About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 917248, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/917248
Research Article

CLEAN Technique to Classify and Detect Objects in Subsurface Imaging

Electronics Engineering Department, Uludag University, Gorukle, Bursa, Turkey

Received 4 October 2012; Revised 20 November 2012; Accepted 21 November 2012

Academic Editor: Dau-Chyrh Chang

Copyright © 2012 E. Karpat. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. X. Li, E. J. Bond, B. D. Van Veen, and S. C. Hagness, “An overview of ultra-wideband microwave imaging via space-time beamforming for early-stage breast-cancer detection,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 19–34, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. X. Li and S. C. Hagness, “A confocal microwave imaging algorithm for breast cancer detection,” IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 130–132, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. C. Fear, S. C. Hagness, P. M. Meaney, M. Okoniewski, and M. A. Stuchly, “Enhancing breast tumor detection with near-field imaging,” IEEE Microwave Magazine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 48–56, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. E. C. Fear, P. M. Meaney, and M. A. Stuchly, “Microwaves for breast cancer detection?” IEEE Potentials, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. C. Fear, X. Li, S. C. Hagness, and M. A. Stuchly, “Confocal microwave imaging for breast cancer detection: localization of tumors in three dimensions,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 49, no. 8, pp. 812–822, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. X. Xu, E. L. Miller, C. M. Rappaport, and G. D. Sower, “Statistical method to detect subsurface objects using array ground-penetrating radar data,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 963–976, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. Y. Wang, X. Li, Y. Sun, J. Li, and P. Stoica, “Adaptive imaging for forward-looking ground penetrating radar,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 922–936, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. C. Williams, E. C. Fear, and D. T. Westwick, “Tissue sensing adaptive radar for breast cancer detection-investigations of an improved skin-sensing method,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 1308–1313, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Banasiak and M. Soleimani, “Shape based reconstruction of experimental data in 3D electrical capacitance tomography,” NDT & E International, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 241–249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. I. T. Rekanos, “Shape reconstruction of a perfectly conducting scatterer using differential evolution and particle swarm optimization,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 1967–1974, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. Randazzo, “Swarm optimization methods in microwave imaging,” International Journal of Microwave Science and Technology, vol. 2012, Article ID 491713, 12 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. C. H. Huang, C. C. Chiu, C. L. Li, and Y. H. Li, “Image reconstruction of the buried metallic cylinder using FDTD method and SSGA,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research, vol. 85, pp. 195–210, 2008. View at Scopus
  13. C. H. Sun, C. L. Liu, K. C. Chen, C. C. Chiu, C. L. Li, and C. C. Tasi, “Electromagnetic transverse electric wave inverse scattering of a partially immersed conductor by steady-state genetic algorithm,” Electromagnetics, vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 389–400, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. H. Sun, C. C. Chiu, W. Chien, and C. L. Li, “Application of FDTD and dynamic differential evolution for inverse scattering of a two- dimensional perfectly conducting cylinder in slab medium,” Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 19, Article ID 043016, 2010.
  15. C. H. Sun, C. C. Chiu, and C. L. Li, “Time-domain inverse scattering of a two-dimensional metallic cylinder in slab medium using asynchronous particle swarm optimization,” Progress in Electromagnetics Research M, vol. 14, pp. 85–100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. H. Sun and C. C. Chiu, “Electromagnetic imaging of buried perfectly conducting cylinders targets using the dynamic differential evolution,” International Journal of RF and Microwave Computer-Aided Engineering, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 2012.
  17. C. C. Chiu, C. H. Sun, C. L. Li, and C. H. Huang, “Comparative study of some population-based optimization algorithms on inverse scattering of a two-dimensional perfectly conducting cylinder in dielectric slab medium,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, no. 99, pp. 1–19, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell's equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 302–307, 1966.
  19. F. L. Teixeira, W. C. Chew, M. Straka, M. L. Oristaglio, and T. Wang, “Finite-difference time-domain simulation of ground penetrating radar on dispersive, inhomogeneous, and conductive soils,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1928–1937, 1998. View at Scopus
  20. J. M. Bourgeois and G. S. Smith, “A complete electromagnetic simulation of the separated-aperture sensor for detecting buried land mines,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 46, no. 10, pp. 1419–1426, 1998. View at Scopus
  21. L. Gürel and U. Oğuz, “Three-dimensional FDTD modeling of a ground-penetrating radar,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 1513–1521, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Sevgi, “Modeling and simulation concepts in engineering education: virtual tools,” ELEKTRIK, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 113–127, 2006. View at Scopus
  23. G. Çakır, M. Çakır, and L. Sevgi, “A novel virtual FDTD-based microstrip circuit design and analysis tool,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 161–173, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. L. Sevgi and Ç. Uluışık, “A MATLAB-based transmission-line virtual tool: finite-difference time-domain reflectometer,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 141–145, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. Çakır, M. Çakır, and L. Sevgi, “A multipurpose FDTD-based two dimensional electromagnetic virtual tool,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 142–151, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Çakır, G. Çakır, and L. Sevgi, “A two-dimensional FDTD-based virtual metamaterial—wave interaction visualization tool,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 166–175, 2008.
  27. G. Çakır, M. Çakır, and L. Sevgi, “Radar cross section (RCS) modeling and simulation—part 2: a novel FDTD-based RCS prediction virtual tool for the resonance regime,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 81–94, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Karpat, M. Çakır, and L. Sevgi, “Subsurface imaging, FDTD-based simulations and alternative scan/processing approaches,” Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 1070–1075, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. J. A. Högbom, “Aperture synthesis with a nonregular distribution of interferometric baselines,” Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplements, vol. 15, pp. 417–426, 1974.
  30. J. Tsao and B. D. Steinberg, “Reduction of sidelobe and speckle artifacts in microwave imaging: the CLEAN technique,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 543–557, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Marie Raynal, Feature-based exploitation of multidimensional radar signatures [Dissertation], The University of Texas at Austin, August 2008.