Table 4: Simulated gain values of the three commercial tag antennas in three planes (Unit: dB).

Gain Gain deviation

Invengo TF8023 max. 1.97 4.02
Invengo TF8023 min. 0.87
Impinj H47 max. 1.59 4.39
Impinj H47 min. 0.44
UPM frog 3D max. 2.61 5.12
UPM frog 3D min. −0.25