International Journal of Biomaterials http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Shear Bond Strengths between Three Different Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Dental Materials and Veneering Ceramic and Their Susceptibility to Autoclave Induced Low-Temperature Degradation Thu, 12 May 2016 15:03:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/9658689/ A study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment as influencing the shear bond strength between three different commercially available zirconia core materials, namely, Upcera, Ziecon, and Cercon, layered with VITA VM9 veneering ceramic using Universal Testing Machine. The mode of failure between zirconia and ceramic was further analyzed as adhesive, cohesive, or mixed using stereomicroscope. X-ray diffraction and SEM (scanning electron microscope) analysis were done to estimate the phase transformation (m-phase fraction) and surface grain size of zirconia particles, respectively. The purpose of this study was to simulate the clinical environment by artificial aging through steam and thermal treatment so as the clinical function and nature of the bond between zirconia and veneering material as in a clinical trial of 15 years could be evaluated. Manoti Sehgal, Akshay Bhargava, Sharad Gupta, and Prateek Gupta Copyright © 2016 Manoti Sehgal et al. All rights reserved. Novel Vanadium-Loaded Ordered Collagen Scaffold Promotes Osteochondral Differentiation of Bone Marrow Progenitor Cells Wed, 11 May 2016 09:22:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/1486350/ Bone and cartilage regeneration can be improved by designing a functionalized biomaterial that includes bioactive drugs in a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold. Based on our previous studies, we designed a vanadium-loaded collagen scaffold for osteochondral tissue engineering. Collagen-vanadium loaded scaffolds were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and permeability studies. Rat bone marrow progenitor cells were plated on collagen or vanadium-loaded membranes to evaluate differences in cell attachment, growth and osteogenic or chondrocytic differentiation. The potential cytotoxicity of the scaffolds was assessed by the MTT assay and by evaluation of morphological changes in cultured RAW 264.7 macrophages. Our results show that loading of VOAsc did not alter the grooved ordered structure of the collagen membrane although it increased membrane permeability, suggesting a more open structure. The VOAsc was released to the media, suggesting diffusion-controlled drug release. Vanadium-loaded membranes proved to be a better substratum than for all evaluated aspects of BMPC biocompatibility (adhesion, growth, and osteoblastic and chondrocytic differentiation). In addition, there was no detectable effect of collagen or vanadium-loaded scaffolds on macrophage viability or cytotoxicity. Based on these findings, we have developed a new ordered collagen scaffold loaded with VOAsc that shows potential for osteochondral tissue engineering. Ana M. Cortizo, Graciela Ruderman, Flavia N. Mazzini, M. Silvina Molinuevo, and Ines G. Mogilner Copyright © 2016 Ana M. Cortizo et al. All rights reserved. Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin Sun, 08 May 2016 10:40:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/8043983/ RNA virus infections can lead to the onset of severe diseases such as fever with haemorrhage, multiorgan failure, and mortality. The emergence and reemergence of RNA viruses continue to pose a significant public health threat worldwide with particular attention to the increasing incidence of flaviviruses, among others Dengue, West Nile Virus, and Yellow Fever viruses. Development of new and potent antivirals is thus urgently needed. Ivermectin, an already known antihelminthic drug, has shown potent effects in vitro on Flavivirus helicase, with EC50 values in the subnanomolar range for Yellow Fever and submicromolar EC50 for Dengue Fever, Japanese encephalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. However ivermectin is hampered in its application by pharmacokinetic problems (little solubility and high cytotoxicity). To overcome such problems we engineered different compositions of liposomes as ivermectin carriers characterizing and testing them on several cell lines for cytotoxicity. The engineered liposomes were less cytotoxic than ivermectin alone and they showed a significant increase of the antiviral activity in all the Dengue stains tested (1, 2, and S221). In the current study ivermectin is confirmed to be an effective potential antiviral and liposomes, as drug carriers, are shown to modulate the drug activity. All together the results represent a promising starting point for future improvement of ivermectin as antiviral and its delivery. Romina Croci, Elisabetta Bottaro, Kitti Wing Ki Chan, Satoru Watanabe, Margherita Pezzullo, Eloise Mastrangelo, and Claudio Nastruzzi Copyright © 2016 Romina Croci et al. All rights reserved. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review Tue, 03 May 2016 12:28:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/9753210/ Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. Afaf AL-Haddad and Zeti A. Che Ab Aziz Copyright © 2016 Afaf AL-Haddad and Zeti A. Che Ab Aziz. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of Bacterial Leakage at Implant-Abutment Connection: An 11-Degree Morse Taper Compared to a Butt Joint Connection Tue, 03 May 2016 08:09:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/8527849/ Background and Aim. The geometry of implant-abutment interface (IAI) affects the risk of bacterial leakage and invasion into the internal parts of the implant. The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of an 11-degree Morse taper IAI with that of a butt joint connection. Materials and Methods. Two implants systems were tested ( per group): CSM (submerged) and TBR (connect). The deepest inner parts of the implants were inoculated with 2 μL of Streptococcus mutans suspension with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL. The abutments were tightened on the implants. The specimens were stored in the incubator at a temperature of 37°C for 14 days and the penetration of the bacterium in the surrounding area was determined by the observation of the solution turbidity and comparison with control specimens. Kaplan-Meier survival curve was traced for the estimation of bacterial leakage and the results between two groups of implants were statistically analyzed by chi-square test. Results. No case of the implant system with the internal conical connection design revealed bacterial leakage in 14 days and no turbidity of the solution was reported for it. In the system with butt joint implant-abutment connection, 1 case showed leakage on the third day, 1 case on the eighth day, and 5 cases on the 13th day. In total, 7 (70%) cases showed bacterial leakage in this system. Significant differences were found between the two groups of implants based on the incidence of bacterial leakage (). Conclusion. The 11-degree Morse taper demonstrated better resistance to microbial leakage than butt joint connection. Hooman Khorshidi, Saeed Raoofi, Afagh Moattari, Atoosa Bagheri, and Mohammad Hassan Kalantari Copyright © 2016 Hooman Khorshidi et al. All rights reserved. Oxidative Nanopatterning of Titanium Surface Influences mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Human Alveolar Bone Osteoblastic Cells Thu, 21 Apr 2016 12:28:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/9169371/ Titanium implants have been extensively used in orthopedic and dental applications. It is well known that micro- and nanoscale surface features of biomaterials affect cellular events that control implant-host tissue interactions. To improve our understanding of how multiscale surface features affect cell behavior, we used microarrays to evaluate the transcriptional profile of osteoblastic cells from human alveolar bone cultured on engineered titanium surfaces, exhibiting the following topographies: nanotexture (N), nano+submicrotexture (NS), and rough microtexture (MR), obtained by modulating experimental parameters (temperature and solution composition) of a simple yet efficient chemical treatment with a H2SO4/H2O2 solution. Biochemical assays showed that cell culture proliferation augmented after 10 days, and cell viability increased gradually over 14 days. Among the treated surfaces, we observed an increase of alkaline phosphatase activity as a function of the surface texture, with higher activity shown by cells adhering onto nanotextured surfaces. Nevertheless, the rough microtexture group showed higher amounts of calcium than nanotextured group. Microarray data showed differential expression of 716 mRNAs and 32 microRNAs with functions associated with osteogenesis. Results suggest that oxidative nanopatterning of titanium surfaces induces changes in the metabolism of osteoblastic cells and contribute to the explanation of the mechanisms that control cell responses to micro- and nanoengineered surfaces. Maidy Rehder Wimmers Ferreira, Roger Rodrigo Fernandes, Amanda Freire Assis, Janaína A. Dernowsek, Geraldo A. Passos, Fabio Variola, and Karina Fittipaldi Bombonato-Prado Copyright © 2016 Maidy Rehder Wimmers Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Developing a Suitable Model for Water Uptake for Biodegradable Polymers Using Small Training Sets Thu, 21 Apr 2016 07:48:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/6273414/ Prediction of the dynamic properties of water uptake across polymer libraries can accelerate polymer selection for a specific application. We first built semiempirical models using Artificial Neural Networks and all water uptake data, as individual input. These models give very good correlations ( for test set) but very low accuracy on cross-validation sets (less than 19% of experimental points within experimental error). Instead, using consolidated parameters like equilibrium water uptake a good model is obtained ( for test set), with accurate predictions for 50% of tested polymers. The semiempirical model was applied to the 56-polymer library of L-tyrosine-derived polyarylates, identifying groups of polymers that are likely to satisfy design criteria for water uptake. This research demonstrates that a surrogate modeling effort can reduce the number of polymers that must be synthesized and characterized to identify an appropriate polymer that meets certain performance criteria. Loreto M. Valenzuela, Doyle D. Knight, and Joachim Kohn Copyright © 2016 Loreto M. Valenzuela et al. All rights reserved. Cuspal Displacement Induced by Bulk Fill Resin Composite Polymerization: Biomechanical Evaluation Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors Tue, 12 Apr 2016 14:27:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/7134283/ Polymerization shrinkage is a major concern to the clinical success of direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of polymerization shrinkage strain of two resin composites on cuspal movement based on the use of fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. Twenty standardized Class II cavities prepared in upper third molars were allocated into two groups (). Restorations involved the bulk fill placement of conventional microhybrid resin composite (Esthet•X® HD, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 1) or flowable “low-shrinkage” resin composite (SDR™, Dentsply DeTrey) (Group 2). Two FBG sensors were used per restoration for real-time measurement of cuspal linear deformation and temperature variation. Group comparisons were determined using ANCOVA considering temperature as the covariate. A statistically significant correlation between cuspal deflection, time, and material was observed (). Cuspal deflection reached 8.8 μm (0.23) and 7.8 μm (0.20) in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. When used with bulk fill technique, flowable resin composite SDR™ induced significantly less cuspal deflection than the conventional resin composite Esthet•X® HD () and presented a smoother curve slope during the polymerization. FBG sensors appear to be a valid tool for accurate real-time monitoring of cuspal deformation. Alexandra Vinagre, João Ramos, Sofia Alves, Ana Messias, Nélia Alberto, and Rogério Nogueira Copyright © 2016 Alexandra Vinagre et al. All rights reserved. Preparation Methods for Improving PEEK’s Bioactivity for Orthopedic and Dental Application: A Review Mon, 04 Apr 2016 07:53:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/8202653/ There is an increased interest in the use of polyether ether ketone (PEEK) for orthopedic and dental implant applications due to its elastic modulus close to that of bone, biocompatibility, and its radiolucent properties. However, PEEK is still categorized as bioinert due to its low integration with surrounding tissues. Many studies have reported on methods to increase the bioactivity of PEEK, but there is still one-preparation method for preparing bioactive PEEK implant where the produced implant with desirable mechanical and bioactivity properties is required. The aim of this review is to present the progress of the preparation methods for improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK and to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the existing methods. Davood Almasi, Nida Iqbal, Maliheh Sadeghi, Izman Sudin, Mohammed Rafiq Abdul Kadir, and Tunku Kamarul Copyright © 2016 Davood Almasi et al. All rights reserved. The Difference of Structural State and Deformation Behavior between Teenage and Mature Human Dentin Tue, 16 Feb 2016 09:01:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/6073051/ Objective. The cause of considerable elasticity and plasticity of human dentin is discussed in the relationship with its microstructure. Methods. Structural state of teenage and mature human dentin is examined by using XRD and TEM techniques, and their deformation behavior under compression is studied as well. Result. XRD study has shown that crystallographic type of calcium hydroxyapatite in human dentin (calcium hydrogen phosphate hydroxide Ca9HPO4(PO4)5OH; Space Group P63/m (176); = 9,441 A; = 6,881 A; = 0,729; Crystallite (Scherrer) 200 A) is the same for these age groups. In both cases, dentin matrix is X-ray amorphous. According to TEM examination, there are amorphous and ultrafine grain phases in teenage and mature dentin. Mature dentin is stronger on about 20% than teenage dentin, while teenage dentin is more elastic on about 20% but is less plastic on about 15% than mature dentin. Conclusion. The amorphous phase is dominant in teenage dentin, whereas the ultrafine grain phase becomes dominant in mature dentin. Mechanical properties of human dentin under compression depend on its structural state, too. Peter Panfilov, Dmitry Zaytsev, Olga V. Antonova, Victoria Alpatova, and Larissa P. Kiselnikova Copyright © 2016 Peter Panfilov et al. All rights reserved. Sol-Gel Derived Mg-Based Ceramic Scaffolds Doped with Zinc or Copper Ions: Preliminary Results on Their Synthesis, Characterization, and Biocompatibility Sun, 14 Feb 2016 09:13:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/3858301/ Glass-ceramic scaffolds containing Mg have shown recently the potential to enhance the proliferation, differentiation, and biomineralization of stem cells in vitro, property that makes them promising candidates for dental tissue regeneration. An additional property of a scaffold aimed at dental tissue regeneration is to protect the regeneration process against oral bacteria penetration. In this respect, novel bioactive scaffolds containing Mg2+ and Cu2+ or Zn2+, ions known for their antimicrobial properties, were synthesized by the foam replica technique and tested regarding their bioactive response in SBF, mechanical properties, degradation, and porosity. Finally their ability to support the attachment and long-term proliferation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells (DPSCs) was also evaluated. The results showed that conversely to their bioactive response in SBF solution, Zn-doped scaffolds proved to respond adequately regarding their mechanical strength and to be efficient regarding their biological response, in comparison to Cu-doped scaffolds, which makes them promising candidates for targeted dental stem cell odontogenic differentiation and calcified dental tissue engineering. Georgios S. Theodorou, Eleana Kontonasaki, Anna Theocharidou, Athina Bakopoulou, Maria Bousnaki, Christina Hadjichristou, Eleni Papachristou, Lambrini Papadopoulou, Nikolaos A. Kantiranis, Konstantinos Chrissafis, Konstantinos M. Paraskevopoulos, and Petros T. Koidis Copyright © 2016 Georgios S. Theodorou et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis and Characterization of Chitosan Nanoaggregates from Gladius of Uroteuthis duvauceli Wed, 10 Feb 2016 06:41:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/5379424/ We report the synthesis, characterization, and biological properties of chitosan nanoaggregates from gladius of squid, Uroteuthis duvauceli. β-Chitin extracted from gladius was deacetylated to chitosan and further reduced to nanosize using ionic gelation process. The morphology and occurrence of chitosan nanoaggregates (CSNA) were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The degree of deacetylation (DD%) calculated from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum showed high value (~94 ± 1.25%) for chitosan. The CSNA depicts low molecular weight, stable positive zeta potential, and less ash and moisture content with high water and fat binding capacity. The antimicrobial activity was tested against pathogenic microorganisms, which depicted significant rate of inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli due to high cellular uptake. The antioxidant analysis for CSNA demonstrated high reducing power and scavenging activity towards superoxide radicals compared with the commercially available chitosan. Furthermore, nanoaggregates exhibited low cytotoxic behavior in biological in vitro tests performed using cervical cancer cell line. These results indicate that chitosan nanoaggregates synthesized from waste gladius will be highly efficient and safe candidate for biological applications as food packing film, drug carrier, and tissue engineering. J. R. Anusha and Albin T. Fleming Copyright © 2016 J. R. Anusha and Albin T. Fleming. All rights reserved. Biomechanical Performances of Networked Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate: Effect of Photoinitiator Concentration, Temperature, and Incubation Time Wed, 27 Jan 2016 10:02:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/3208312/ Nutrient conduit networks can be introduced within the Polyethylene Glycol Diacrylate (PEGDA) tissue construct to enable cells to survive in the scaffold. Nutrient conduit networks can be created on PEGDA by macrochannel to nanochannel fabrication techniques. Such networks can influence the mechanical and cell activities of PEGDA scaffold. There is no study conducted to evaluate the effect of nutrient conduit networks on the maximum tensile stress and cell activities of the tissue scaffold. The study aimed to explore the influence of the network architecture on the maximum tensile stress of PEGDA scaffold and compared with the nonnetworked PEGDA scaffold. Our study found that there are 1.78 and 2.23 times decrease of maximum tensile stress due to the introduction of nutrient conduit networks to the PEGDA scaffold at 23°C and 37°C temperature conditions, respectively. This study also found statistically significant effect of network architecture, PI concentration, temperature, and wait time on the maximum failure stress of PEGDA samples ( value < 0.05). Cell viability results demonstrated that networked PEGDA hydrogels possessed increased viability compared to nonnetworked and decreased viability with increased photoinitiator concentrations. The results of this study can be used for the design of PEGDA scaffold with macrosize nutrient conduit network channels. Morshed Khandaker, Albert Orock, Stefano Tarantini, Jeremiah White, and Ozlem Yasar Copyright © 2016 Morshed Khandaker et al. All rights reserved. Preparation and Evaluation of Gelatin-Chitosan-Nanobioglass 3D Porous Scaffold for Bone Tissue Engineering Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:19:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/9825659/ The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize bioglass-natural biopolymer based composite scaffold and evaluate its bone regeneration ability. Bioactive glass nanoparticles (58S) in the size range of 20–30 nm were synthesized using sol-gel method. Porous scaffolds with varying bioglass composition from 10 to 30 wt% in chitosan, gelatin matrix were fabricated using the method of freeze drying of its slurry at 40 wt% solids loading. Samples were cross-linked with glutaraldehyde to obtain interconnected porous 3D microstructure with improved mechanical strength. The prepared scaffolds exhibited >80% porosity with a mean pore size range between 100 and 300 microns. Scaffold containing 30 wt% bioglass (GCB 30) showed a maximum compressive strength of  MPa. Swelling and degradation studies showed that the scaffold had excellent properties of hydrophilicity and biodegradability. GCB 30 scaffold was shown to be noncytotoxic and supported mesenchymal stem cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation as indicated by MTT assay and RUNX-2 expression. Higher cellular activity was observed in GCB 30 scaffold as compared to GCB 0 scaffold suggesting the fact that 58S bioglass nanoparticles addition into the scaffold promoted better cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Thus, the study showed that the developed composite scaffolds are potential candidates for regenerating damaged bone tissue. Kanchan Maji, Sudip Dasgupta, Krishna Pramanik, and Akalabya Bissoyi Copyright © 2016 Kanchan Maji et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Punica granatum Linn. Petal on Common Oral Microorganisms Thu, 14 Jan 2016 14:18:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/8098943/ Objectives. This study aimed to assess the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum Linn. (P. granatum) petal on Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and Methods. In this in vitro study, P. granatum extract was prepared using powdered petals and water-ethanol solvent. Antibacterial effect of the extract, chlorhexidine (CHX), and ampicillin was evaluated on brain heart infusion agar (BHIA) using the cup-plate method. By assessing the diameter of the growth inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were determined for the above-mentioned bacteria. Results. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum petal had inhibitory effects on the proliferation of all five bacterial strains with maximum effect on S. mutans with MIC and MBC of 3.9 mg/mL. The largest growth inhibition zone diameter belonged to S. sanguinis and the smallest to E. faecalis. Ampicillin and CHX had the greatest inhibitory effect on S. sanguinis. Conclusions. Hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum had a significant antibacterial effect on common oral bacterial pathogens with maximum effect on S. mutans, which is the main microorganism responsible for dental plaque and caries. Farnaz Hajifattahi, Elham Moravej-Salehi, Maryam Taheri, Arash Mahboubi, and Mohammad Kamalinejad Copyright © 2016 Farnaz Hajifattahi et al. All rights reserved. Integration of Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Hydroxyapatite Burr Hole Button Device for Bone Interface Regeneration Tue, 05 Jan 2016 07:10:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2016/1067857/ Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells, multipotent stem cells isolated from adipose tissue, present close resemblance to the natural in vivo milieu and microenvironment of bone tissue and hence widely used for in bone tissue engineering applications. The present study evaluates the compatibility of tissue engineered hydroxyapatite burr hole button device (HAP-BHB) seeded with Rabbit Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ADMSCs). Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress response, apoptotic behavior, attachment, and adherence of adipose MSC seeded on the device were evaluated by scanning electron and confocal microscopy. The results of the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay indicated that powdered device material was noncytotoxic up to 0.5 g/mL on cultured cells. It was also observed that oxidative stress related reactive oxygen species production and apoptosis on cell seeded device were similar to those of control (cells alone) except in 3-day period which showed increased reactive oxygen species generation. Further scanning electron and confocal microscopy indicated a uniform attachment of cells and viability up to 200 μm deep inside the device, respectively. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the in-house developed HAP-BHB device seeded with ADMSCs is nontoxic/safe compatible device for biomedical application and an attractive tissue engineered device for calvarial defect regeneration. Viswanathan Gayathri, Varma Harikrishnan, and Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan Copyright © 2016 Viswanathan Gayathri et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Bleaching and Thermocycling on Resin-Enamel Bond Strength Tue, 29 Dec 2015 13:26:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/921425/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of bleaching and thermocycling on microshear bond strength of bonded resin composites to enamel. Enamel slices were prepared from ninety-six intact human premolars and resin composite cylinders were bonded by using Adper Single Bond 2 + Filtek Z350 or Filtek silorane adhesive and resin composite. Each essential group was randomly subdivided to two subgroups: control and bleaching. In bleaching group, 35% hydrogen peroxide was applied on samples. Thermocycling procedure was conducted between 5°C and 55°C, for 3.000 cycles on the half of each subgroup specimen. Then microshear bond strength was tested. Methacrylate-based resin composite had higher bond strength than silorane-based one. The meyhacrylate-based group without bleaching along with thermocycling showed the most bond strength, while bleaching with 35% carbamide peroxide on silorane-based group without thermocycling showed the least microshear bond strength. Bleaching caused a significant degradation on shear bond strength of silorane-based resin composites that bonded using self-etch adhesive resin systems. Horieh Moosavi, Hamideh Sadat Mohammadipour, Marjaneh Ghavamnasiri, and Sanaz Alizadeh Copyright © 2015 Horieh Moosavi et al. All rights reserved. Amnion and Chorion Membranes: Potential Stem Cell Reservoir with Wide Applications in Periodontics Sun, 06 Dec 2015 06:24:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/274082/ The periodontal therapy usually aims at elimination of disease causing bacteria and resolution of inflammation. It involves either resective or regenerative surgery to resolve the inflammation associated defects. Over the years, several methods have been used for achievement of periodontal regeneration. One of the oldest biomaterials used for scaffolds is the fetal membrane. The amniotic membranes of developing embryo, that is, amnion (innermost lining) and chorion (a layer next to it), have the properties with significant potential uses in dentistry. This paper reviews the properties, mechanism of action, and various applications of these placental membranes in general and specifically in Periodontics. Akanksha Gupta, Suresh D. Kedige, and Kanu Jain Copyright © 2015 Akanksha Gupta et al. All rights reserved. Cyanoacrylate for Intraoral Wound Closure: A Possibility? Sun, 15 Nov 2015 10:00:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/165428/ Wound closure is a part of any surgical procedure and the objective of laceration repair or incision closure is to approximate the edges of a wound so that natural healing process may occur. Over the