Table 6: Electrical sizes, fractional bandwidths, and aggregate fractional bandwidths from the literature survey.

Reference work Lower band Upper band
(rad) FBW (rad) FBW Aggr. FBW

Angelopoulos et al. [9] 3.03 0.086 6.47 0.063 0.149
Mendes et al. [10] 0.45 0.021 1.07 0.030 0.051
Moon et al. [11] 0.79 0.041 1.90 0.145 0.186
Cho et al. [12] 0.60 0.057 1.39 0.261 0.318
Nakano et al. [13] 1.11 0.041 2.65 0.282 0.323
Azad and Ali [14] 1.13 0.070 2.36 0.033 0.103
Cho et al. [15] 1.33 0.045 3.02 0.162 0.207
Wang et al. [16] (spiralled tail) 1.97 0.057 4.22 0.144 0.201
Wang et al. [16] (coupling element) 1.94 0.098 4.15 0.128 0.226
Michailidis et al. [17] 1.72 0.095 3.59 0.137 0.232
Chan et al. [18] 2.09 0.109 2.83 0.036 0.145
Yu and Choi [19] 1.14 0.187 2.51 0.153 0.340
Li et al. [21] (IFA mode) 1.16 0.085 3.04 0.078 0.163