About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 329648, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/329648
Research Article

Fractal-Based Thinned Planar-Array Design Utilizing Iterative FFT Technique

1School of Electronic Engineering, Xidian University, Shaanxi, Xi'an 710071, China
2State Key Laboratory of Integrated Services Networks, Xidian University, Shaanxi, Xi'an 710071, China

Received 18 March 2012; Revised 10 July 2012; Accepted 24 July 2012

Academic Editor: Stefano Selleri

Copyright © 2012 Wentao Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. B. Mandelbrot, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, W. H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
  2. D. H. Werner and P. L. Werner, “On the synthesis of fractal radiation patterns,” Radio Science, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 29–45, 1995. View at Scopus
  3. L. Lizzi and G. Oliveri, “Hybrid design of a fractal-shaped GSM/UMTS antenna,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 24, no. 5-6, pp. 707–719, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. Azari, “A new super wideband fractal microstrip antenna,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1724–1727, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. Kumar, P. Malathi, and K. Sawant, “On the design of wheel-shaped fractal antenna,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 155–158, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Guo, X. Chen, and K. Huang, “A novel wideband microstrip fractal antenna based on the fractal binary tree,” Electromagnetics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 283–290, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. J. Casanova, J. A. Taylor, and J. Lin, “Design of a 3-D fractal heatsink antenna,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 9, pp. 1061–1064, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Kim and D. L. Jaggard, “The fractal random array,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 74, no. 9, pp. 1278–1280, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. C. Puente-Baliarda and R. Pous, “Fractal design of multiband and low side-lobe arrays,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 730–739, 1996. View at Scopus
  10. D. H. Werner, W. Kuhirun, and P. L. Werner, “The Peano-Gosper fractal array,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 2063–2072, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. G. Spence, D. H. Werner, and J. N. Carvajal, “Modular broadband phased-arrays based on a nonuniform distribution of elements along the peano-gosper space-filling curve,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 600–604, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Anguera, G. Montesinos, C. Puente, C. Borja, and J. Soler, “An undersampled high-directivity microstrip patch array with a reduced number of radiating elements inspired on the sierpinski fractal,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 100–103, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. F. A. Ghaffar, M. U. Khalid, K. N. Salama, and A. Shamim, “24-GHz LTCC fractal antenna array SoP with integrated Fresnel lens,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 705–708, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. H. Werner, R. L. Haupt, and P. L. Werner, “Fractal antenna engineering: the theory and design of fractal antenna arrays,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 37–59, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Karmakar, R. Ghatak, S. K. Mandal, R. K. Mishra, and D. R. Poddar, “A modified Sierpinski pattern thinned planar array of rectangular microstrip antenna with reduced SLL,” in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Novel Structures and Innovative Metamaterials (iWAT'11), pp. 384–387, Hong Kong, China, March 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. H. Werner and S. Ganguly, “An overview of fractal antenna engineering research,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 38–57, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. H. Werner, K. C. Anushko, and P. L. Werner, “The generation of sum and difference patterns using fractal subarrays,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 54–57, 1999.
  18. K. K. Yan and Y. Lu, “Sidelobe reduction in array-pattern synthesis using genetic algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1117–1122, 1997. View at Scopus
  19. S. K. Goudos, K. Siakavara, T. Samaras, E. E. Vafiadis, and J. N. Sahalos, “Sparse linear array synthesis with multiple constraints using differential evolution with strategy adaptation,” IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, vol. 10, pp. 670–673, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. J. Zhang, S. X. Gong, and Y. X. Xu, “Radiation pattern synthesis for arrays of conformal antennas mounted on an irregular curved surface using modified genetic algorithms,” Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1255–1264, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. L. Guo and J. Y. Li, “Pattern synthesis of conformal array antenna in the presence of platform using differential evolution algorithm,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57, no. 9, pp. 2615–2621, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. S. W. Yang, Y. B. Gan, and A. Y. Qing, “Antenna-array pattern nulling using a differential evolution algorithm,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. H. Ismail and Z. M. Hamici, “Array pattern synthesis using digital phase control by quantized particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2142–2145, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. D. W. Boeringer and D. H. Werner, “Particle swarm optimization versus genetic algorithms for phased array synthesis,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 771–779, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. P. M. N. Keizer, “Linear array thinning using iterative FFT techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 2757–2760, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. W. P. M. N. Keizer, “APAS: an advanced phased-array simulator,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 40–56, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus