International Journal of Antennas and Propagation http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. An OPMA for Robust Mutual Coupling Coefficients Estimation of URA with Single Snapshot in MIMO HF Sky-Wave Radar Wed, 20 Jul 2016 07:00:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/7515028/ Due to the fluctuation of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the single snapshot case in the MIMO HF sky-wave radar system, the accuracy of the online estimation of the mutual coupling coefficients matrix of the uniform rectangle array (URA) might be degraded by the classical approach, especially in the case of low SNR. In this paper, an Online Particle Mean-Shift Approach (OPMA) is proposed, which is to get a relatively more effective estimation of the mutual coupling coefficients matrix with the low SNR. Firstly, the spatial smoothing technique combined with the MUSIC algorithm of URA is introduced for the DOA estimation of the multiple targets in the case of single snapshot which are taken as coherent sources. Then, based on the idea of the particle filter, the online particles with a moderate computational complexity are used to generate some different estimation results. Finally, the mean-shift algorithm is applied to get a more robust estimate of the equivalent mutual coupling coefficients matrix. The simulation results demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach in terms of the success probability, the statistics of bias, and the variance. The proposed approach is more robust and more accurate than the other two approaches. Yuguan Hou, Qingguo Jin, Shaochuan Wu, and Zhuoming Li Copyright © 2016 Yuguan Hou et al. All rights reserved. Bistatic High Frequency Radar Ocean Surface Cross Section for an FMCW Source with an Antenna on a Floating Platform Sun, 17 Jul 2016 14:16:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8675964/ The first- and second-order bistatic high frequency radar cross sections of the ocean surface with an antenna on a floating platform are derived for a frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) source. Based on previous work, the derivation begins with the general bistatic electric field in the frequency domain for the case of a floating antenna. Demodulation and range transformation are used to obtain the range information, distinguishing the process from that used for a pulsed radar. After Fourier-transforming the autocorrelation and comparing the result with the radar range equation, the radar cross sections are derived. The new first- and second-order antenna-motion-incorporated bistatic radar cross section models for an FMCW source are simulated and compared with those for a pulsed source. Results show that, for the same radar operating parameters, the first-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform is a little lower than that for a pulsed source. The second-order radar cross section for the FMCW waveform reduces to that for the pulsed waveform when the scattering patch limit approaches infinity. The effect of platform motion on the radar cross sections for an FMCW waveform is investigated for a variety of sea states and operating frequencies and, in general, is found to be similar to that for a pulsed waveform. Yue Ma, Weimin Huang, and Eric W. Gill Copyright © 2016 Yue Ma et al. All rights reserved. A Wideband Antenna with Circular and Rectangular Shaped Slots for Mobile Phone Applications Sun, 17 Jul 2016 13:58:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2975425/ A wideband slot antenna for mobile phone applications is proposed. The antenna has two slots with open ends etched on the opposite edges of the ground plane. The main slot, of total length of 59 mm, is composed of a rectangle connected to a circle having radius of 5 mm. Another slot, having a rectangular shape with width of 2.8 mm and length of 26 mm, is employed to enhance the antenna bandwidth. The slots are fed by means of a rectangular monopole connected to a circular patch joined to a bent 50 Ω microstrip transmission line forming two right angles. To obtain a wideband impedance matching, the upper edge of the monopole and a part of the feeding line evolve along the top edge of the two slots. To reduce the antenna size, the upper part of the board above the slot (just 3 mm from the slot) is folded vertically to the ground plane. The measured bandwidth of the antenna is 0.698–1.10 GHz and 1.64–2.83 GHz covering LTE700/2300/2500, GSM850/900/1800/1900, and UMTS bands. Wei-Hua Zong, Xiao-Mei Yang, Xia Xiao, Shan-Dong Li, Xiang-Yang Wei, Zhe-Jun Jin, and Xiao-Yun Qu Copyright © 2016 Wei-Hua Zong et al. All rights reserved. Miniaturized Dielectric Resonator Antenna Array for GNSS Applications Thu, 14 Jul 2016 15:58:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2564087/ The increase in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) availability and services is fostering a new wave of applications related to satellite navigation. Such increase is also followed by more and more threats, aiming at signal disruption. In order to fully exploit the potentialities of precise and reliable navigation, being able at the same time to counteract threats such as interference, jamming, and spoofing, smart antenna systems are being investigated worldwide, with the requirements of multiband operation and compactness. In order to answer such need, the present work proposes a miniaturized dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) 2 × 2 array able to operate at E5/L5, L2, and E6 bands, with an overall footprint of only 3.5′′ (89 mm). S. Caizzone, G. Buchner, and W. Elmarissi Copyright © 2016 S. Caizzone et al. All rights reserved. A Parasitic Array Receiver for ISAR Imaging of Ship Targets Using a Coastal Radar Thu, 14 Jul 2016 09:03:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8485305/ The detection and identification of ship targets navigating in coastal areas are essential in order to prevent maritime accidents and to take countermeasures against illegal activities. Usually, coastal radar systems are employed for the detection of vessels, whereas noncooperative ship targets as well as ships not equipped with AIS transponders can be identified by means of dedicated active radar imaging system by means of ISAR processing. In this work, we define a parasitic array receiver for ISAR imaging purposes based on the signal transmitted by an opportunistic coastal radar over its successive scans. In order to obtain the proper cross-range resolution, the physical aperture provided by the array is combined with the synthetic aperture provided by the target motion. By properly designing the array of passive devices, the system is able to correctly observe the signal reflected from the ships over successive scans of the coastal radar. Specifically, the upper bounded interelement spacing provides a correct angular sampling accordingly to the Nyquist theorem and the lower bounded number of elements of the array ensures the continuity of the observation during multiple scans. An ad hoc focusing technique has been then proposed to provide the ISAR images of the ships. Simulated analysis proved the effectiveness of the proposed system to provide top-view images of ship targets suitable for ATR procedures. Fabrizio Santi and Debora Pastina Copyright © 2016 Fabrizio Santi and Debora Pastina. All rights reserved. BeiDou Satellites Assistant Determination by Receiving Other GNSS Downlink Signals Mon, 11 Jul 2016 09:01:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/1413401/ GNSS’s orbit determinations always rely on ground station or intersatellite links (ISL). In the emergency of satellite-to-ground links and ISL break-off, BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) satellites cannot determine their orbits. In this paper, we propose to add a spaceborne annular beam antenna for receiving the global positioning system (GPS) and global navigation satellite system (GLONASS) signals; therefore, the BDS satellites may be capable of determining their orbits by GPS/GLONASS signals. Firstly, the spectrum selection, the power isolation, the range of Doppler frequency shift, and changing rate are taken into account for the feasibility. Specifically, the L2 band signals are chosen for receiving and processing in order to prevent the overlapping of the receiving and transmitting signals. Secondly, the minimum number of visible satellites (MNVS), carrier-to-noise ratio (), dilution of precision (GDOP), and geometric distance root-mean-square (gdrms) are evaluated for acquiring the effective receiving antennas’ coverage ranges. Finally, the scheme of deploying 3 receiving antennas is proved to be optimal by analysis and simulations over the middle earth orbit (MEO), geostationary earth orbit (GEO), and the inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO). The antennas’ structures and patterns are designed to draw a conclusion that installing GPS and GLONASS receivers on BDS satellites for emergent orbits determination is cost-effective. Lei Chen, Ke Zhang, Xiangwei Zhu, Yangbo Huang, Gang Ou, and Huicui Liu Copyright © 2016 Lei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Robust Adaptive Beamforming Using a Low-Complexity Steering Vector Estimation and Covariance Matrix Reconstruction Algorithm Sun, 10 Jul 2016 10:50:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2438183/ A novel low-complexity robust adaptive beamforming (RAB) technique is proposed in order to overcome the major drawbacks from which the recent reported RAB algorithms suffer, mainly the high computational cost and the requirement for optimization programs. The proposed algorithm estimates the array steering vector (ASV) using a closed-form formula obtained by a subspace-based method and reconstructs the interference-plus-noise (IPN) covariance matrix by utilizing a sampling progress and employing the covariance matrix taper (CMT) technique. Moreover, the proposed beamformer only requires knowledge of the antenna array geometry and prior information of the probable angular sector in which the actual ASV lies. