- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
International Journal of Antennas and Propagation
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 105071, 9 pages
Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712, USA
Received 13 October 2012; Revised 31 December 2012; Accepted 10 January 2013
Academic Editor: David de la Vega
Copyright © 2013 Shang-Te Yang and Hao Ling. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. J. Vogt, T. D. Crum, W. Greenwood, E. J. Ciardi, and R. G. Guenther, New Criteria for Evaluating Wind Turbine Impacts on NEXRAD Weather Radars, WINDPOWER 2011, Anaheim, Calif, USA, 2011.
- Air Warfare Center, The Effects of Wind Turbine Farms on ATC RADARS, Air Warfare Center, Royal Air Force, London, UK, 2005.
- Air Warfare Center, Further Evidence of the Effects of Wind Turbine Farms on Air Defense RADARS, Air Warfare Center, Royal Air Force, London, UK, 2005.
- “The effect of Windmills on military readiness,” United States Department of Defense Report To the Congressional Defense Committees, 2006.
- “U.S. Coast Guard Assessment of Potential Impacts to Marine Radar as it Relates to Marine Navigation Safety from the Nantucket Sound Wind Facility as Proposed by Cape Wind, LLC,” 2009.
- QinetiQ, Results of the Electromagnetic Investigations and Assessments of Marine Radar, Communications and Positioning Systems Undertaken at the North Hoyle Wind Farm, QinetiQ and the Maritime and Coastguard Agency, Salisbury, UK, 2004.
- D. Vega, C. Frenandez, O. Grande I Angulo et al., “Software tool for the analysis of potential impact of wind farms on radiocommunication services,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting (BMSB '11), Erlangen, Germany, 2011.
- B. M. Kent, K. C. Hill, A. Buterbaugh et al., “Dynamic radar cross section and radar doppler measurements of commercial general electric windmill power turbines part 1: predicted and measured radar signatures,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 211–219, 2008.
- A. B. Buterbaugh, B. M. Kent, K. C. Hill et al., “Dynamic radar cross section and radar Doppler measurements of commercial General Electric windmill power turbines Part 2-Predicted and Measured Doppler Signatures,” in Proceedings of the 2007 Symposium of the Antenna Measurement Technology Association, St. Louis, Mo, USA, 2007.
- E. F. Knott, J. F. Shaeffer, and M. T. Tuley, Radar Cross Section: Its Prediction, Measurement and Reduction, Artech House Radar Library, Norwood, Mass, USA, 1985.
- European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, “Assessment methodology to determine the impact of wind turbines on ATC surveillance systems,” Eurocontrol Document 0.3, European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation, Brussels, Belgium, 2007.
- J. J. Lemmon, J. E. Carroll, F. H. Sanders, and D. Turner, “Assessment of the effects of wind turbines on air traffic control radars,” National Telecommunications and Information Administration Technical Report 08-454, Department of Commerce, Boulder, Colo, USA, 2008.
- S. Hawk, “Impact study of 130 offshore wind turbines in Nantucket Sound,” FAA Western Service Area Engineering Services AJW-W15B, 2009.
- Meridian Energy Corp, Application Documents of Project Hurunui Wind-Appendix N: Compatibility with Radio Services, Meridian Energy Corp, Wellington, New Zealand, 2011.
- A. Theil and L. J. Van Ewijk, “Radar performance degradation due to the presence of wind turbines,” in Proceedings of the IEEE Radar Conference, pp. 75–80, April 2007.
- G. Greving and M. Malkomes, “Weather radar and wind turbines-an update of the theoretical and numerical analysis of effects,” in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference in Meteorology and Hydrology, pp. 1–5, 2010.
- S. Jordan, “Test report for evaluation of wind turbines impact on long-range radar surveillance at King Mountain, Texas,” Radar Evaluation Squadron Report 84th, Hill Air Force Base, North Davis, Utah, USA, 2008.
- A. Frye, “Theoretical and measurement results of the effects of wind turbines of military radar systems and technical assessment methods,” in Proceedings of the 60th IEA Topical Expert Meeting, Senternovem, The Netherlands, November 2009.
- EM Software & Systems, FEKO Version 6. 2, EM Software & Systems Inc., Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2012.
- I. Angulo, D. De La Vega, O. Rodríguez, O. Grande, D. Guerra, and P. Angueira, “Analysis of the mast contribution to the scattering pattern of wind turbines in the UHF band,” in Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP '11), pp. 707–711, Rome, Italy, April 2011.
- C. A. Balanis, Advanced Engineering Electromagnetics, 2/e, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 1989.
- E. Van Lil, D. Trappeniers, J. W. De Bleser, and A. Van De Capelle, “Computations of radar returns of wind turbines,” in Proceedings of the 3rd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP '09), pp. 3852–3856, Berlin, Germany, March 2009.
- E. Van Lil, J. W. De Bleser, and A. Van De Capelle, “Computations of the effects of wind turbines in the close near field of RF installations,” in Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP '11), pp. 1362–1366, Rome, Italy, April 2011.
- S. S. Ram, C. Christianson, Y. Kim, and H. Ling, “Simulation and analysis of human micro-Dopplers in through-wall environments,” IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 2015–2023, 2010.