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Figure 2: HMGB1 and RAGE induce autophagy. HMGB1 is released by necrotic and inflammatory cells. Expression of RAGE is induced by ROS in a NF-kB-dependent manner. On one hand, HMGB1 induces autophagy by its direct binding to the RAGE. On the other hand, HMGB1 induces autophagy by interacting with Beclin 1 which results in dissociation of Beclin 1-Bcl2 and subsequent induction of autophagy.