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithm and prove that this algorithm can achieve superior performance over the existing RAB methods. Pei Chen, Yongjun Zhao, and Chengcheng Liu Copyright © 2016 Pei Chen et al. All rights reserved. Design of a Compact Quad-Band Slot Antenna for Integrated Mobile Devices Mon, 04 Jul 2016 09:10:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3717681/ In order to incorporate different communication standards into a single device, a compact quad-band slot antenna is proposed in this paper. The proposed antenna is composed of a dielectric substrate, T-shaped microstrip patch with a circle slot and an inverted L-slot, and a comb-shaped ground on the back of the substrate. By adopting these structures, it can produce four different bands, while maintaining a small size and a simple structure. Furthermore, a prototype of the quad-band antenna is designed and fabricated. The simulated and measured results show that the proposed antenna can operate over the 1.79–2.63 GHz, 3.46–3.97 GHz, 4.92–5.85 GHz, and 7.87–8.40 GHz, which can cover entire PCS (Personal Communications Service, 1.85–1.99 GHz), UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, 1.92–2.17 GHz), WCDMA (wideband code-division multiple access, 2.1 GHz), Bluetooth (2.4–2.48 GHz), WiBro (Wireless Broad band access service, 2.3–3.39 GHz), WLAN (Wireless Local Area Networks, 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz), WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, 2.5/3.5/5.5 GHz), and X-band SATcom applications (7.9~8.4 GHz). The proposed antenna is particularly attractive for mobile devices integrating multiple communication systems. Jian Dong, Xiaping Yu, and Guoqiang Hu Copyright © 2016 Jian Dong et al. All rights reserved. Iterative GA Optimization Scheme for Synthesis of Radiation Pattern of Linear Array Antenna Thu, 30 Jun 2016 05:47:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/7087298/ This research has proposed the iterative genetic algorithm (GA) optimization scheme to synthesize the radiation pattern of an aperiodic (nonuniform) linear array antenna. The aim of the iterative optimization is to achieve a radiation pattern with a side lobe level (SLL) of ≤−20 dB. In the optimization, the proposed scheme iteratively optimizes the array range (spacing) and the number of array elements, whereby the array element with the lowest absolute complex weight coefficient is first removed and then the second lowest and so on. The removal (the element reduction) is terminated once the SLL is greater than −20 dB (>−20 dB) and the elemental increment mechanism is triggered. The results indicate that the proposed iterative GA optimization scheme is applicable to the nonuniform linear array antenna and also is capable of synthesizing the radiation pattern with SLL ≤ −20 dB. Sarayoot Todnatee and Chuwong Phongcharoenpanich Copyright © 2016 Sarayoot Todnatee and Chuwong Phongcharoenpanich. All rights reserved. High Performance Robust Adaptive Beamforming in the Presence of Array Imperfections Wed, 29 Jun 2016 14:51:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3743509/ A high performance robust beamforming scheme is proposed to combat model mismatch. Our method lies in the novel construction of interference-plus-noise (IPN) covariance matrix. The IPN covariance matrix consists of two parts. The first part is obtained by utilizing the Capon spectrum estimator integrated over a region separated from the direction of the desired signal and the second part is acquired by removing the desired signal component from the sample covariance matrix. Then a weighted summation of these two parts is utilized to reconstruct the IPN matrix. Moreover, a steering vector estimation method based on orthogonal constraint is also proposed. In this method, the presumed steering vector is corrected via orthogonal constraint under the condition where the estimation does not converge to any of the interference steering vectors. To further