years new biomaterials have been discovered as an alternate to conventional suture materials. Cyanoacrylate bioadhesives are one among them. They carry the advantages of rapid application, patient comfort, resistance to infection, hemostatic properties, and no suture removal anxiety. Hence this study was undertaken to study the effect of long chain cyanoacrylate as an adhesive for intraoral wound closure and also to explore its hemostatic and antibacterial effects. Isoamyl-2-cyanoacrylate (AMCRYLATE) was used as the adhesive in the study. In conclusion isoamyl cyanoacrylate can be used for intraoral wound closure, as an alternative to sutures for gluing the mucoperiosteum to bone, for example, after impaction removal, periapical surgeries, and cleft repair. Its hemostatic and antibacterial activity has to be further evaluated. Parimala Sagar, Kavitha Prasad, R. M. Lalitha, and Krishnappa Ranganath Copyright © 2015 Parimala Sagar et al. All rights reserved. Extraction, Characterization, and Molecular Weight Determination of Senna tora (L.) Seed Polysaccharide Thu, 12 Nov 2015 10:01:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/928679/ The objective of the present work was extraction of polysaccharide from Senna tora L. seed and its characterization as a pharmaceutical excipient. Polysaccharide extraction was based on mechanical separation of the endosperm of seeds of Senna tora, water dissolution, centrifugation, and precipitation with acetone. Standard procedures were used to study the viscosity, micromeritic properties, and microbial bioburden. Accelerated stability study was carried out on isolated polysaccharide for six months at 40°C/75 RH as per ICH guidelines. The gum obtained from S. tora seeds was an amorphous free flowing odourless powder with dull brown colour (yield = 35% w/w). The bulk density, tapped density, and angle of repose data reveal that S. tora gum possesses good flow property. The intrinsic viscosity obtained was 1.568 dL/g. The average molecular weight of purified S. tora gum was found to be 198 kDa by intrinsic viscosity method. The results indicated that viscosity of gum solution increases with increase in temperature. FTIR study revealed the absence of degradation or decomposition of polysaccharide at accelerated stability conditions for six months. It has been concluded that extracted polysaccharide can be used as pharmaceutical excipient in terms of flow behavior, microbial properties, and stability. Harshal A. Pawar and K. G. Lalitha Copyright © 2015 Harshal A. Pawar and K. G. Lalitha. All rights reserved. Maxillary Sinus Augmentation Combining Bio-Oss with the Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate: A Histomorphometric Study in Humans Mon, 12 Oct 2015 08:43:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/121286/ Purpose. To investigate the regenerative results obtained with the association of bone marrow aspirate concentrate using the Bone Marrow Aspirate Concentrate (BMAC) method to a xenogeneic bone graft (Bio-Oss) in sinus floor elevation. Materials and Methods. Using a randomized controlled study design in eight consecutive patients (age of 55.4 ± 9.2 years), 16 sinus floor lift procedures were performed with Bio-Oss alone (control group, CG, ) or combined with bone marrow aspirate concentrate obtained via the BMAC method (test group, TG, ). Six months after the grafting procedures, bone biopsies were harvested during implant placement and were analyzed by histomorphometry. Results. Histomorphometric analysis revealed a significantly higher amount of vital mineralized tissue in TG when compared to the CG (55.15 ± 20.91% and 27.30 ± 5.55%, resp.). For nonvital mineralized tissue, TG presented a statistically higher level of Bio-Oss resorption when compared with the CG (6.32 ± 12.03% and 22.79 ± 9.60%, resp.). Both groups (TG and CG) showed no significantly different levels () of nonmineralized tissue (38.53 ± 13.08% and 49.90 ± 7.64%, resp.). Conclusion. The use of bone marrow concentrate obtained by BMAC method increased bone formation in sinus lift procedures. Paulo José Pasquali, Marcelo Lucchesi Teixeira, Thiago Altro de Oliveira, Luis Guilherme Scavone de Macedo, Antonio Carlos Aloise, and André Antonio Pelegrine Copyright © 2015 Paulo José Pasquali et al. All rights reserved. Cellular Nutrition in Complex Three-Dimensional Scaffolds: A Comparison between Experiments and Computer Simulations Sun, 11 Oct 2015 11:16:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/584362/ Studies on bone cell ingrowth into synthetic, porous three-dimensional (3D) implants showed difficulties arising from impaired cellular proliferation and differentiation in the core region of these scaffolds with increasing scaffold volume in vitro. Therefore, we developed an in vitro perfusion cell culture module, which allows the analysis of cells in the interior of scaffolds under different medium flow rates. For each flow rate the cell viability was measured and compared with results from computer simulations that predict the local oxygen supply and shear stress inside the scaffold based on the finite element method. We found that the local cell viability correlates with the local oxygen concentration and the local shear stress. On the one hand the oxygen supply of the cells in the core becomes optimal with a higher perfusion flow. On the other hand shear stress caused by high flow rates impedes cell vitality, especially at the surface of the scaffold. Our results demonstrate that both parameters must be considered to derive an optimal nutrient flow rate. Claudia Bergemann, Patrick Elter, Regina Lange, Volker Weißmann, Harald Hansmann, Ernst-Dieter Klinkenberg, and Barbara Nebe Copyright © 2015 Claudia Bergemann et al. All rights reserved. Smooth Muscle Cell Alignment and Phenotype Control by Melt Spun Polycaprolactone Fibers for Seeding of Tissue Engineered Blood Vessels Sun, 30 Aug 2015 13:41:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/434876/ A method has been developed to induce and retain a contractile phenotype for vascular smooth muscle cells, as the first step towards the development of a biomimetic blood vessel construct with minimal compliance mismatch. Melt spun PCL fibers were deposited on a mandrel to form aligned fibers of 10 μm in diameter. The fibers were bonded into aligned arrangement through dip coating in chitosan solution. This formed a surface of parallel grooves, 10 μm deep by 10 μm across, presenting a surface layer of chitosan to promote cell surface interactions. The aligned fiber surface was used to culture cells present in the vascular wall, in particular fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. This topography induced “surface guidance” over the orientation of the cells, which adopted an elongated spindle-like morphology, whereas cells on the unpatterned control surface did not show such orientation, assuming more rhomboid shapes. The preservation of VSMC contractile phenotype on the aligned scaffold was demonstrated by the retention of α-SMA expression after several days of culture. The effect was assessed on a prototype vascular graft prosthesis fabricated from polylactide caprolactone; VSMCs aligned longitudinally along a fiberless tube, whereas, for the aligned fiber coated tubes, the VSMCs aligned in the required circumferential orientation. Animesh Agrawal, Bae Hoon Lee, Scott A. Irvine, Jia An, Ramya Bhuthalingam, Vaishali Singh, Kok Yao Low, Chee Kai Chua, and Subbu S. Venkatraman Copyright © 2015 Animesh Agrawal et al. All rights reserved. Shynthesis and Characterizations of Calcium Hydroxyapatite Derived from Crabs Shells (Portunus pelagicus) and Its Potency in Safeguard against to Dental Demineralizations Tue, 07 Jul 2015 11:53:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/469176/ Crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus species were used as raw materials for synthesis of hydroxyapatite were used for protection against demineralization of teeth. Calcination was conducted to crab’s shells of Portunus pelagicus at temperature of 1000°C for 5 hours. The results of calcination was reacted with (NH4)2HPO4, then dried at 110°C for 5 hours. Sintering was conducted to results of precipitated dried with temperature variations 400–1000°C for a hour each variation of temperature then characterized by X-ray diffractometer and FTIR in order to obtain the optimum formation temperature of hydroxyapatite is 800°C. The hydroxyapatite is then tested its effectiveness in protection against tooth demineralization using acetate buffer pH 5.0 with 1 M acetic acid concentration with the addition of hydroxyapatite and time variation of immersion. The results showed that the rate of tooth demineralization in acetate buffer decreased significantly with the provision of hydroxyapatite into a solution where the addition of the magnitude of hydroxyapatite is greater decrease in the rate of tooth demineralization. Indah Raya, Erna Mayasari, Afdaliah Yahya, Muhammad Syahrul, and Andi Ilham Latunra Copyright © 2015 Indah Raya et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Determination of Oxidative Stress Related Toxicity on Repeated Dermal Exposure of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles in Rats” Thu, 16 Apr 2015 06:38:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/320547/ Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan, Santhakumar Syama, and Arumugam Sabareeswaran Copyright © 2015 Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan et al. All rights reserved. In Vitro Evaluation of Bioactivity of Chemically Deposited Hydroxyapatite on Polyether Ether Ketone Mon, 09 Mar 2015 12:17:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/475435/ Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) is considered the best alternative material for titanium for spinal fusion cage implants due to its low elasticity modulus and radiolucent property. The main problem of PEEK is its bioinert properties. Coating with hydroxyapatite (HA) showed very good improvement in bioactivity of the PEEK implants. However the existing methods for deposition of HA have some disadvantages and damage the PEEK substrate. In our previous study a new method for deposition of HA on PEEK was presented. In this study cell proliferation of mesenchymal stem cell and apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted to probe the effect of this new method in improvement of the bioactivity of PEEK. The mesenchymal stem cell proliferation result showed better cells proliferation on the treated layer in comparison with untreated PEEK. The apatite formation results showed the growth of the HA on the treated PEEK but there was not any sight of the growth of HA on the untreated PEEK even after 2 weeks. The results showed the new method of the HA deposition improved the bioactivity of the treated PEEK in comparison with the bare PEEK. D. Almasi, S. Izman, M. Sadeghi, N. Iqbal, F. Roozbahani, G. Krishnamurithy, T. Kamarul, and M. R. Abdul Kadir Copyright © 2015 D. Almasi et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Clinical Impact of ISO 4049 in Comparison with Miniflexural Test on Mechanical Performances of Resin Based Composite Sat, 28 Feb 2015 09:47:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/149798/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different specimens dimensions on the mechanical properties of a commercial microfilled resin composite by using a modified ISO 4049 standard protocol, that generally provides specimen dimensions of 25 mm length 2 mm width 2 mm height; these standard dimensions are not clinically realistic considering the teeth diameter and length average. Furthermore, the overlapping irradiations required lead to specimens that are not homogeneous with the presence of some flaws due to packaging steps. For this reason, a miniflexural test was employed in this work both to simulate clinically realistic dimensions and to concentrate fewer defects. The flexural tests were performed at varying span length, in the range between 18.5 mm as stated by the ISO 4049 flexural test (IFT) and 10.5 mm according to the miniflexural test (MFT), at the increasing of layers with a 1 mm buildup multilayering technique. The results evidenced the impact of specimen dimensions on mechanical performances and consequently stability of resin-based composite with the formation of an asymmetrical structure which possesses higher stiffness and strength at increasing layering steps. Luigi Calabrese, Francesca Fabiano, Lucio Maria Bonaccorsi, Valerio Fabiano, and Chiara Borsellino Copyright © 2015 Luigi Calabrese et al. All rights reserved. Fabrication of TiO2 Crystalline Coatings by Combining Ti-6Al-4V Anodic Oxidation and Heat Treatments Sun, 15 Feb 2015 08:37:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/395657/ The bio- and hemocompatibility of titanium alloys are due to the formation of a TiO2 layer. This natural oxide may have fissures which are detrimental to its properties. Anodic oxidation is used to obtain thicker films. By means of this technique, at low voltages oxidation, amorphous and low roughness coatings are obtained, while, above a certain voltage, crystalline and porous coatings are obtained. According to the literature, the crystalline phases of TiO2, anatase, and rutile would present greater biocompatibility than the amorphous phase. On the other hand, for hemocompatible applications, smooth and homogeneous surfaces are required. One way to obtain crystalline and homogeneous coatings is by heat treatments after anodic oxidation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of heat treatments on the thickness, morphology, and crystalline structure of the TiO2 anodic coatings. The characterization was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray reflectometry. Coatings with different colors of interference were obtained. There were no significant changes in the surface morphology and roughness after heat treatment of 500°C. Heat treated coatings have different proportions of the crystalline phases, depending on the voltage of anodic oxidation and the temperature of the heat treatment. María Laura Vera, Mario Roberto Rosenberger, Carlos Enrique Schvezov, and Alicia Esther Ares Copyright © 2015 María Laura Vera et al. All rights reserved. Histopathological, Histomorphometrical, and Radiographical Evaluation of Injectable Glass-Ceramic-Chitosan Nanocomposite in Bone Reconstruction of Rat Sun, 08 Feb 2015 10:10:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/719574/ Background. Bone defects following tumor resection and osteolysis due to bone lesions, periodontal tissue disorders, and bone reconstruction are challenges that surgeons face. Gass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite contains chitosan, a derivative of crustaceans’ exoskeleton. Methods. Thirty-two 6–8-week-old male Wistar rats were chosen. One hole on each right and left tibia was made. The right tibia holes were filled with injectable glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite, and the left tibia holes were left empty. After 7, 14, 28, and 60 days, histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments were performed. Results. Radiographic density on days 7 and 14 was significantly higher in the right tibias than in the left tibias. Trabecular bone thickness, which was higher in the right tibias, increased from day 7 to day 60 in both right and left tibias, although not significantly. Conclusions. Glass-ceramic-chitosan nanocomposite is suggested for use in bone repair in cases of bone loss. More histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiographical assessments are also recommended. Maryam Seyedmajidi, Seyedmahmood Rabiee, Sina Haghanifar, Seyedkamal Seyedmajidi, Seyed Gholam ali Jorsaraei, Homayoun Alaghehmand, Naghmeh Jamaatlu, and Ali Bijani Copyright © 2015 Maryam Seyedmajidi et al. All rights reserved. Reduction of Silver Ions by Cell Free Extracts of Westiellopsis sp. Sun, 01 Feb 2015 12:54:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2015/539494/ Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Westiellopsis sp. (A15), a filamentous cyanobacterium belonging to the family Fischerellaceae, has been demonstrated. Aqueous silver ions (Ag+) when exposed to the culture filtrate of Westiellopsis were reduced in the solution, which were characterized by biophysical measures utilizing the UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and FTIR. The nanoparticles exhibited the maximum absorbance at 420 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the SEM micrograph revealed that the aggregated nanoparticles vary in size between 20 nm and 5 µm. However, the FTIR analysis provided evidence for presence of proteins in the filtrate to be involved in the reduction of silver ions. P. T. V. Lakshmi, Devi Priyanka, and A. Annamalai Copyright © 2015 P. T. V. Lakshmi et al. 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