International Journal of Brain Science http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. On the Genesis of Neuroblastoma and Glioma Wed, 26 Mar 2014 16:39:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/217503/ As the emergence of cancer is most frequent in proliferating tissues, replication errors are considered to be at the base of this disease. This review concentrates mainly on two neural cancers, neuroblastoma and glioma, with completely different backgrounds that are well documented with respect to their ontogeny. Although clinical data on other cancers of the nervous system are available, usually little can be said about their origins. Neuroblastoma is initiated in the embryo at a moment when the nervous system (NS) is in full expansion and occasionally genomic damage can lead to neoplasia. Glioma, to the contrary, occurs in the adult brain supposed to be mostly in a postmitotic state. According to current consensus, neural stem cells located in the subventricular zone (SVZ) in the adult are thought to accumulate enough genomic mutations to diverge on a carcinogenic course leading to diverse forms of glioma. After weighing the pros and cons of this current hypothesis in this review, it will be argued that this may be improbable, yielding to the original old concept of glial origin of glioma. Jan de Weille Copyright © 2014 Jan de Weille. All rights reserved. Hippocampal Glial Degenerative Potentials of Mefloquine and Artequin in Adult Wistar Rats Wed, 19 Mar 2014 07:09:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/104785/ Mefloquine and Artequin are two effective antimalarial drugs currently in use in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. This study was to investigate the hippocampal glial degenerative potentials of these drugs in adult Wistar rats. Forty-nine adult Wistar rats weighing 200 g were divided into groups 1–7. Group 1 served as the control that received distilled water, while groups 2–7 received oral doses of 0.86/1.07 mg/kg, 1.71/2.14 mg/kg, and 3.24/4.28 mg/kg of Artequin and 1.07 mg/kg, 2.14 mg/kg, and 4.28 mg/kg of Mefloquine. The treatment lasted for three days, and on day 4 the animals were sacrificed. Their hippocampi were preserved in neutral formal saline and processed by silver impregnation method. The histomorphology of the hippocampal sections of rats in the groups treated with 2.14 mg/kg and 4.28 mg/kg of Mefloquine and 0.86/1.07 mg/kg, 1.71/2.14 mg/kg, and 3.24/4.28 mg/kg of Artequin showed large and dense populations of astrocytes and astrocytes’ processes, with either loss or reduction in the population of oligodendrocytes. There was also loss in the population of pyramidal neurons all compared with the control group. In conclusion, Mefloquine and Artequin administration induced dose-dependent reactive astrocytes and astrocytes’ processes formation in the hippocampus. This may impair the uptake of neurotransmitter and alter neuronal environment thus altering the hippocampal function. Nsikan-Abasi B. Udoh, Theresa B. Ekanem, Moses B. Ekong, Aniekan I. Peter, and Amabe O. Akpantah Copyright © 2014 Nsikan-Abasi B. Udoh et al. All rights reserved. Calabash Chalk's Geophagy Affects Gestating Rats' Behavior and the Histomorphology of the Cerebral Cortex Sun, 19 Jan 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/394847/ Introduction. Calabash chalk contains heavy metals, and this lead to this study on the effect of this chalk on the behavior and the histomorphology of the cerebral cortex of gestating rats. Material & Methods. 24 female rats were equally divided into 4 groups and were mated at preostrous with the males. The day after mating was designated as day 1 of gestation. On gestation days 7–20, groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 animals were treated with 1 mL of distilled water, and 1 mL (200 mg/kg), 2 mL (400 mg/kg), and 3 mL (600 mg/kg) of calabash chalk suspension, respectively. On pregnancy day 21, behavioral tests using the open field and the light/dark mazes were carried out and the animals subsequently euthanized and their brains were routinely processed. Results. There was no difference in ambulatory activities, but group 4 animals had more () transition frequency and were more averse to the dark in the light and dark field, while sections of the cerebral cortex showed a higher () cellular population, hypertrophied pyramidal cells, and vacuolations in the treatment groups. Conclusion. Calabash chalk may have anxiolytic effect especially at high dose in the light and dark field but not in the open field and can stimulate maternal cerebral cortical cellular changes. Moses B. Ekong, Aniekan I. Peter, Theresa B. Ekanem, Mokutima A. Eluwa, Christopher C. Mbadugha, and Eme E. Osim Copyright © 2014 Moses B. Ekong et al. All rights reserved. Could Upregulated Hsp70 Protein Compensate for the Hsp90-Silence-Induced Cell Death in Glioma Cells? Thu, 02 Jan 2014 09:18:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/652643/ The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 alpha (Hsp90α) has been recognized in various tumours including glioma. This pilot study using a proteomic approach analyses the downstream effects of Hsp90 inhibition using 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG) and a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) oligonucleotide targeting hsp90α (shhsp90α) in the U87-MG glioma cell line. Preliminary data coupled with bioinformatic analysis identified several known and unknown Hsp90 client proteins that demonstrated a change in their protein expression after Hsp90 inhibition, signifying an alteration in the canonical pathways of cell cycle progression, apoptosis, cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Members of the glycolysis pathway were upregulated, demonstrating increased dependency on glycolysis for energy source by the treated glioma cells. Upregulated proteins also include Hsp70 and members of its family such as Hsp27 and gp96, thereby suggesting the role of Hsp90 co-chaperones in compensating for Hsp90 function after Hsp90 inhibition. Considering Hsp70’s role in antiapoptosis, it was postulated that a combination therapy involving a multitarget approach could be carried out. Consequently inhibition of both Hsp90 and Hsp70 in U87-MG glioma cells resulted in 60% cell death indicating the importance of combination therapy for glioma therapeutics. Chinmay Munje, Leroy Shervington, Zarine Khan, and Amal Shervington Copyright © 2014 Chinmay Munje et al. All rights reserved. The Morphogenic Mapping of the Brain and the Design of the Nervous System Thu, 02 Jan 2014 08:36:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbs/2014/424718/ This paper reports the discovery of a geometrical algorithm that provides a coherent step by step mechanical account of the structure of the nervous system, including the vertebrate brain, the spinal cord, the vertebral column, and the spinal nerves. The morphology of these organs and the observed steps of neural development are well described, consequent of centuries of study. But morphogenesis, the origin and cause of these forms, has not been studied since the last half of the nineteenth century. Neurology does not teach how the brain gained its shape, nor have any causative theories of brain formation been published in recent times. This paper proposes a hypothetical construction based on the discovery of a simple algorithm which generates topologically the form of the brain, the spinal cord, and the vertebral column by the deformation of a gridded segmented sphere by the inversion of its surface. The hypothetical model is in close analogy with nature: the blastula is a segmented gridded sphere which results from the subdivision of the egg. The first step of embryogenesis is gastrulation, where blastula is pressed to enter its own interior, pulling the surface inside out, forming the embryo. Peter Sheesley, Mark McMenamin, Janusz Kusyk, and Stuart Pivar Copyright © 2014 Peter Sheesley et al. All rights reserved.