improve the proposed method in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), a hybrid method is proposed by incorporating the diagonal loading method into the IPN matrix reconstruction. Finally, various simulations are performed to demonstrate that the proposed beamformer provides strong robustness against a variety of array mismatches. The output signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) improvement of the beamformer due to the proposed method is significant. Wenxing Li, Xiaojun Mao, Zhuqun Zhai, and Yingsong Li Copyright © 2016 Wenxing Li et al. All rights reserved. A FPC-ROOT Algorithm for 2D-DOA Estimation in Sparse Array Tue, 28 Jun 2016 07:11:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/5951717/ To improve the performance of two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (2D DOA) estimation in sparse array, this paper presents a Fixed Point Continuation Polynomial Roots (FPC-ROOT) algorithm. Firstly, a signal model for DOA estimation is established based on matrix completion and it can be proved that the proposed model meets Null Space Property (NSP). Secondly, left and right singular vectors of received signals matrix are achieved using the matrix completion algorithm. Finally, 2D DOA estimation can be acquired through solving the polynomial roots. The proposed algorithm can achieve high accuracy of 2D DOA estimation in sparse array, without solving autocorrelation matrix of received signals and scanning of two-dimensional spectral peak. Besides, it decreases the number of antennas and lowers computational complexity and meanwhile avoids the angle ambiguity problem. Computer simulations demonstrate that the proposed FPC-ROOT algorithm can obtain the 2D DOA estimation precisely in sparse array. Wenhao Zeng, Hongtao Li, Xiaohua Zhu, and Chaoyu Wang Copyright © 2016 Wenhao Zeng et al. All rights reserved. Evolutionary Algorithm Geometry Optimization of Optical Antennas Mon, 20 Jun 2016 15:05:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3156702/ Printed circuit antennas have been used for the detection of electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of frequencies that go from radio frequencies (RF) up to optical frequencies. The design of printed antennas at optical frequencies has been done by using design rules derived from the radio frequency domain which do not take into account the dispersion of material parameters at optical frequencies. This can make traditional RF antenna design not suitable for optical antenna design. This work presents the results of using a genetic algorithm (GA) for obtaining an optimized geometry (unconventional geometries) that may be used as optical regime antennas to capture electromagnetic waves. The radiation patterns and optical properties of the GA generated geometries were compared with the conventional dipole geometry. The characterizations were conducted via finite element method (FEM) computational simulations. Ramón Díaz de León-Zapata, Gabriel González, Efrén Flores-García, Ángel Gabriel Rodríguez, and Francisco Javier González Copyright © 2016 Ramón Díaz de León-Zapata et al. All rights reserved. An Efficient Plot Fusion Method for High Resolution Radar Based on Contour Tracking Algorithm Thu, 16 Jun 2016 08:14:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3025642/ With the development of radar system, the problem of enormous raw data has drawn much attention. A plot fusion method based on contour tracking algorithm is proposed to detect extended targets in a radar image. Firstly, the characteristic of radar image in complex environment is revealed. Then, the steps of traditional method, region growing method, and the proposed method are introduced. Meanwhile, the algorithm of tracking the contour of an extended target is illustrated in detail. It is not necessary to scan all the plots in the image, because the size of target is considered in the proposed method. Therefore, the proposed method is much more efficient than several existing methods. Lastly, the performance of several methods is tested using the raw data of two scenarios in real world. The experiment results show that the proposed method is practical and most likely to satisfy the real-time requirement in various complex environment. Bo. Yan, L. P. Xu, Kun Zhao, and J. Z. H. Yan Copyright © 2016 Bo. Yan et al. All rights reserved. A Compact MIMO Antenna with Inverted C-Shaped Ground Branches for Mobile Terminals Wed, 15 Jun 2016 10:34:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/3080563/ A compact printed MIMO antenna for mobile terminals is presented. With two planar antenna elements, the −6 dB impedance bandwidth of 2.32 GHz (1.48–3.8 GHz) is