Table 1: Typical ranges of constituents in source and treated waters, and ranges in which copper may be susceptible to pitting in chlorinated, high pH, and low alkalinity water. Bolded values correspond to observations in the current work.
Undetermined; dependent on type of organic present
ADetermined in short-term, stagnant CMEA tests at pH 9, 34 mg/L alkalinity (as ) .
BDetermined in long-term, continuous flow pipe-loop tests at pH 9, 0.5 mg/L Cl2, 25 mg/L DIC .
CIdentified as range between 5th and 95th percentiles from USGS National Water Quality data (groundwater, spring, stream) collected between 1991 and 2011 ; alkalinity and Si are not regulated and thus typically occur at similar concentrations in source and treated potable waters.
DIdentified as range between 5th and 95th percentiles from 1987 AWWARF utility survey .