Table 1: Results from AES investigation of screw shaped Ti implant surface layers.

PreparationChemical composition at % (s.d.)Thickness (nm)Microstructure

Machined, reference -sterilizedTi: 18 (0.5); O: 59 (1.5); C: 13 (0.8); Ca: 8 (0.7); S: 0.7 (0.2); Si: 1.3 (0.3); Cl: 0.1 (0.1)3 nm TiO2Plastically deformed, amorphous metal surface. Non-crystalline oxide (TiO2)
Glow discharge cleaned and thermally oxidized, -sterilizedTi: 23 (0.8), O: 66 (2); C: 10 (2.7); S: 0.1 (0.1); Si: 0.7 (0.7)2 nm TiO2Polycrystalline metal surface. Non-crystalline oxide (TiO2)
Glow discharge cleaned and nitrided -sterilizedTi: 20 (0.4), N: 59 (1.1); O: 12 (0.8); C: 8 (1.1); Si: 0.6 (0.7);3 nm TiNPolycrystalline metal surface. Non-crystalline nitride (TiN)
H2O2 incubated 10 mM, 40 h, 8°CTi: 17 (3.4), O: 56 (3.2); C: 20 (2.7); Ca: 1.3 (0.3); S: 0.5 (0.2); Si: 0.2 (0.6); Cl: 0.1 (0.1); P: 0.2 (0.3); B: 0.2 (0.5); Na: 2.4 (2.3); K: 0.4 (1.1)3–7 nm TiO2Plastically deformed, amorphous metal surface. Noncrystalline oxide (TiO2)