obtained, which covers GSM 1800/1900, UMTS, WLAN, Wimax, S-band, and most of LTE bands. Each antenna element with a small occupation of 15 × 20 mm2 consists of a driven strip and a shorted strip. Two inverted C-shaped ground branches are introduced between two elements to improve the isolation. The simulated results are studied and the measured results show that high isolation of more than 18 dB at the entire operating band is achieved. Meanwhile, the impedance performance is also improved by adding the branches. Furthermore, the measured radiation performances and envelope correlation coefficient also demonstrate that the proposed antenna could be a good candidate for mobile terminals. Zixian Yang, Hongchun Yang, and Haijuan Cui Copyright © 2016 Zixian Yang et al. All rights reserved. Compact Penta-Band Dual ZOR Antenna for Mobile Applications Tue, 07 Jun 2016 08:54:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/6461805/ A compact penta-band dual zeroth order resonator (ZOR) antenna with band-stop filter is proposed for mobile applications. The ZOR antenna is designed with modified mushroom-like structures extended on nonground region to obtain good efficiency and broad bandwidth. This modified mushroom-like structure is confirmed as double negative (DNG) transmission line by full wave simulated dispersion relation. Moreover, a bended patch and a band-stop filter (BSF) are employed to increase efficiency and bandwidth, respectively. The length of each antenna is about at the resonant frequencies of 900 MHz and 1800 MHz, respectively. The overall dimension of the antenna is 54.4 mm (length) × 4 mm (width) × 5 mm (height). The total efficiencies in low and high bands are measured more than 40% and 70%, respectively. Jae-Gon Lee, Dong-Jin Kim, and Jeong-Hae Lee Copyright © 2016 Jae-Gon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target Wed, 01 Jun 2016 11:08:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2598024/ SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT) algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT) algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG) model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM) model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method. Weijie Xia, Yuanyuan Qi, Linlin Huang, and Xue Jin Copyright © 2016 Weijie Xia et al. All rights reserved. A Circuit-Model-Navigated Design Process and Efficiency Estimation for Short-Circuited Self-Excited EBG Resonator Antenna Tue, 31 May 2016 09:26:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/9327167/ The paper presents a circuit model for the computationally efficient design of a planar Short-Circuited Self-Excited EBG Resonator Antenna (SC SE-EBG-RA). To this purpose, the same circuit model previously presented for the Open-Circuited version of the antenna is modified to be applicable to the SC version. Detailed HFSS modeling and simulation corroborate the accuracy of the model in predicting the antenna resonance. The efficiency of the designed antenna is calculated by a simulated Wheeler Cap Method (WCM) and is compared with the standard efficiency given by the numerical analyzer. The EM modeling is arranged so as to incorporate the effects of the SMA connector, discontinuities, and the WC, emulating a real WC measurement and yielding a high degree of confidence in the results. Overall, a small antenna sized with 93% verified efficiency is achieved, which is also compiled with affordable manufacturing processes. Mehdi Hosseini Copyright © 2016 Mehdi Hosseini. All rights reserved. Cognitive MIMO Frequency Diverse Array Radar with High LPI Performance Tue, 31 May 2016 06:08:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2623617/ Frequency diverse array (FDA) has its unique advantage in realizing low probability of intercept (LPI) technology for its dependent beam pattern. In this paper, we proposed a cognitive radar based on the frequency diverse array multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO). To implement LPI of FDA MIMO transmit signals, a scheme for array weighting design is proposed, which is to minimize the energy of the target location and maximize the energy of the receiver. This is based on the range dependent characteristics of the frequency diverse array transmit beam pattern. To realize the objective problem, the algorithm is proposed as follows: the second-order nonconvex optimization problem is converted into a convex problem and solved by the bisection method and convex optimization. To get the information of target, the FDA MIMO radar is proposed to estimate the target parameters. Simulation results show that the proposed approach is effective in decreasing the detection probability of radar with lossless detection performance of the receive signal. Ling Huang, Kuandong Gao, Zhiming He, and Jingye Cai Copyright © 2016 Ling Huang et al. All rights reserved. Far-Field Testing Method of Spurious Emission Produced by HF RFID Mon, 30 May 2016 14:22:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/4715898/ We present measurements of spurious emission produced by high-frequency radio frequency identification (HF RFID) using carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz. HF RFID tags produce unwanted emission due to rectification and more generally due to nonlinearity of analog front end. Depending on the conducting material of an HF RFID coil and surrounding dielectric material, the coil behaves as more or less good antenna on some harmonic frequencies. Exact characterization and analysis of unwanted emission is important from the security perspective as well as from the perspective of interference with other systems. Consequently we measured the harmonics produced in the integrated circuitry and characterized radiation properties of the antenna. Finally we present the measurements of the spurious emission performed in a Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) cell. Nikola Gvozdenovic, Ralph Prestros, and Christoph F. Mecklenbräuker Copyright © 2016 Nikola Gvozdenovic et al. All rights reserved. Dual-Resonant Implantable Circular Patch Antenna for Biotelemetry Communication Mon, 30 May 2016 09:45:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/5262013/ A compact broadband implantable circular patch antenna is designed and experimentally demonstrated for Medical Implant Communications Service (MICS) band (402–405 MHz). Compared with other similar implantable antennas, the proposed antenna incorporates three advantages for biotelemetry communication. First, it can realize a broad impedance bandwidth by exhibiting dual resonances. Second, it can obtain a compact structure by introducing two arc-shaped slots, a rectangular slot and a circular slot on metal radiating patch. Finally, it can display a friendly shape by using a circular structure. The proposed antenna occupies a volume of about 431.5 mm3 (10.42 × 1.27 mm3), which is a compromise between miniaturization and bandwidth. The measured −10 dB impedance bandwidth is 55 MHz (385–440 MHz). Furthermore, the radiation performance and human body safety consideration of the antenna are examined and characterized. Rongqiang Li and Shaoqiu Xiao Copyright © 2016 Rongqiang Li and Shaoqiu Xiao. All rights reserved. A Novel Compact Dual-Polarized Antenna Thu, 26 May 2016 15:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/6304356/ A novel compact dual-polarized antenna is proposed. The antenna has a 1.43% impedance bandwidth which is from 1801 MHz to 1827 MHz for return loss larger than 10 dB. The isolation between the two ports is above 28 dB in the bandwidth, and the gain is 6.6 dBi. The proposed antenna not only consists of a full-planar structure, but also is easy to be fabricated for its simple structure. Additionally, a section of slots and slits is cut on the radiation patch to reduce the area of it to 54% compared with the conventional square patch. Yong Cheng, Yadan Li, and Wenjun Lu Copyright © 2016 Yong Cheng et al. All rights reserved. A Dual-Band Printed End-Fire Antenna with DSPSL Feeding Thu, 26 May 2016 12:06:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/9845392/ A novel dual-band printed end-fired antenna with double-sided parallel-strip line (DSPSL) feeding is presented. The DSPSL acts in wideband transition using balanced transmission. Two different modes of the parasitic patches allow the antenna to work in different bands. The printed antenna is designed as a quasi-Yagi structure to achieve directivity in the lower band, and the parallel rectangular patches serve as the parasitic director. These patches act as radiation patches with end-fire direction characteristics in the upper band. The measured bandwidths were 18.3% for the lower frequency band (2.28–2.74 GHz) and 12.6% for the upper frequency band (5.46–6.2 GHz). Daofeng Ye, Yuanxin Li, Zhixi Liang, and Yunliang Long Copyright © 2016 Daofeng Ye et al. All rights reserved. Improved OAM-Based Radar Targets Detection Using Uniform Concentric Circular Arrays Tue, 24 May 2016 07:11:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/1852659/ Without any relative moves or beam scanning, the novel Orbital-Angular-Momentum- (OAM-) based radar targets detection technique using uniform concentric circular arrays (UCCAs) shows the azimuthal estimation ability, which provides new perspective for radar system design. However, the main estimation method, that is, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), under this scheme suffers from low resolution. As a solution, this paper rebuilds the OAM-based radar targets detection model and introduces the multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm to improve the resolution for detecting targets within the main lobes. The spatial smoothing technique is proposed to tackle the coherent problem brought by the proposed model. Analytical study and simulation demonstrate the superresolution estimation capacity the MUSIC algorithm can achieve for detecting targets within the main lobes. The performance of the MUSIC algorithm to detect targets not illuminated by the main lobes is further evaluated. Despite the fact that MUSIC algorithm loses the resolution advantage under this case, its estimation is more robust than that of the FFT method. Overall, the proposed MUSIC algorithm for the OAM-based radar system demonstrates the superresolution ability for detecting targets within the main lobes and good robustness for targets out of the main lobes. Mingtuan Lin, Yue Gao, Peiguo Liu, and Jibin Liu Copyright © 2016 Mingtuan Lin et al. All rights reserved. A Miniaturized Meandered Dipole UHF RFID Tag Antenna for Flexible Application Mon, 23 May 2016 11:38:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2951659/ A miniaturized meandered dipole antenna for UHF RFID tag is proposed. Different resonance frequencies and impedance can be achieved by adjusting the number of the meanders, which can help to reduce the size of the antenna. Due to the radiation patches, the input impedance of the antenna can be flexibly tuned in a large scale. The proposed antenna is printed on polyethylene (PET) substrate with a total volume of 48 mm × 13.7 mm × 0.5 mm. Modeling and simulation results show that the reflection coefficient of the antenna is less than −15 dB at 860–960 MHz. Experimental studies demonstrate that the minimum threshold power of the antenna is between 23 and 26 dBm and the measured read range is 3-4 m. Xiuwei Xuan, Lianrong Lv, and Kun Li Copyright © 2016 Xiuwei Xuan et al. All rights reserved. Ray-Based Statistical Propagation Modeling for Indoor Corridor Scenarios at 15 GHz Thu, 19 May 2016 12:03:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2523913/ According to the demands for fifth-generation (5G) communication systems, high frequency bands (above 6 GHz) need to be adopted to provide additional spectrum. This paper investigates the characteristics of indoor corridor channels at 15 GHz. Channel measurements with a vector network analyzer in two corridors were conducted. Based on a ray-optical approach, a deterministic channel model covering both antenna and propagation characteristic is presented. The channel model is evaluated by comparing simulated results of received power and root mean square delay spread with the corresponding measurements. By removing the impact of directional antennas from the transmitter and receiver, a path loss model as well as small-scale fading properties for typical corridors is presented based on the generated samples from the deterministic model. Results show that the standard deviation of path loss variation is related to the Tx height, and placing the Tx closer to the ceiling leads to a smaller fluctuation of path loss. Qi Wang, Bo Ai, Ke Guan, David W. Matolak, Ruisi He, and Xin Zhou Copyright © 2016 Qi Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Novel Adaptive Algorithm Addresses Potential Problems of Blind Algorithm Wed, 18 May 2016 14:25:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/5983924/ A hybrid algorithm called constant modulus least mean square (CMLMS) algorithm is proposed in order to address the potential problems existing with constant modulus algorithm (CMA) about its convergence. It is a two-stage adaptive filtering algorithm and based on least mean square (LMS) algorithm followed by CMA. A hybrid algorithm is theoretically developed and the same is verified through MatLab Software. Theoretical model is verified through simulation and its performance is evaluated in smart antenna in presence of a cochannel interfering signal and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) of zero mean. This is also tested in Rayleigh fading channel using digital modulation technique for Bit Error Rate (BER). Finally, a few computer simulations are presented in order to substantiate the theoretical findings with respect to proposed model. Corresponding results obtained with the use of only CMA and LMS algorithms are also presented for further comparison. Muhammad Yasin and Muhammad Junaid Hussain Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Yasin and Muhammad Junaid Hussain. All rights reserved. Cavity-Backed Angled-Dipole Antennas for Millimeter-Wave Wireless Applications Tue, 17 May 2016 09:11:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/5083807/ A cavity-backed angled-dipole antenna is proposed for millimeter-wave wireless applications. The angled-dipole radiator is built on both sides of an RT/Duroid 5880 substrate () and fed by a parallel-plate transmission line. The cavity-backed reflector is utilized to improve the radiation characteristics of the angled dipole, such as gain, back-radiation, symmetric pattern, and similar 3 dB beamwidth in the - and -planes. The design, with a cavity aperture of , results in a dB bandwidth of 26.7–30.6 GHz, a gain of 6.6–8.0 dB, and a similar 3 dB beamwidth of approximately 70° for both the - and -planes. Eight-element linear arrays with the proposed antenna having a center-to-center spacing of 5.6 mm are characterized, fabricated, and measured. By applying nonuniform power distribution across excitations, the array achieves a scan angle up to 40° and a sidelobe level below −15 dB. Son Xuat Ta and Ikmo Park Copyright © 2016 Son Xuat Ta and Ikmo Park. All rights reserved. Miniaturized Coupling Structures for Decoupling PIFAs on Handheld Devices Mon, 16 May 2016 11:16:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/2854376/ One efficient approach is introduced in this paper to reduce mutual coupling and correlation coefficient for two closely placed PIFAs in a handheld device. The approach is based on one miniaturized structure which consists of two metallic layers, printed on either side of one thin dielectric layer. Due to the small spacing between two conducting patches, high electromagnetic field is induced within the dielectric layer. The geometry and position of this structure have been modified to decouple the PIFA array at 1.9 GHz and produce maximum miniaturization thereby occupying less space on a handheld device ground plane. By employing the proposed structures, a 20 dB reduction in mutual coupling is achieved. The correlation coefficient also reduces to 0.007278. The performance of the structure is validated by both simulated results and measured data obtained from several fabricated prototypes. Qian Li and Yaxin Yu Copyright © 2016 Qian Li and Yaxin Yu. All rights reserved. One-Step Leapfrog LOD-BOR-FDTD Algorithm with CPML Implementation Mon, 16 May 2016 10:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/8402697/ An unconditionally stable one-step leapfrog locally one-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (LOD-FDTD) algorithm towards body of revolution (BOR) is presented. The equations of the proposed algorithm are obtained by the algebraic manipulation of those used in the conventional LOD-BOR-FDTD algorithm. The equations for -direction electric and magnetic fields in the proposed algorithm should be treated specially. The new algorithm obtains a higher computational efficiency while preserving the properties of the conventional LOD-BOR-FDTD algorithm. Moreover, the convolutional perfectly matched layer (CPML) is introduced into the one-step leapfrog LOD-BOR-FDTD algorithm. The equation of the one-step leapfrog CPML is concise. Numerical results show that its reflection error is small. It can be concluded that the similar CPML scheme can also be easily applied to the one-step leapfrog LOD-FDTD algorithm in the Cartesian coordinate system. Yi-Gang Wang, Yun Yi, Bin Chen, Hai-Lin Chen, Kang Luo, and Run Xiong Copyright © 2016 Yi-Gang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Pilot Design for Sparse Channel Estimation in Large-Scale MIMO-OFDM System Thu, 12 May 2016 14:59:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijap/2016/6142574/ The pilot design problem in large-scale multi-input-multioutput orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) system is investigated from the perspective of compressed sensing (CS). According to the CS theory, the success probability of estimation is dependent on the mutual coherence of the reconstruction matrix. Specifically, the smaller the mutual coherence is, the higher the success probability is. Based on this conclusion, this paper proposes a pilot design algorithm based on alternating projection and obtains a nonorthogonal pilot pattern. Simulation results show that applying the proposed pattern gives the better performance compared to applying conventional orthogonal one in terms of normalized mean square error (NMSE) of the channel estimate. Moreover, the bit error rate (BER) performance of the large-scale MIMO-OFDM system is improved. Chao Xu, Jianhua Zhang, Mengmeng Liu, and Changchuan Yin Copyright © 2016 Chao Xu et al. All rights reserved.