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International Journal of Cell Biology
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 843505, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/843505
Review Article

Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit, Wellcome Trust/MRC Building, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK

Received 28 February 2012; Accepted 1 May 2012

Academic Editor: Juan P. BolaƱos

Copyright © 2012 Pamela Boon Li Pun and Michael P. Murphy. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation.