment of risk factors that predispose to SSI and their modification may help in reduction of SSI rates. Also, frequent antimicrobial audit and qualitative research could give an insight into the current antibiotic prescription practices and the factors affecting these practices. Devjani De, Sonal Saxena, Geeta Mehta, Reena Yadav, and Renu Dutta Copyright © 2013 Devjani De et al. All rights reserved.